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JL . Sc 







3 ©loaaarg of ISotaniial BEnrmfi. 

ASA GRAY, LL.D., etc., 

- 1879. 



Bt Asa Gbat. 


UifivERSiTT Press: John Wilson and Son. 


The first eilition of this treatise was published in the 
yettr 1842. the fifth in 1857. Each edition hjis been in 
good part rewritten, — the present one entirely so, — and the 
compass of the work is now extended. More elementary 
works than this, such as the author's First Lessons in 
Botany (which contains all that is necessary to the prac- 
tical study of sptematic Phienogamous Botany by means 
of Manunb and local Floras), are best adapted to the 
needs of the young beginner, and of those who do not 
intend to study Botany comprehensively and thoroughly. 
The present treatise is intended to sene as a text-book for 
the higher and completer instruction. To secure the 
requisite fulness of treatment of the whole range of sub- 
jects, it has been decided to divide the work into distinct 
volumes, each a treatise by itself, which may be indepen- 
dently used, while the whole will compose a comprehensive 
botanical course. This volume, on the Structural and 
Morphologicid Botany of Pha?nogamons Plants, properly 
comes first. It should thoroughly equip a botanist for the 
scientific prosecution of Systematic Botany, and furnish 
needful preparation to those who proceed to the study of 
Vegetable Physiology and Anatomy, and to the wide and 
varied department of Cryptogamic Botany. 


The preparation of the vohime upon Physiological 
Botany (Vegetable Histology and Physiology) is assigned 
to the author's colleague, Professor Goodale. 

The Introduction to Cryptogamous Botany, both structu- 
ral and systematic, is assigned to his colleague, Professor 

A fourth volume, a sketch of the Natural Orders of 
Phaenogamous Plants, and of their special Morphology, 
Classification, Distribution, Products, &c., will be needed 
to complete the series: this the present author may 
rather hope than expect himself to draw up. 


Herbarium of Harvard Ukitersitt, 
Cambridge, April 10, 1879. 

%* The numeraU in parentheses, which are here and there introduced 
into sentences or appended to them, are references to the numbered para- 
graphs in which the topic is treated or the term explained. 


BODUCTION. The Depaiitjiests of the Sciesce .... 




The Embryo, iu Nature, Structure, Biid Parts 

Dcrdopmeiit uf the Dii'olylcclunouB Embryo In Mapk' . . . 
In Ipomfpa, or Morning Glory, &v., witli Albuminoue Hn-iis . 

In Emliryos with thickened Cotyliiloni 

Ai of Almond, Beecli, Bean, &i: 

With Hypo^ncoui Germination and no Elnngalion of Cniiliclc 
In Btp^irliiza. &c., with concreted PetiulcB lo the Colylcdnns 
In Ipomcca Ivpluphylla with fnliaceoiu and lon|^]H.-tirlll?d 

Cotyledon« anJ no eionRation of Caulicle 

In Pumpkin, &v., willi no Primary Root 

The Polyt-otyledonoiu Embryo 

The MiinouuiyltKionuua Emiiryo of Irii, Onion. Cereal Grains 
I^udo-monocnlyledonous and Acntylednnous Eniljryo . ■ ■ 
IHcotyleikinouB and Mouoooiylwlonom Planl* 


!CI Oi- 

E Root 27 

Niitnre, Growth, and Composiiion 38 

K.»>t-hair» 20 

Kinils or Roots 39 

1>urHtion ; Annuali - W 


PerennioU .12 

Aerial RooU -13 

El^phyleg or Air-planti 35 

Fuaiitic PiRnly Grei^n and Colored 30 


Section IL Of Buds 40 

Scaly Buds and Bud-scales 40 

Naked, SubiK*tiolar, and Fleslij Buds 41 

Bud-propagatiun 43 

Normal, Accessory, and Adventitious Buds 44 

Section III. Of the Stem 45 

§ 1. General Ciiaracterirtics and Growth 45 

J)cvelopment and Structure 40 

Ramification, Branches 47 

Excurrent and Deliquescent Stems 48 

Definite and Indefinite Annual Growth 4U 

§ 2. Forms of Stem and Branches 50 

Herbs, Shrubs, Trees, Culm, Caudex, Scape 50 

Climbing Stems, Twining or otherwise 51 

Leaf -climbers, Tendril-climbers, and Koot-climbers .... 52 

Suckers, Stolons, Offsets, Runners 53 

Tendrils formed of Stems 54 

Sympodial and Monopodial Stems 55 

Spines or Thorns and Subterranean Stems 50 

Rhizoma or Hootstock 57 

Tuber, Tubercles 50 

Conn or Solid Bulb 01 

Bulb, Bulbluts 02 

Condensed Aerial Stems 04 

Stems serving for Foliage. Pliyllocladia, Cladophylla ... 05 

Frondose Stems 00 

§ 3. Internal Structure 07 

Anatomical Elements 08 

Endogenous Structure 70 

Exogenous Structure ; its Beginning 73 

First Year's Growth 74 

Pith, Layer of Wood, &c 75 

Bark, its Parts and Structure 70 

Annual Increase in Diameter 78 

IX*marcation of Annual Layers 70 

Sap-woml and Heart-wood 80 

Growth and Duratitm of Bark 81 

Living' Parts of a Tree or Shrub, Longevity 83 

The Plant composite 84 

Section IV. Of Leaves 85 

1. Their Nature and Office 85 

Parts of a Tx^af 85 

I)urati(m, Defoliation, Normal Position 80 

§2. Tnr.iB STurcmiE asd Forms as Fuliaoe 

Intenul Structure or Analotny 

Fart'iu'lirma-uclla . 

Kpiileniiu, StiinisM or lireatliing-lioreB 

Franiewurk, Vvnalioii 

ParuUtl-vL'incd or Nprvcd Lcavci 

Relifulalt-d ur Nctli-d-rtiiicMl Lcnvcs 02 

I^nnarcl/ or FeatlierTeincd and I'almalcly or liadiaii'ly 

Fomu as (0 Oullino 

Fonrn as to Extremity 

Furnw as to Marjtin Or Special Outline and UentHtinn . . . 

LolMtinn or Segment alioii 

Kiuiibcr and ArrangcinenI of Pans 

Comiwund Lcrtm, Pinnate and I'slmato or Tiipxate, &i:. . ■ 

Pcliule or Leafstalk 

StipntM, Ligule, Stipels 

LravM in unusual Modiflcallons lOS- 

SuL-h as Iniequilalrral. Connate, Pcrfulinle , . 107 

Virtli-al and Equitant 106 

Without di«UncIion iif Parta 108 

Slipulc^ jcrving for Bladv 

Fliyllodia, or Feliuk-ii serving for iilnde 

§ 3. Leaves senvixG SfRCiAi. OrmcM 110 

Cliliring Animal Matter 110 

AsiMia or Pilclicn 

SenailiTe Fly-trapB 

Lc«vr« fur Slnrage 

Bull>-soaleB and Bud-s(>ale« 116 



Phvllotaxy citlicr Vcnidllfltoor Allemale, rj-dital nr Spiral lift 

VcrticilUic or Cyolitaj Arrangement 130 

Altemsie or Spiral Arrangement 

It> Model and I^wa 

Relation of Wliorls to SpirnTs l!» ' 

Hypothcils of the Origin of Both IM 

Fascicled Leaves 

Section II. DisroatrioM or Leaves t^ the Bt:D 133 

• • • 



Bracts and Bractlets and their Modifications 141 

Peduncles, Pedicels, Rhachis, Receptacle 14^i 

Position of Flower-buds, Kinds of Inflorescence 144 

Indeterminate, Indefinite, or Botryose 140 

Raceme, Corymb, Umbel 140 

Head or Capitulum 147 

Syconium or Hypanthodium 148 

Spike, Spadix, Anient or Catkin 140 

Panicle and other Compound Forms 150 

Determinate or Cymose 151 

Cyme, Glomerule, &c 152 

Botryoidal Forms of Cymose Type 15:3 

Sympodial Forms 164 

Scorpioid and llelicoid, the Pieiochasium, Dichasium, and 

Monochasium 155 

Bostryx, Cincinnus, Rhipidium, Drepanium, &c 150 

Mixed Inflorescence 158 

Thyrsus, Verticiliastcr, &c 150 

Relations of Bract, Bractlet, and Flower 100 

Anterior and I'osterior, or Inferior and Superior 100 

Median and Transverse 100 

Position of Bractlets 101 

Tabular View of Inflorescence 102 


Section I. Its Nature, Parts, and Metamorphy .... 103 

Floral Envelopes, Perianth,* or Perigone 104 

The Parts, Calyx and Corolla 105 

Andrcecium, Stamens 105 

Gynoccium, Pistils 100 

Torus or lieceptacle of the Flower 107 

Metamorphosis 107 

Unity of Type illustrated by Position and Transitions . . . 100 

Teratological Transitions and Chauf^s 170 

Section II. Floral Symmetry 174 

Symmetrical, Regular, and Complete Flower 175 

Numerical Ground-plan 170 

Pattern Flowers 170 

Diplostcmonous Type 177 

Section III. Various Modifications of the Flower . . . 170 

§ 1. Enumeration of the Kinds 170 

§ 2. Regular Union of Similar Parts 180 

Coalescence or Cohesion 180 



53. UsiON at- Dis»iuiL.ui on Succespcte Pahtb .... 181 

Adnadon or Connaiion . . , , 182 

IljrpogyDoiu, rcrigynous, Epigj'uouA 183 


S 6. DiSAPrBABAHCE OR Obliteratio:! of Pahtb .... 187 

Abaniiin or Suppreuion of Pans of a Circle 187 

Abortion or SoppresBion of wlioic Cin:lK8 IWO 

Tcrmi therouriit) cuDDCctcd ll)| 

SuppreM«(l Pi^riantii 1111 

Supprestcd Andnccium or G3^cKium 1!I3 

Along willi eupprcued I'criniilli 104 

Nvulral Fluwcn 105 


AntepMition or Superpogition 1)15 

In Apiic8nini--c only lOfl 

Suprrpoailiun by Spirals IIU 

AniepoaiUon witli Iioalemony and Uiplosiemony 107 

VVilh ObUiplos lemony 108 

$ 7. Lncreased Nlkber of Pasts 200 

Re^Lir Mullipllcatfon 200 

Parapvialoui M nil i plica I ion 201 

Cboriaii or Dedupllcalion 202 

1 8. OuTOttowTii* 200 

Their relation lo Ctioritit : Triclioniei 200 

Comna of Crown 210 

Ligule 211 


Slipe, Thecaphore, Gynophore, Carpophore, &e 213 

K»k 2i;i 

Hypaothliun i;i4 


FEBTltriATlOS 215 

J 1. Iw Gesbbal 215 

Ckwc and Cross Ferilllailion, or Autogamy and Allognmy . 2111 

1 2. Adaptations for Allooaht on Ixtercsossixo . . . 210 

Winil-ferlilizablp or AnemophilnuB Flowers 217 

IniMt-fnIililahle or Entomnphilnua Flowers 218 

Irregularity aa related lo Allogamy 210 



Pichogamy, either ProterandrouB or ProterogjDous .... 210 

lYoterogyny 219 

Proterandry 220 

Particular Adaptations in Papilionaceous Flowers .... 225 

In Kalmia-blossoms, Iris, &c 229 

Transportation of PoUinia 2^ 

In Orchidaceae and Aselepiadacee 231 

Hetcrogonous Dimorphism and Trlmorphism 234 

§ 3. Adaptations for Close Fertilizatiox 240 

Cleistogamy 241 

Section V. The Perianth, or the Calyx and Corolla in 


Perianth as to Duration, Numerical Terms, Union, &c. . . . 243 

Parts of Petals and of Gamopliyllous Perianth 245 

Forms of Corolla and Calyx 240 

Section VI. The Andrqecium, or Stamens in particular . 249 

The Stamen as a whole ; Numerical Terms 249 

The Filament and the Anther ; their Modifications .... 251 

Pollen 250 

Pollen-tubes 258 

Section VII. The Pistils, or GTN<ECiu]f 259 

( I. In Anoiosperms 259 

Carpel or Carpophyll 200 

Ventral and Dorsal Sutures; Placenta 201 

Simple or Apocarpous Pistils 202 

Compound or Syncarpous Pistil 203 

With two or more Cells and Axile Placentae ; Partitions . . 2(U 

With one Cell and Parietal Placentas 205 

With one Cell and Free Central Placenta 200 

Anomalous Placentation 207 

( 2. In Gtmnosperms 208 

Structure in Gnetacese 209 

Structure in Coniferse 270 

In the Yew Family 271 

Jn the Pine Tribe, &c 272 

In the Cypress Tribe 273 

Structure in Cycadaceas 274 

Section VIII. The Ovule 270 

Its Structure and Position 277 

Its F'ornis, Orthotropous, Campylotropous, Amphitropous, 

Anntropous 278 

Orijrin and Morphological Nature of the Ovule 282 

Origination of the Embryo 283 



Sectiok I. In Stmuctlre, TiuNijronHATioMa, and Deiiis- 

cSKCk ' 286 

PeriFKrp, iU Alteralioni. AcccjiioiiB, snd Tr»D«fomuition« . 287 

lleliULtiicc 288 

SsCTiov 11. The K:kds of Fbiit 291 

Simple Fruiia 291 

DvliUccnt Fruili, FolUule, Lcn'imc Ciiptule, I'yxi*. Sitique . 202 
lticlelii»i.Tnt Dry Fruiis, Samii™, Abcnc, Ulritle, C«ryopsU, 

Nm, Sc 2W 

Flf»h7 KrulM. Drupe, Pome, IV'po, Berry, Ac 297 

Ag)[rx-)talc Fruita 200 

Ai'ceuory or AnlliocurpoiM Friiitg 300 

MolUpIc or Collcrlive Fruiu, Sycomum, Strobile, Ac. ... KOI 

Table of Simple Fruits 301 


lu Stalk, Conu, and Appendngei 300 

ArtlorAriltii« 308 

Nucleiu or Kernel, Albumen 300 

The Embryo, III Parti and PoMiioni 'Ml 

The Cutyledona a> to Adjustmint and Number 313 





Varietie*, Racei, &c 

CroM-breeds and Hybrids 

Orden, Claues, Tribes, 4e 

Seqoeoce of Ilie Grades . 

Katurt and Meaning nf Affinity .... 
Theory uf Descent anil Katurnl Bclecllon 

< n. Botanical CLAssir:cATii>!i . 

Anle-Linnaitn rias<iillea lions 

Uannan Claiisilieaiion 

I S«itul Artifii-ial System 

Natural System 

L* presented by Jasueu 

I Some of its Modifieatioo* 

• • 



Section L Nomenclature 345 

Names of Plants, Binonual Nomenclature 340 

Rules for naming Plants 347 

Names of Genera 348 

Names of Species, Varieties, &c 3oO 

The Fixation, Precision, and Citation of Names 352 

Subgeneric Names 350 

Tribal and Ordinal Names 357 

Names of Cohorts, Classes, &c 358 

Section II. Glossology or Terminology 359 

Section III. Description 301 

Characters 301 

Punctuation .' . . 304 

Synonomy 365 

Iconography 300 

Habitat and Station, &c 300 

Etymology of Names 300 

Accentuation, Abbreviations 307 

. Signs 308 

Floras, Monographs, &c 309 

Section IV. Specimens, Directions for their Examina- 
tion, Preservation, &c 370 

Implements of Investigation 370 

Diagrams 371 

Herborizing 371 

Drying Specimens 375 

Poisoning S|)ecimens 379 

The Herbarium 380 


SIGNS 391 





I J. The two Biological Sciences,' considered aa parts of Nntiiral 
toi>". are Zoology and Botany. The latter is the natural 
J- uf (he Vogotahle Kingdom. It embraces every scientific 
r that e»n l>e made respecting plants, their natnre, their 
U, the laws which govern tliem, and the part they play in 
B general economy of the world. 
, We cannot distinguish tlie vcgelahle from Ihc animal king- 
D by any complete and precise dcHiiition. Although ordinary 
iFfA'stion or their usual repi-e»entatives may discern little that 
1 to the two, yet there are many simple forms of life 
Ich Uantly rise high enough in the scale of heing to rank dis- 
fcly eiUier as plant or animal : there arc nndouliled plants 
ssing faculties which are generally deemed characteristie of 
; and some plants of the highest grade share in these 
luwments. Hnt in general there is a marked TOnlrast between 
I and vegelalile life, and in the part wliiuh animals and 
mt« K'flpectively play in nature. 

" , Plants only are nourished upon mineral matter, upon earth 
It is their peculiar office to appropriate mineral mate- 
ti to organize them into a stiiietiire in which life is mani- 
I, — into a structure which is therefore called organic. So 
I material Ottcd for such stmcture, and of which the bodies 

* Bialojy. thi- science of life, or ratlier of livinn things, in 111 I'lirlier um 
It pt|iilrfllcnt In Jiliysiolngj : Tpctnlly, it Ii&b coinp lo donnlp the 

lory nf planta nn'l nnimaU, /. r. of the two orRmik- kinplomi'. including 

h Itieir plif bIuIoicv and dcacripiive nalurnl hlslory. 


of plants and animals are composed, is calkd organic matter. 
Animals appi'opriuto and live ii|k>ii this, but have- nut the jxiwer 
of producing it. So the vegetable kingdom stands Iwtwecn tbe 
mineral and the animal ; and its funt^tion is to convert materials 
of tlie one into food for the other. Altliough plants alone are 
capable of building up living striicture out of mineral mate- 
rials, and are the sole jiroduoei's of the organic matter which 
is essential to ainmal life, and although animals consume that 
which plants produce, jet plants also consume oi^anic matter, 
more or less, acting in this reB[)ect like animals in all their opera- 
tions, except in the grand and iieculiar one bj' which they 
tutimilale mineral matter. Most plants of the higher gravies 
assimilate laigelj- and consume little, except in siwcial o|»ra- 
tions. iSome, on tlie contrary, are mainly consumers, and feed 
upon formed organic matter, living in this respect afler the 
manner of animals. The linng substance of plants and animals 
is essentially the same. 

4. Botany deals with plants : 1 . As individuals, and in respect 
to their stnictiire and fimctions. 2. In their kinds, and as 
respects their classilication, nomenclature, &c. Accordingly, 
the most comprehensive division of the science is into I'livsio- 
ixKiiCAL or Biological Botany (using these terms in their widest 
sense) and Systematic Botany. But as Physiolog.v and Bioli^', 
in the restricted sense, relate only to functions or actions and 
their consequences, the flrst department naturally divides into 
two, viz. Structural Botany and Physiologj- 

b. Stkuctlual Botaky comprehends all inquiries into the 
structure, tlie parts, and the organic composition of regetableg. 
ThiS'is termcfl Organography, when it considers the organs or 
obvious parts of which plants are made up. and MoRPHOLOfsr, 
when the study jiroceeds on the idea of type. The term 
Organogeny has been apidied to the study of the nascent 
oi^ans and their development; Phytotoky, or Vkoetable 
Anatomy, to tliat of the minute structure of vegetables as re- 
vealed by the microscope, i. e. to the composition of the organs 
Uiemselvcs. But, since anatomy in the animal kingdom includes 
the consideration of general as well as of minute structure, and 
indeed answers to organc^aphy, the minute analnmy of both 
kingdoms takes the special name of Histology. The study of 
fimctions, or of the living being (animal or plant) in action, 
is the province of Physiology. 

G. Systematic Botany, or the study of plants in their kinds 
and in regard to tlteir relationships, comprises Taxonomy, or the 
principles of cksslHcation, as derived fWim the facts an<l ideas 




upon which species, genera. &c., rest: CLASSTFiCArros or the 
SvsTKM OF Plants, the actual arrangement of known plants in 
flysteinatic order according to their relationships ; I'HTTocBAPiir, 
the rules and methods of describing plants ; and Xosiesclatche, 
the methods and rules adopted for the formation of botanical 
nauics. Glossoliigv or Terminolooy ' is a necessary part of 
Phjtogrupliy or Descriptive Botany, and hardly less so of 
Structural Botany : it relates to the application of distinctive 
terms or names to the several organs or parts of plants, and to 
their itnmberless modi float ions of form, &e. This requires a 
copious vocabulary of well-defined technical terms, by the use of 
which the botanist is able to describe the objects of his study 
with a precision and brexitj- not otherwise attainable. It will 
l>c i-onveuieut to exemplify the principal terms along with the 
modifications of conformation which thej' designate' ; and also, 
for greater fulness and facility of reference, to append to this 
volume an alphabetical summary- of them, or Vocabnlarj- of 
Botanical Terms.' 

7. The present volume is mainly devoted to Morphological 
Botany ; that is, to Structural Botany on the basis of mor- 
phiilogj-. This dc])nrtment cannot be properly dealt with apart 
from considerable reference to intimate structure, development, 
and function, the subject-matter of vegetable hifitol<^- and 
|ihysiol(^-. But these will here be treated only in the most 
general or incidental and elementary way, and only so far as 
is necessary to the understanding of tlie raov|)hology of the 
stei), leaves, &c. The whole discussion of the histology' and 
physiolog}' of plants is relegated to a following volume and to 
another hand. 

8. The most comprehensive and important division of the 
vegetable kingdom is into plants of the higher and of the lower 
neries or grade, i.r. into Piu-no«amous (or i'liANKKOGAMOUs) or and Crvptooamdcs or FLOWEni.Esa Plants. The 
first are all manifestly of one type, and therefore have a consist- 
ent and simple raor|)tioIogy. The second differ among them- 
selves almost as widely as they do from the higher series ; and 

r ii Ihe berier word, but Tehwikolout, although a hybrid 
of I.<ltin and Grerk, is in common use. 

■ Whit is called CiEOoHAmiCAL Botast i« the etudj- of planis hi respect 
to thdr nBlur&l distribution at th<' prment (imeiiTpr the path's eurfat-c, and 
tlio caupcs of it. Fosail. Botanv (Vogclabie PnlEEonlnlofty) rcliitpi to the 
fiianl* of former Rgc*. » more or leas mnde known in Iheir fossil remains. 
Mkm<-il BoTtKr. Aorictiltl-ral Rotanv. uid the like, are Rp{iIicatIons 
of Dotuiy to medicine, agricallure, Ix. 


their morpholog}* is more special and difficult. Wherefore it is 
better to treat them separatelj' and subsequentlj*. This will be 
doiie in a third part, by an associate devoted to Cr3'ptoganiic 

9. Thus the field is here left clear for the Structural Botanv 
of Phxenogamous or Flowering Plants, with which the stud}' of 
the science should naturallj' begin. In theorj* it ma}' seem 
proper to commence with the simplest plants and the most ele- 
mentary structures ; but that is to put the difficult and recondite 
before the plain and obvious. The type or plan of the vegetable 
kingdom, upon which morphological botany is grounde<l, is fully 
exemplified onl}' in the higher grade of plants, is manifest to 
simple ob8er>'ation, and should be clearly apprehended at the 



10. MoRpHoi.oGV. the doctrine of foiaiB. as the name denotes, 
is used in iintural history in nearly tile 8»ine sense aa the older 
temi Coiuparalivc Anatomy. If it were coucenied merely with 
the description nnd elassilleation uf shaiies ami modifieatioiis, 
it would amount to little more tlian glossology and orgonogruiihy. 
But it deals with these frfun a peculiar point of view, uud under 
the idea of unity of plan or tjpe.' 

11. As all vertebrate animals are constructed u])on one t.\i>e 
(or*);n^>un<l plan) . which culminates or has its archetype in man, 
so all plaiita of the higher grade (8) are strictly of one t)T)e; 
tlie (tiltcrent kinds being jiattems or re[>etitions of it, with >'aria- 
tiuns. The v^etiible kingdom, however, doce not culminate in 
an archetype or highest representative. As respects the organs 
ufvt^tation, the higher classes of crj^ptogamoua plants exhibit 
this same type ; but it is only in the most general or in a 
recondite sense that this can be said of their oi-gans of repro- 
ducUon, and of the less differentiated structure of the lowest 
classes. Wherefore ciyptogamous plants are left out of the 
present view, to be treated apart. 

12. Viewed moi-i)liologieally and as to its comiwnent oi^ans. 
n plant is seen to consist of an a\is or stem, which sends olT 
roots iuto the soil, and bears lateral api)enilage8, commonly as 
leai'^s. but whidi may be very unlike leaves in whole appearance 

t The ItTm JltofphiJn'/i/ ws» inlroduceil ililo euicnco by Gtellic. nl least ns 
urlj >8 tlie year IHIT {Zur N'nliirwis>ciis<.-linrt Uberhaupt, liceondprs zur 
MorpUulngii-, SlulTK&rt uud Tubm|;en, lSlT-24). tin pogc tl of tlic firet 
volunw, be i) anderMuod to have suggcBtcd (his ward for tlif purpose nnd in 
itie umtf nnvt adoptrd in bolanjr nnd Konlo^y. It c'sscntiullj' reiilni.'e* an 
earlier and sonu^wlint misleading word. Mtlamorphoiii, (301.) 

Apparenlly llie flrst bolanisi lo adopt (he term was Augusts de St. 
IliUirc, ia liis " I.e^ns de Bolaniquc, comprenant priniipaicment la Mor- 
phnio^e Vi'infMlc, etc.. Pari*. 1841. The term seems not lo liave bwn Inken 
up. in xooiagy, by tlricnne GeaOraj Saini-IIilatre, tlie stitu^nist uf Cuvier 
(wliu KJIK of a wholly difTcrcnl family from llial of ilie botanist), allliough 
. BU dcnuled by his plirusti " imity of orgnnii; iMjinpoulioii." 




niid func'tiun. These appendages, wbatover their form oi 
acc'ord with leaves in mode of origin, ijoaition, ami airaDgemcDt 
on tile axis or stem. Their most general and orUinaiy form is 
the familiar one of foliage ; hence the name of leavee haa been 
by botanists extended hi a generic way from tlie green expan- 
sions which constitute foliage to other fonns iukIlt whiiih sueh 
appendages occur. The proper morphological expression is, 
that the latter are homolatfuus n-ilh leaves, or are the komologuet 
of leaves.' 

13. Leaves are home upon the stem at definite places, whidi 1 
are termed NtioES. A node may bear a single leaf or a greater J 
number. When it bears two, they occupy opposite sides rf J 
the stem. When three, four, or more, they divide the circum- 
ference of the stem equally, forming a circle, technically sj 
Whohl, or in Latin form a Vekticil. When only two, the pur J 
evidently answers to the simplest kind of whorl. So that leaves 7 
ore either single on the notles, in which case they are aUer~ I 
tuUe, that is, come one alter another on the stem \ or in whorls I 
{wkorled, verlici/lale), in the commoner ease of a single pair J 
being called upposiie. The bare space between two successive J 
nodes is an Ixteunoui!. This is longer or shorter, according tO-J 
the amount of longitudinal growth, which thus spaces the leaves^ I 
or whorls of leaves, in most various degrees, either widely when I 
the internodcs are elongated, or slightly ifben they remain vei7 j 
short. The plant, therefore (roots excepted), is made np of a I 
scries of similar parts, i.e. of portions of stem, definitely bearing 1 
loaves, each portion develo|>ed IVom the apex of the preceding j 
one. This constitutes a simple-stemmed plant. 

14. Branching is the pi-oduction of new stems from the older J 
or parent stem. These nonnally apjicar in the Axils of leaves, 
that is, in the upper angle which the leaf forms with the stem, ^ ' 
fVom which they grow much as the primary stem grew from the 
seed. Tlie primarj' stem, connected with the ground, produces 
roots which develop downwardlj' into the aoil. from which they 
draw sustenance. Branches, when develoi>ed above ground, 

1 A common dMigimiion for all the*e appeniliiKCB being desirnhlc, a good .1 
one is [urnislied by the Gre«k name for Ipat. ^i>Aoy, PiiTLLitH, plural] 
Fhtlui. This, used wiih prcfixot, may lie iiihiIi.' Io [U-ei)!nHtc llic kind of J 
leaves in many ciue«,~n8. jirophgUa, oitapkiilln. hi/piiBpliitHa. 

Reuent German bolaniaLs u«e tlic word Ph^lhmc. in lliia scn«p. 
rather cnnTcnipni anil wcll-Rmindlng wncd; but /•/igllanut ia ilie exact Greek 1 
rqaivHienI of iiiir word foliage, and Iberefore liol wry well ehoiei 
mim temi fur leaves wlili-h are nul foliage as well as those wliii 
will tliia wurd.likefiiy/iin, readily take prefixes, ai above, or tlie ndjeo- i 
lona, us It rtadilf does in prophj/lloM, hyptaphgllmu, gtUHvphgUimt, &e. 

or pa£XOGAM0ua flakts. 7 

beiiiji in oiganic couDcction witli theii' parent stem, do Dot 
usimtlj' {irotlutre roots ; but wIiud placed iii equally' favorable 
conditiuDS Tor it, i. e. on or in the soil, tliey may etlikc root as 
l^vi^ly as does the ongiaal stem. 

15. An incipient stem or braiicli, with its rudimentary leaves, 
is « Bl'1>. The normal situatiou of a bud is in the axil of a leaf 
{ojciiiaiy), the development giving rise to branc-Ues ; or else at 
the a\tex of an axis (terminal), wliere there can Iw only one, the 
deti'lopment uf wbtoh continues that axis.' 

16. As branehes are reiietitions and in one sense progeny of 
the 8t«m whifh Iwars them, so the serial similar parts or loni- 
bearing portions of a simple stem ar« repeti- . » 
tioas. or in a like sense progeny, eaeh of the \j /f^ 
pniewliiig one from which it gi¥w. The tjJ>^ 
Bim|>le-stemiue<I plant is made up of a scries 
of such growths, each from the summit of 
ita predecessor ; the branched plant, uf ad- 
ditional scries, laterally develojtert, from ax- 
illary buds. These ultimate similar parts into 
which a plant may thus lie analyzed, and 
nhieh are endowed with or may produce ali 
the nindamontal organs of v<^t$tion, were hy 
Uaudichaud called 1'hvtons. But phyton, 
lH.'ing the common Greek name for plant, was 
not a liappilj' chosen appellation for plant- 
clcmcnts, or homologous plant-units. A lietter 
ti;nn for them is Phytomeka (dfiior, plant, 
/"'("V* part), equivalent to plaitl-pnrls, — the 
structures which, produced in a series, make 
lip a plant of the higher grade. In English, 
the singular may be shortened to Piittomer. 

17. Thiy theoretical conception of the organic 
n>mjx>sitiun of the plant is practically im|»or- 
tant to the correct understanding of niorpho- 
lo^cal botanj-. The diagram. Fig. 1, serves 
to represent the oiganic elements, or ;>A,v/oni«i-n, 
in a simple case, such as that of a growing 
plant of Indian Corn, or other Grass. Here 

' Bifarcation bf llie ilivUinn of s Itrniinal had inio two, nt in Acrolionuus 
rrypiogsm*. is •iipposed by soino (n occur, evon nonnnllj-, in Bonie I'liaino- 
g*m%. raptfinlly in I'erliiiii (unna o( inflorestenue ; but this lioa never been 
(Tontincinttly mnde out. 

PIO. L ttitgrnm of s tdmplHtctntnnl jilunt. ciLl>ll>!tli>E tLe >.Lni!liir pnrta, or 
phrKmar*. a la A, ofitkMi U la coiiipoHil. 



the leaves are alternate ; in other woixls, each ph^lomer is 
single-leaved ; while in the subsequent illustrations of plants 
developed from the seed, at least the earliest phytomera are 

18. The plan thus exhibited in the leaf}' stem begins in the 
embryo, or initial plant in the seed, and is earned on into the 
flower, in which tlie normal development of the axis finally ends. 
One plan prevails throughout. To illustrate it, the moq^hology 
and growth of Ihe embryo, of the plant develojXKl for vegetation 
and Ihe general purposes of its individual existence, and lastly 
of the flower, through which sexual reproduction takes place, 
may be successively treatcMl in this order. 




19. Thf Embrjo is the initial plunt, originntcd in tlie sec^d.' 
lu sotiiL' seeds it ia bo eimple and nidiineiitai-y aa tu have no 
visible distiiii.'tiun of parta : in otliors, these parts may have 
asHiinicd rorms nliicb disguise their proper obumct«r. But eveiy 
weU-develo|>ed embryo essentiully foiisists of a nascent axis, or 
stem, bearing at one end a nascent leaf or leaves, or what an- 
swers to tliese, while from the other and niUted end a root is 
nonually to be produced. Tliis stem b the primitive internodc 
of the plant: its leaf or pair of leaves ia that of tiie Qrai nude, 
llie plant then-fore l)egiDS aa a single phj-tomer. Some embryos 
are no more tlian tbis. even when they have completed their 
proper germination : others have taken a further development 
in the seed itself, and exhibit the mdiments of one or more fol- 
lowing phjiomera. The embiyo of the JIuple is au example of 
the first kind ; and, being large enough for handling and for the 
display of all its parts to the naked eye, anil tJie character of 
these parta being manifest even in the seed, it is a guoil subject 
with which to commence this study. And for this the Kugar- 
Maple ia one of the ))e3t of 
tlie Staples. Its embr3o 
(seen in Fig. 2 in the coiled I 
condition which it occupies 
in the seetl. and in Fig. 3 
and Fig. 4 uncoiling and be- * ' ' 

ginning to grow) is an initial stem, bearing a pair of leaves, and 
nothing more. These (mrts take the technical names of 

' Nnrniallj' a ictd eonlaini n single embryo. Poli/fmhri/. tlii? foniinlion of 
two or niure embryns. ncuurt oucasionRlly na a kiiiil of superfcrlnt'ion in 
■omc locils. Ill lliow iif the culiivarod ()ran)» it i« nuMi eommon, lutd an 
rridmt mnnilnxiljr. In Conifcne and Lonuillia«w, two or ihrce embtyot, 
of eijiuil lixe and pcrfciriion, an.' not rarely produned. 

no. %. Kmliryn of 8aE«r Huple. In rertlnil wcllon. M miW-l In Mic wat, merely 
•iinmlwl l.«Mni^. 3, Emhryn nf iminr. jiuil IwglmilitK rn iinfnlil In (Brmlnstlun. 


ur cotjle-ii 



•iO. Ciiuitcle or Radiclp, ntiil Coljledons. The name of radicle 
waa early apijlied to tlic axis uf Ihv eiubiyo below the cotylwloiw, 
oil llie Bupposition tliut it was llio actuaX begiuniiig of Uio root., 
llut its slnifture and moilc of growtli sliow it is not root (24^' 
11. 78), but a IkmI.v of the exiitt nature of ati'm 
nuked end of which the root is developeii. Wherefore CaaU'eU 
(Lat. rauliculua, (liniinutiAe of caulit, stem) is 
the appropriate name ; and it would be gen- 
erally adopted, were it not that the older term 
is so iiicor|X)raU.Hl into the language of sys- 
tematic botany (in whieb fixity aud uuitbrmity 
are of the utmost imiiortance) that it is 
easily displaeed. It nuy 1m continued 
descriptive botany on this account, but ii 
morphology' it is apt to mislead ; and the name 
of euiiliele, suggestive of the true nature of 
the organ, la preferable.* The more fanciflll 
name of Colyledon$ was very early applied to 
wliat are now recognined as answering to the 
leaves of the embryo : it has the negative merit 
of snggeeting no luialcadiug analt^-.' 

21. Development of (he nicot;l«ilonoas Em* 
br7«i r. e. the two-lunveii embryo. Tbia, in 
the [ted Maple (Figa. 5-8), usually germinates 
in summer, shortly a(V>r the fruits of the season 
have matured and fallun to the ground. 
dilTei-a from that of Sugar Mai)le in the cmmi 
ling instead of coiling of the cotyledona in thft" 
Bee<l, Referring the whole physiologj- of ger- 
mination to that part of the work which treats 
of Vf^etable Physiology, the development of 
Ihc embryo into the seedling may here be described, taking that of 
a Maple for a eonvonienl type or pattern, with which other forms 


on ^^ 

> LinriKUB called U Ilotttthim, a name wbic^li, bt^ing ctymotufilciilEy mtan- 
lti)[1c** ■" <l>i* i.'oiinK'tion, ia nii[ iniBlcBdiug. Tht- Frcncli boinniils tianivd it 
Tigrlle, diminnliTC of liijr. »lem; but some {like MIrbol) n|>plied tlie lerm to 
the d«Tc1o]iiiig Hxi* above the cnt^'lednna ; olher*. to t\\e enrly nxia both 
above utd below ihcm. Tlir name liadimlit nrlK<nntpi! with GHtrtiUT. 

' The name Cofy/ei/on, whii:b wa« adopted by LinniEiis, ii a Grei-k " 
for ft cap^haprd hollow or cavity, alio for a plant with thiekish anil snii 
■liapod leavca. Ii was primarily applied to llie tliii^kcned " lobra " of tl 
embryo, llic foliat-eoiu nelure of which wna no! recoipiiaed. 

fiiiBtd r™iU "T B 

I Mnr'la 

IT rabnimV wltli I 

e, EUabryi In early lings of SFtiDlnnllon. 



iiifty nfiorwartl be coiu|>ared. The first growth is seen in the 
L-lungntion of the radicle or cauticle, and its aasiiiuptioti, as far as 
possible, uf a vertical position, and tlie production ol' a root from 
lite naked end. As it emerges from the seed in consequence of 
ttiia doiigatlou, Uig root-end of the caulicle points downward into 
the soil, the eaiUide bending, if need be, to assume this position ; 
and tho nascent root, partaking of Ibis disposition, grows in a 
downward direction. Hence the root bus been called the Dtirend- 
tHff Aril of the plant. AVhile this avoids, the opposite ur budding 
end (nx it may be termeil) seeks the light, and when Auc takes 
an npward direction. The result of this, and of the elongation 
uf the cauUcle, is to carry the budding end out of the soil and 
into llie air. where the growing cotyledons unfold or expand and 
twcomc the first leaves, or Seed4eavei. This initial stem and ita 
continuation therefore constitutes the Aaceading Ajci», If the 
budding end hup[K^n to lie pointing downward and the root-end 
upwarxl in llie ground when germination begins, both will cune 
quite round, as they grow, to assume their appropriate directions. 
If obatacles intervene, each will take as nearly as possible its 
wonted directitm, through an inatinctive tendency and action, 
which insures that each part of the plant shall be developed in 
its dt medium. — the root in the dark and moist earth, the stem 
and leaves In the light and air. 

ii. The pUnttct. thus established, has i 
Orgaiu of Vtgetation, as they are called, 
I. t. root, stem, and leaves. Its subse- 
<iueut development, so far as vegetation * 
(a[>art th>m proper reproduction) is con- 
cerned, consists in the aihlition of more 
of these, until the whole herb, shrub, or 
tree is built up. 

23. In Mupli-8 (as in the Morning Glory, 
Fig. IG. and manj- others) the embrj'o in 
tbr M.H-*!. and until after the fiill dcvelo]> 
nu-nt of its cotyledons or seed-leaves, 
shows no rudimenU of the subsequent 
growth. The embryo grows into the pliint- 
lel wholly by the appropriation of pre|)an;d 
nourishing inatt«.T which was provided by 
the mother-plant and stored in the seetl, — in the case of the 
Maple, wh<)l!y in the cmhrjo itself, mainly in its cotyledons. 

Mitels cmbTTD ltCT«1>-|l»l 1l 

1 |>Untlel of ono ph]'tiin 



AfUT this is consumed and in good part conveilod into struc- 
ture, the planllet must by the action of its root and leaves imbibe 

from tlie soil and air appropriate materials, and 
assimilate them into nounshing matter needful 
for further growth. Only then does the nidi- 
ment of new structure appear, in the form of a 
growing point, or bud, at the node or a^jex of 
tlie primitive stemlet, between the two seed- 
leaves. In this case it soon shows itself as 
a second pair of leaves, at first resting on 
the node (Fig. 9), next as somewhat upraised 
l»y the development of the second intemode 
(Fig. 10, summit), and finally both this inter- 
node and the pair of leaves cromplete their 
growth (Fig. 11). Then the terminal bud 
which crowns the second node develops in 
the same way the thinl pair of leaves and 
their supporting internode or joint of stem 
(Fig. 12) ; and so on. 

24. Tlie root and the stem grow not only 
in opposite directions, but in a different mode. 
The primonlial stem, pre-existing in the seed 
(though at first it may be extremely short) 
grows throughout its whole length, but most 
in its upper part, so that it may become a 
stemlet two or thi*ee inches long. But, soon 
attaining its full growth as to length, the 
stem is carried upwards by the subsequent joints or portions, 
similarly developed and elongated, one after the other. Not 
that each ]H)rtion necessanly waits until the growth of its preiie- 
cc»ssor is complete, — though this occurs at first in seedling Maples 
and other embryos unprovided with much store of food, — yet the 
development follows this course and order of succession. The 
root, on the contrary, cannot be said to pre-exist in the seed, or 
at most it may be said to exist potentially in tissue of the caulicle 
from which a root or roots nonnally originate.^ It is formed 

1 Yet from nothirij^ which is vi)ccial to this pnrt of the embryo, nor to the 
embryo at aU. The primary root ia dovelopiHl from subjacent tissue of the 
tip of the caulicle, just as it is soiiietimes (levc'h)pe(l from along the sidts, 
and as secondary roots arc from all or most stems under favoring conditions. 
This complete similarity, and the fact of what is called the "endogenous" 
origin of roots {i.e. their springing from sul)jacent rather than superficial 
tissue) appear fully to warrant the statement in the text above. 

FI(}. 10. Msiplc plantlet with second intemode developing. 11. Some with second 
internode and pair uf leaves cumplete, and bud of the third apparent. 


in IhP process of gc-nnination, and originates in tisaiio just back 
of that which covers iUl- iijot-iind of the caulitilc, aad which, 
bring earrietl forward by the Biilijaccnt 
formation (to which it beuomee a sort of . 

cap or sheath), is called the Rooi-cap, k^ (^ 
As the primary- root thus l)e}^n l>y a V\\!>*'^ 
new and local growth at the extremity 
of ])re-e\isting stem, so it goes on Ic 
grow in length wholly or mainly by a 
continuation of this formation, the new 
at the end of tlie old. That is, the 
root elongates by continual minute 
increment of its a[)cx or near it, tlie 
formed parts vorj' soon ceasing to 
Iragttien. This ia in markud distinc- 
tion fh)m stem, which grows by suc- 
ceaaive individualized portions ; and 
tlicso portious (intemixlfg) , at first 
very short, attain or are cai>ablc of 
attaining a considerable and sometimes 
i-Mj- great, but detiuilcly terminable 
lEDgtb. by interstitial growth througli- 
out. Moreover, roots are naked, not 
producing as they grow either leaves 
or any oi^ans homologous with leai-es. 
They eoramonly branch or divide, but 
in a vague manner ; and their new parts bear what are called 
Root-hairt, which greatly increase the absorbing surface ; other- 
wise Ihey are destitute of a])iJendages or oi^ans. 

S5. With Ilie Maple embrjo, here taken as a tj^te, that of 
Morning Glorj', iiwmtea purpurea, or anj- of its kin, may next 
be compared. The cotyledons are different in shape, being a» 
broad aa long, and notchiid both at base and Qpox. Tliey lie 
in contact in Fig. 14. and are very thin, lenf-like, and green 
wluie containc<l in the seed. Their thinness is shown in Fig. 13, 
where a section of the cnirnpled and folded embryo, as it lies in 
tlip aewl, csatrtly divides them (passing through Uie terminal and 
baaal notches) and also the caulicle, which here is thicker than 
both. The germination is similar to that of the Maple i and like 
that (ns Fig. !» shows), and for thu same reason, no bnd or 
mtiimcnt of the ftirther growth pre-exists in the embryo or 



etHjkaom a , boUtng no tHan of Dourisb- 

I mmt. Hen tbey do not coataia snfficiient 

mateiul for the derelotXRcnt of tbe mttial 

Stan and root. The matenul provision 

tot Ihis ift here BtorHl up in tlie seed 

f mrotmil but not wtlhiu the cmbrro. This 

^ nonnshing depoeh, seen in the sectkin 

) (Fig. 13) fining tlw wbok* qiace between 

tbc seed-«oate and tbc tlua embryo, was 

n&nted by the earty botanists ami 

table anatomists the Ai^rMcy of tbe wed.' 

This eiilksUnee. sollened in genninatum 

and by chemical rhangea rciiden?d soluble, 

is gradually ftbsort>e<l bj- tbe colylodona 

as material for their growth and that n( 

the developing [iriinan* stem and root. 

26. Sewls ill tbis regard are accordingly 
lUstinguished into albuminout and eral- 
buminoru. those su[>ptied with and those 
destitute of albumen. The differenot^ 
" " inheres neither in the character nor 

tbe amoDDt of tlic maternal promioii fur the development 
tlic embrj-o-plant, hut merely in the storage. In exalbuminoua 
seeds the nourishment supplied for Ibis purpose is taken into 
the enihrj'o itself, mostly into the cotyledons, during the growth 
and liefore the maturity of the seed. In albuminous 
this same material is deposited around or at least external to 
Ute embryo. 
27. Tlie amount of this deposit is, in the main, inversely pro- 

■ (ircw sppcnra tn have Aral applied lhi« nnirip. unci Gacrtncr )o have 
intriKluoeil ii jnin lymemailc Ihiuhj*, where it remaina in qh, alllioiiKh 
Jnaaicu rpplaciKl it \>y Ihe term Prri^ioTn, &nil Richard iiy Kmloipentt, 
nvlllier of (hvin much better elymuiofpcali; than the old word Allmmtn. 
Bat it mual bv ktpt In mind that it wa* intended to liken llic " albumen " ot 
tlic acnl with the albDmen or white of an egg as a bidy or niiiw, nnrl not aa 
a (.'hcmical aulmiance: the embryo being fancifully concflvetl tn l» anaiu- 
gcnu to the fa/k nf ihc tgg, tli« ■urmuiiiDnK lubalant.'e of this kind not 
untialUTolIy tank tlie name of the uJiiit, viz. albumen. 

Flo. 13. Surlliin nf iie*d oT onrnninn Mnrnlnj Olory, [pamcm pqrpare*. illviillnj 
(iMmntJilniHlembrj'oilin'UiilitlMEantre. M, Embryoof Mnici,ilatiio1ie-l and ■Inlttlit- 
nnoit. IB, Rnlhryo in gErmlnallon ; iIib eitl'lailurM onl/ parll; ilntBclisI Frnm tlis owl 
nt th> (Mil, 11. Ban»T In'" nlul more dcvvluped, the colTlcdons anri>liled iiul oul- 
*|>r*ad aa (ba lliat pair of leairg*. 




porlioniil to the size and strength of tlie embryo, or the degree 
t>f its lieveioiJinent in the acetl. A comparisun of the various 
illiistrstions suSleieittly shows this. Figures 17 to 24 exltihit. 
iu II ffw cutiimun » n ,„ 

seeds, somewhat of /?=n^ 
this relation, and // Vim'/^ 
uUo of tli« position L , fr^'' I 
and shape assumed 1a . .'. ij 
in some instances. \ji.^ 
'I'hc up|HT rank of 
figiirefl represents 
Hoi'iioiis of seeds ; 
the eniI>r\o lell in 
white: tJM-nlbumen 
mt a (lolled surface. ^ " " 

'ITic lower rank shows the erabryos detached. That of Mimbilis 
h&s verj- broiul and thin cotjledons. a cauliclc of equal length, 
ituil the whole curved round the albumen wliich thus occupies 
the wnlre of the seed. That of Potato is coiled in the midst 
of tlu> albumen, is slender; the cotyledons narroweii down to 
semi-cylindrical bodies, not leaf-like in appearance, and the two 
logi-ther not thicker than the caulicle. In Barberr}- the embryo 
is straight, in the axis of the albumen, which it almost equals in 
li-n^th ; the cotyledons considerably bi-oader than the caulicle. 
but short and thickish. That of the Peony ia similar, but very 
rnnch smaller, occupying a small space at one end of the albu- 
men, and seemingly without distinction of jiarts, but under the 
microscope and with some manipulation the broa<Ier end is 
found to be divided, that is. to consist of two minute cotjledons. 
The embrvo of a Crowfoot is similar, but still more minute and 
the parts hardly to he distinguished ; and in some minute em- 
bryos there is no apparent distinction of parts until thej- develop 
in germination. 

as. The study of the formation of the embryo in the seed 
teaches that all embryos Iwgin with a still more simple, minute, 
and bomogeneotts structure ; and these comparisons suffice to 
show that all such diRerences are referable to dllTerent degrees 
and somewhat dilferent modes of the development of the embryo 
while yet in the seed. It also apiwars that the size and shape 

onlalned embrfo of Mlrabllla (Fuur^cxlack). 

no. IT. Stfrtm of wel • 
l>^ PCfAbryo dAtAfhnI anrlre. 

P1U. 19. Sfcllon nf • Pntftti<-Ke<1. 2B, Embryo <1i>lwliiid nnllro. 
Fin. tl. SoRllcn nf Barlcrry.Kcl. 33. EmhTTO itoMliol tulln. 
no. a. SwUon of Pnnjr^wHL 24. Enibrjoileladinl enUra. 



of an or^n do not indicate its nature, either in the embryo or 
in subsoiiuont growth. But in all tlie eases yet mentioned the 

eotvleilons actually demonstrate their 
nature by develo[)ing in gennination 
in a foliaceous manner and becoming 
the first leaves of the seedling. Nor 
is this nature much disguiseil by the 
fact that they differ greatlj* in form in 
different species, and that the seed- 
leaves, or develo[XHl c*otyle<lons, differ 
mucli in shajx? and often in texture 
from tlie sut»ci»eding leaves. (See Fig. 
11, 12, 2o. &c.) 

2t>. To complete the comparison 
between the seeilling Morning Glory 
and that of the Ma[)le, it is to be 
not^Vl tliat here, while the c»otyledons 
or see<l-leave8 are two, the following 
intemo<le l>ears only one leaf (Fig. 25), as also will the just de- 
veloping third intcrnodo : and this cH>ntinue8 throughout up to 
the l)lossoni : tliat is, the leaves subsequent 
to the cotyledons are not opi)osite as in the 
Maple, but altcniatc. (13.) 

30. All the preceding illustrations are from *''^\)\ i^ 
embryos which pivvious to gennination have ^v,| 

developed nothing beyond the cotyliHlons. In ^nJi 

the following, a nuliuient of further growth, 

20 27 2S S9 ao ' 

or a primary terminal ])ud, is visible in the sewl. It is most 
manifest in large and strcmg embryos with thick or flesh}' cotyle- 

FIO. 2r>. Furtli«r development of Morning Glory, Fig. 16, the root cut away, the 
Internjxle above tbo cc)tyle<lonft and its leaf completed, the next Intemodo and Its loaf 

FIO. 1N5. Embryo (kernel) of the Almond. 27. Same, with one cotyledon remored, 
to Hbow the plumule, a. 

FKJ. 2«. S«H!tlon of an Applo-fw»e<l. rongnifled, cutting through the thlcknciw of the 
cotyl«Mb»n«. 20. Knibryo of the wimc, extracttfl ontlre. the cotyle<lon« a little voiiaratetL 

FI(}. 30. Ueniiination of the Cberry, nbowing the thick cotyledons little altered, 
and the plumule developing the earliest real foliage. 



(Ions. I. e. cotyledons well ohai^d with oourishiiifr matter. The 
early vegelable jiliyBioIi^ista gave to it the name of Plumule 
(Lnt. plamu/a, a little plume). The 
name was 9ii{^eBt«<l by its api>eartinfc 
jji siieb an embryo as that of the beau 
( Phsseulus) , in wliit-h it evidently con- 
sists of n ntdimentary pair oC loaves, 
while in the i)eu and the acorn it i) 
rudimentary &ti;m, the leavee of which ' 
ajipear only later, when germination 
has ronsiderably advanced. In any 
case, the plumule is the bud of tlio 
a»ccndiug axis already disceniiblc in 
Uie soil. Kig. 27,(1, shows it in the 
Altnond, one cotyledon Iwing removed. 
Fig. 28 shows it in the section of a , 
similar altliuu^^li much smaller embrvo. 
that of an apple-seed, cnlai^ed to ^ 
nearly the siae of the other. It is 
e<iiially visible in the ciicrry. the liean, 
and the bwchnut. The embryo in all 
these cases constitutes the whole kernel 
of tlie seed. For the nourishment, 
which in all the foregoing illustrations 
exuept the first (i.e. in Fig. 13. 17-23), 
is deposited around or exterior to the 
embryo, is in these stored within it. 

31. The development of tliese era- 
hrtoa in germination proceeds in the 
normal manner, but with two cor- 
related peculiarities. First, by the 
lengthening of the radicle more or less, their thick cotyledons 
an; usually raised to or above tlie surface of the soil ; they 
fxpand, assume the green color needful to foliage; but they 
imperfectly or in a small degree perform the fiinetion of 
giw^n leaves. Ttieir main offlee is to supply the other growing 
parts with the prepared nourishment which they abundantly 
contain. Then, being thus copiously nourished, the root ticlow 
and the ready-formed plumule above grow rapidly and strongly, 
having aecimudal«d capital to draw upon ; and the leaves of the 

• •■Itanml: Iho plomale, whi 

• tunc Intcnwde uul ■ p*lT ol 

a. ailed by the Onhy cmbrjo; llin tlikk CDIylatiiii. 

EmhryonrtlicunieliicurlxRennlnitKuu 33. Pnini 

vncrglnB in the prec«itLng. berc itovohfjiei 


latter are practically the earliest eflicieDt foliage of the plantleta 

TUdb, as in the genninating CheiTj-seed (Fig. 30). three or row 

lnt«moclcs of Btcm, with their leaves, ma_r he produced before 

theae leaves tliemsclves are snfficicntly rteveloi>ed to make any 

sensible contributioD to this growth. And in the Beech and Bean, 

the Iea\e8 of the plumule come forward almost before the root 
has attached the plaiitlet to the soil. (Fig. 32, 35.) Between 
aueh cases and that of Maple and the like there are all degrees. 
There are also familiar (ascs in which the storage of noDrishmeiit 
la the cotylecluns h carried to a nuDLimum, with results which 
gravely affect the development. 


pro. 31. Tlia cmbrrn Ulta •rbole kernel) nf ibe B«an. X Sntaa ttrly In ( t iw M 
liktlou; IIh> tlili'k ixilylttlon* oipundlng anil slinwlne lliu pltimale X. Sanus. lefl^^ 
ki1tiUH«'l In gotmlimlion ; Ihe plumnle Jsvchipwl Into nn IntpmoilD of Bleu twniing B ' 

I, 37. Embryo uf Pes, 

IM Uic Mjcil-cont. X. AflVHUcod gemil- 


. Thus, in the Pea, near relative of 

. a?), wbidi 

tlie whole ker 

cotyledons so gor^wl with this niitritivi.' 

sturo that they are hutui spherical ; ami 

the aoorn of the Oak (Kig. 39). near 

n^lative of thv Beech, is in simihir case. 

These extremely obeso cotyledons liavo 

not only lost all likeness to leaves, hut all 

power of fullilling the office of foUage, 

which is appan-ntlj' no disadvantage ; for 

when two ditferent duties arc i>erfonned 

by the same organ, it rarely jrerfomis liotb 

eqiiallj' well. Here they bocorao inci-o 

receptacles of prepared food, the nature 

and office of which is the same as of Uie 

nlbutncn, or nutritive deposit extorii>r to 

the emhrjo in wliat are called albuuiinoiiM 

seeds. (26-27.) The difference is in the 

pUce rather than in the character of the ^ 

deposit. The plumule in such cases is 

alvrays apparent before germination ; and 

it develops even with more vigor than in 

the preceiling cases. It usually rises as a 

stout stem of several intcmodes lengthen- 
ing almost simidtaneously, or at least the 
upper strongly developing long bel'ore the 
lower have finishe<I their growtli ; and 
the latter are practically leaflesa, Waring 
only small and scale-like and useless ru- 
diments of leaves. This is correlated with 
the i)eculiarity that the caulicle does not 
lengthen in germination, or it lengthens 
verj- sliglitly ; tiic cntyledons remain within 
the coats of the seed : and if this were * 

buried beneath the surface of the ground, there it remaiua. The 
alKirtion of the earliest leaves of the plumule is in coiTelaliou 
with this hgpogteoug {!. t. undeiground) situation of the cotyle- 
dons throughout the germination. The slight elongation of the 
caulicle serves merely to protrude its root-end tVom the coals of 
tlie seetl in a downward direction, and fVom this a strong root 
DSuaJly is formed. 

and U 

lotnlily in our Live Oak (Qucrcns virenfl] 
iclii-'atiiut, tlie two (ioljlwlona L-oidesce 
cohere by tlieir contiguous Ftu 
In some of these casea of hy 
giEOUS gcrminatJon, the slu 
caulicle and plumiilo are oxt 
cat«d from the enclosing coats 
husk by the development of eiit 
staIkH (petioles, lh7) to the flesh] 
eotylctlons ; as is seen in F"ig. 4:!, 
and iu moat genninating aconis. 
These petioles are not visible 
the seccl, hut are Uie flrst dev< ' 
nient in germination. 

34.- There are some cnri< 
cases in which, while liie canliclG 
remains short and subterranean, 
the cotyledons are raisvii out of 
ground in genuinatioii by the 
formation of fur longer stalks 
(l>etiole8) than those of the 
Horsechestnut. A singularly 
I guised instance of this kind is seen iu Megarrhiza, a genus 
I Cucurbitaceous plants of CaUfornia and Oregon, i-emarkable 
I their huge root. The lai^e seed has very thick and fleslij 
cotyledons, and a very short and straight cauliele. In gerrai- 
natjon. the whole seed is elevated, seemingly in the manner of 
the bean, upon a etout stem. One wails for a long time expect- 
ing to see the cotyledons thniw off the bursting husk and expand, 
or else to put forth the plumule from between their bases. But 
at length the plumule makes its appearance fVom an unesjiected 
plnee, coming separately out of the soil, Kemoving this, the 
Btat4r of things represented in Fig. 43 is presented, — that of 
tlie plumule seemingly originating from the base, instead of the 
apes, of an elongated caulic-le I But on exaiiiination of the ck 
IVom which this proceeds, by making a section of the stem 
(showing tliat it is hollow) , and flnaJly bj- separating the cot)' 
dons and gently tearing apart the two short stalks by which Uii 
are united to their stem-like snpixirt. it is fonnd that the latter may 
be divided into two (as shown in Fig. 44), even down to the cleft 
below. This explains the anomaly. The real caulicle has I'e- 

FIO. 41 Srcilnn of a liomoclieiilntil or Biifkeyo «™l. il.rough tl,e very Mikk 
cntitwlcni and tbs Inuurved nulkle. 43. Seed Iu gcnulimtlan, ibuwliig lUe petlalra 
bi Dig cutflsilaiK, Ac. 

•le ia^^ 





mained short and subterranean, and is confluent with the iippur 
luirt of tlie thiekeniiig root : tin: aecming caulitle. wIulIi raisctt 
the ootylt-dans altove thcsuil, consists 
of tlio petioles of these coinbint-d into 
a tubular stem-liiie body, no evident 
trace of which is visible In the Bee<l, 
altiiough in germination it attains the 
length of two or three inches : in age 
it is readily separable into the two 
leaf-stAlks or petioles of which it ia 
ouDiposed : the plumule is thus seen 
to l<e wholly normal, originating from 
U-tween the cotyledons. AH the es- 
tcosivc growth so far, and until the ' 
pro|>er fuliage- leaves of the continu- 
ation of the plumule are dcieloped 
and iK^in tlieir action, is from nutri- 
tive tnatcrial stored in the thickened 
(.i)I>' Unions, a considerable part of 
which was transferred to the already 
enlarging root, before a remaining 
^tonion was used in building np the 
strong plumule. The economy of this 
elevation of cotyle- 
diiiia which never ^ 
open, and of the I 
lengthened distance ^ 
through which the 
nutritive matt«r has 
to be carrie<l, is not 
apiiarent. Jtiit it is 
the family habit in 
CucurWlaeen; to 
bring up the cotyle- 
dons that they may 
develop as leaves 
(as in the Pumpkin, 
Fig. 47) : here tliia 
elevation is brought 
aiwut in a different way, but without s<!euring 

' It iDBy be itJerreil ilini Mf garrliiza a a deBcetiilunt iit Bomc Ciicurbitnce« 
with Hiiiinor cotj-lrduns, wliii'li in (termhialioii ik-vulopcd inio long-stnllced 
IvsTr*. Ill Ihv mauntr duecribed in the mxl foUomnK paragraphs. 

nu. U.4t. PMUlIar ee'mln»Iiani)rHcean'lilMCit1irnnilc&; eiptalned above. 

scful end.' 


3a. This §iime anomaly, as to tho development of long sti 
to the cotjlwlons and their union into a stem-like body, occurs ft 
various B|>cei(;s of Larkspur (notably in the Califominn Delphin- 
ium nudicaule) ; hut in these the cotyledons develop into a pair 
of elBcieat green leaves. 

S6, A similar elongation of petioles of the cotyletlons, 
without any union, octiirs in a spt'cies <jf Morning Glory of t 
plains beyond the Mississippi (IjKimiia leptophylia) ; the leaf- 
like coIyleiloBs coming up on their long stalks separately from 
the gruund (Fig. 45) ; the develo[>ed plumule rising some 
time afterward between them. Compare this with the ordinary 
species (25, Fig. 15. IC, 2ri), and note that the difference is merely ' 
that the caulicle in tlie common 3[orning Glory elongnt«9 and tl 
petioles of the cotyledons remain short. 

37. In all instances thus far a single primary root so regularly 
develops from the lower end of the axis of the embryo ( variously ■ 
named radicle or canlicle), and forms such a diivct downward 

lev«lut lUniull. 


prolongation of it. that it was calieil the desoeuding axis ; and 
the body from wliich it originates waa nameil Uio radicle, on tbe 
supposition that it was itself the nascent root. But, as ab'eaily 
explained, theso-calledradiclegrowsiu the manner of stem (24), 
and is mor|ihol<^i«illy that initial internodo the node of whit^h 
Iware the first leaves or cotyledons. (20.) Let it now be noted 
that this descending axis or single primary root is far fh>m 
universal. In Pumpkin, Squash, Eclunoevstis, and the like, 
the Strang caidicle sends out directlj' from its root-end a eliister 
of roots or rootlets, of equal strength; i. c, it strikes root in 
nearly the manner that a cutting does. (Fig. 47.) 

'AH. The PolfcotjledouoUH Embrro is one hanng a whorl of 
more than two seed-leaves. The dicotyledonous embrjo being 
a whorl of the very simplest kind, that is, with the 
members reduced to two, the {K>iycotyledonouB 
may be regardwl as a variation of it. In all but\ 
one group of plants it is simply a variation, of 
casual occurrence, or even a monstrosity, in which 
three or rarely four cotyledons appear instead of 
two. In Pines (Fig. 48,19), however, ant 
most but not all C'onifcne, a whori of from 3 to Ut 
wtyledona is the normal structure, varying accord- 
ing to the species, but of almost uniform number.| 
in each. In germination these are brought out of i 
Uic soil by the elongation of the cauticle, and when \ 
the husk of the seed is thrown off they expaml 
into a circle of needle-shaped leaves. In the line 
tribe, all the subsequent leaves are alternate (spiral) in arrange- 
ment, with some disguises. In the Cypress tribe, the cotyledons 
are fewer (not more than four, and more commonly only two), 
and the subsequent leaves also are in whorls of two to four ; 
I. *., are either opgiosito or verticillate. From the occasional 
union at liase of the cotyledons of a polyeotyledonous embryo in 
pairs or groups, and fVom a study of their early development. 
Dudiartre * plausibly maintains that such cotyledons really consist 
of a single pair, parted iulo divisions or lobes. The ordinary 
interpretation. b<)wever. is equally tenable. 

39. The Monocotjledonons Embrjo. although theoretically the 
simplest, is practically a more difficult study. It has a single 
cotyledon (as the name denotes) ; also a single leaf to each node 

t^Ann. 8cl Nal. ser. 3, x, 207, Tills v; 
^Icd bj PorlBlore in DC. Prodr. xvi 

^ risa, wiui III itcmiot, diir^ytiE !<■ >■ 

?w, which originated willi Jussitu 




l^of Uio plumule 1 that is, th? leaves of the erabiyo are altemi 
f But till! eaulk'le is usually very short, ami there is no extei 
mark by wltich its limits may be 
guiahed fVom the cotyledoD, until gei 
natiim has begun. For a type of it, 
- embryo of some aqmitie or marsh plants 
I may 1m> taken, where it forms tha whole 
J kernel of tlic seed (Fig, 50-S'i), and 
the atrueturc can be made out autecedei 
w to germhiatioii. It is understoixl by supposing that the cotj- 
I dou, which forms its prineipal bulk (the eaiiliele tieiug only 

very short tliiekish base), is convolute around ashoi 
I phuniile. antl the nmrgina eoncreted, except a minute 
iiigiUidinal diink at liase, out of which the growing 
I pliiinule protrudes in genninatioii. The embryo of 
Iris may he similar in structure, but no distinetion 
of part* is visible. It is verj' small in proportion to 
the size of the seed, the kernel being mostly albu- 
men, — a supply of food, fVom which the germinating 
embryo draws the materials of its growth. When 
this takes place, either the cotyledon or the whole 
em)iryo lengtheue, its lower part is pushed out of the 
seed, a root forms at the tree end of the excess! v( 
short caulicle, and the plumule develops fVom 
other in a scries of oue-Ieaved nodes, the intemot 
l__-ai of which remain so short that tlic learea contii 
\^) in close contact, the Imiscs of the older euccosni 
(( enclosing the inner and jounger. (Fig. S5.) Hi 

therefore, the cotyledon mainly remains in the 
and the seed remains midei^round (hyitogisous) . 

40, It is somewhat different in the Onion 
has a similar erabrj'o, exee])t that it is longer, 
the cotyledon is cur\'e<l in the albumen of the seed. 
The llrst steps are the same as in Iris ; hut as soon 
as a root is formed and eml>edde<1 in the soil, the 
cotyledon lengthens vastly more, into a long and 
filiform green leaf, which, taking an erect position, 

PIO, W. Snol'-fTrtBl.MlilniHilintri-; therhnplie.lwnling toUretrntigrjlialiimBlOiii 

■nmnill.lurnolt'iwiirddlHipini til. Tlie I'mbrra ilotnclisit rramtliOMwItaitig, ibiiwlng 

I (he Inngilaillnil dilnk nt Iha liuoattlia oiMylalan; tlie Bliiirt part below in llw rwllcla. 

' " ~ iR.iiitli ihu chink til rnnl InlnnUjriiuiilbiiirtliecntyliiilnii u at ■w>]'. bring! he Io 

g pluinula ennc«1ed irllbln. 53. A cniH-(UFtlo<i through tba ^iudoId, nare 



«irrit« up the liglit seed far above the surface of the gr«innl, the 
ti|> only rcniaiuiiig in the albumen of the setd iiiiUl that is ex- 
liniisteiU when tin.- tip perishes and the emptied husk falls away. 
Alwnt this time the pUimuIe shoots forth from one si<le of the 
sabtcrraneau liase of this eotjiedonar leaf, in the fonu of a setiond 
ami similar filiform leaf, to be followed by a third, and so ou. 
Tbvi sht-alhmg bases of these succeeding leaves bicomc the coats 
of the Onion bulb The intemodes remiin imde\ tloijed until the 
plant IS readr to hlossom \ crj similar is the gennination of 
a dnte-seed except that the /"■■■!». 

protruding cotjletlon diMH — — ™-— n^ f «-s\ 
uot lengthen so mm li u i ' 

does It ile\at»- tin li | 

avQfl. Instead ut th 
being earned up the Ijwei 
etwl of the embrj-o, contain- 
iiig the plumule, is pushed down more or less into the loose 
soil. IW>ra which in time the developing plumule emerges. 

41. The embrj'o of Grasses, especially of those which yield 
llie cereal grains, is more complex, owing mainly to the great de- 
vclo|)ment of the plumule rSiii^!i'!l'|^^TT=^ //"^ iT ^ 
and the manner in whitli '-^ ^ > . 

ilK rudimentary leaves 
sucwssivcly enclose each 
other. That of Maize or 
Indian Corn, one of the ' 
largi'-st, is most convenient 
for study. (Fig. 50-59.) The floury part of the seed, whicli 
makes most of its bulk, is the albumen, largely composed of 
etan-li. The cinbrj*o is exterior to this, applied to one of its 
flat sides, and rcnching from the thinner edge to or above the 
middle in the common variety of com here represented. The 
Tonn of the embryo is best shown, detached entire, in Fig. 38 : 
its structure appears in the sections. The outer part is the 
cotyledon, which incompletely enwraps tlie plumule : it adheres 
closely to the albumen by the whole back, and remains un- 
changed in gennination : its fiinction is to absorb nutritive 

FIO. K. 


n. astwiH. or ■ Knin orindlan Oirii, dividing tb 
riglil mifUii to tl»Q II 


oormiianitlBg puU of F<(. Si and M tmlluBlcil bj iloUeil lli 

Ihn imbrjfn lliron|[1i Uw centra iinri lUtpUjrlng IM jarU: 
r, Urn twlkk at uuIIcId. 

Via. en. Slnllar wsllun of gnln of rice. Bl. Suuo • 
Mtn 1^ SB. 


matter flimisliod liy the nlhu 
growing pliiniiik'. Tlic pliimiilt.' 

. am) to Inuistnit it to thC' 
' consists of n siii^fossion <rf- 
rudimeutarv Icavea, sheat 
and onclosiiig one another, oi 
the summit of a \'cr>' shi 
a.\is, which is maialy tbtt' 
cnulicle, otherwist- trailed ra4' 
ifle. This is cotniilot«ly 
closc4l by a basal [Kirtioti 
the cotyletlon and of 
outermost leaf of the pit 
mule, whidi form a peculiar 
sheath Tor it, named the 
CiiUarhiza,^ i. e. root-sUi'ath : 
consequently tlie first root or 
loots have to break through. 
this ooveiing. As in the OalC< 
and l'ea(!12).tln; rt-ry lirst 
*" outermost leaves of the plu- 

mule develop imperfeetly and not intO'i 
ellioient foliage. The one in Fig. 6*, ' 
which encloses the rest in the vaAp 
gi'uwth, is leH behind as a mere sheatAt^ 
to thu base of the following and 
iwrfet't leaves : it ia the same as the 
lowest in ^'ig, 63. The leaves are first 
developed : the intemodes lengthen later, and the lowest lengthen 
very little. Not rarely the first root starts singly fi-oin the tip of 
the caulicle (Fig. C2, Just as in Fig. 55) ; but others of cquil 
strength follow &om any part of the canliele, and soon 
the nodes aliovc ; and no tap-root is ever formed. 

42. A Psfudo-monocotyhdonoiu embrj-o ofpasionally oo 
that ia, one of the dicotyledonous tyjie, of which oue eol)*le<lon is 
wanting through abortion. This occurs in Abronia. a genua 
relat«ti to Mirabilis, and bearing an embrio very similar to tliat 
represented in Fig. 17. 18, except that one cotyledon ia al 
The anomaly of an aeolyledimiiut embrjo uecurs in Dodder, 
plant of tlic dicotyledonous type, but with both coty 

< Thii. tlie (VnM'Ar'w of Mirhcl, <llould not be confnumlod (nn l>y tame it 
ha* been) with llic "root-cup," or tissue which oViliniiry roils (whether 
primRTy or secondary) break through ia lliotr devcliipnienl or carry on 
their apex. 

FIO. 8!. Kirly jtemilnation of Inrllui Com, 4S. Mnrp wlnni 
■una; RwU lAwInceil tmm iwrUon of aUmi kbuto tlia c^itytdlnii u well wl«Uiw. 

ap or 

on is 

uj that ^^ 

Ider, m^H 



actually' naiitiiig, — a corrplatiou with its parasitic moile of Ufa. 
(64, Kig. 78.) 

43. Tile diiwtjledonocs and the monocoljleilonous character 
of the embryo is correlated with profound differences in the whole 
□Iterior development, as revealed in llio structure of the stem, 
leaves, and flower ; which differences mark the two great divisions 
of Phienogamous plants, viz. DicoTVLEWtSEs or Dicotyledonous 
Plants, and Mosocotvle doses or MoxixiOT^LEDiraOLS Plants, 
— names introduce<l into classification by Ray, uud adopt*]d l>y 
A. L. Jussicu, in hie Genera Flautarum. 



Section I. Of the Root. 

44. Tbe Root, which has been callcti the descending axis, is 
that portion of the l)oiiy of the plant which grows downwui'd, 
onliiiarily fixing the vegetable to the soil, and absorbing from it 
materials which the plant may ela1)orate into nourishment. As 
alR'ady stateil (24), the root grows in length by continuous 
additions of new fabric to its lower exti-emity, elongating IVom 
i^iat part only or chiefly ! so that the tip of 
a growing root always consists of the most 
newly formeil and active tissue. It nurnmlly 
Ik'^us. in germination, at the root-end of the 
cmuliclc. or so caUe<l radicle. But roots soon 
proceed, or may proceed, from other jjarls of , 
the stem, when this is favorably situateil fur 
their proiiuetioii. The root does not grow 
from its naked ag^ex, lint fi-om a stratum 
immediat<?ly behind it : eoosequenlly its blunt 
or obtusely conical advancing tip consists of older, firmer, and 
in part effete tissue. The Up of all secondary roots and rootlets 



13 siinilariy capped or protected.' But the so-called root-mp is 
eelduin so rtiatiiict or st'imrable as to ibsene a particular name. 
45. Nature of Groirth, Cells. The developrocnt and growth of 
the- root, as of other orgiiiis, results from the developmeut, 
trnjwtli, ami increase in number of certain minute part^, of which 
thL- plant is built up. These com|)oucnt parts are so much alike, 
at least in an carl}' static, aixl arc so obviously formed all on 
ont- typo, that they take one common name, that of Cells. 
Th'sc arc the iiistolt^ical elements of plants, t. e. the unita of 
ininule stnieturc. While, in the muii)holog}' of the's obvious on^nns, analysis brings us to the phytomtr (16) 
ns the initividual clement which bj- a kind of propagation 
pi'ochiccs its like in a second phytomcr, ivmaining however in 
connection witli the fii'st, thnn building up the general structure, 
so, in an analogous way, each of the obvious i>arts — each stalk 
or blade or rootlet — is microscopically detcnnined to be com- 
posed of these ultimate organic units, generally calle<l cells. 
The cell {cellula, by the French 
conveniently termed cellule) is the 
living vegetable unit, in the same 
sense that the brick is ttic uuit 
of a brick nliflce. To make this 
analf^j' fairly complete, the 
liiicks should be imagined to 
e a fimi exterior or shell, 
and a soft or at length hollow 
.- inteiior, also to I)e living when 
oiiHsnitetl into the structure, 
I and Ibially to be produced in the 
iiiiig stnioture by a kind of 
pi-opagation. The protbiction or 
1 number of tlicse cells by develo|»ment fVom previous 
onos, and their Buccessi\e increase in size up to maturity, are 
what constitutes vegetable growth.* The insjiection through a 

' Tlic notion that the tip of the roiit toniiitis of [!<.'[ icnte forming or 
j«v!\j farnieil tigaiie, or bcora some or^nn or Biruotun- of tliia nature (a 
"Sinaiili^"), ling linnlljryct been el i ill inn led from [lie li'Xl-bool(9 and popular 
wntitiiRi. It Imd no proper foundaiicm in fnct. 

Ill Lrman, and in some oIIut aqiiHtic». and also in sotnc aerial roots, this 
older tissue often scpamtes into a real rool-eap, free al base, like an inverted 

s Tills, SB to the structure, ia (he mibjeot of nisioloii/ ,- as to proeeMcs or 
actions, the subject of PhyMo-jg ; Imtli lo be treated in a separate rolume. 

riQ. ra, an. PoMI<m» of •urf«re nf F\g. (14, mnre nimrntne.1. t\tat\j ^ilijilaylns tha 
snpiTlklBl relliilsr iitriirtiire anil '1i« Inne |ir"rm« ftom nme of tlis cells, called root- 
iljln, wlik-h Bboand on lln upiier iiart of Fig. 61. 


simple micjroscope of a slender young root, and of thin sIicpb 
of it iinraersed in water, may ser^'e to give a general thoiiy:!) 
cruil*: itica of Uie vegetalile iryllular structure, sufficient for tliu 
present purpose. Roots are naked ; that is, they bear no otlier 
organs. AVhen they send off branches, these originate fVoni the 
main root just as roots originate from the stem ; and in Iwth 
cAScs witlioiit nnieh predetermined order. Tlie ultimate ami 
veiy slender branehos are sometimes called root-librils ; but 
these are only dolieat« ramifications of the root. Like anj' 
otliiT [lart of the plant, however, roots may produce hairs or 
nuch like growths fr<)m the surface, which are wholly distinct 
fK.m brancliPB. (.183.) 

4(i. Ruat-h^r^. Roots absorb water, &e., fram the soil by 
imbibition through the surface ; that is, through the walls of the 
cells, which are in a certaui sense jjermeablc to fluids, more readilj' 
when young and tender, less bo when older and firmer. Roots, 
Ihin-fore, absorb most by their IVeah tips and adjacent parts ; 
and these are continnall.^' renewed in growth and extended fur- 
ther into the soil. As the active surface of a [ilant above ground 
is enormously increased by the spread of foliage, so in a less 
degree is the absorbing surface of j'oung roots increased by the 
prodnetion of root-liaira. (Fig. 64, nppor port, and more magni- 
fied in Fig. Co. CG.) These are attenuated outgrowths of some 
part of tlic &n|)ertleial cells into capillary- tubes (only one fVom 
each wll), closeil at the tip, but the calibR- at base coutiimona 
with the cavity of the cell : into which, therefore, whatever is 
imbilied through tlic thin wall may freely pass. These appear 
(as Fig. 64 shows) at a certain distance behind the root-tip. 
Furtlier back the older or effete root-haira die away as tlie cells 
wlik-h l>ear tliem thicken into a firmer epidermis. 

■IT. To the general statement that roots give birth to no other 
organs, theie is this abnormal, but by no means unusual excep- 
tion, lliat of producing buds, and therefore of sending up leaf)' 
hntnchea. Ahhougli not naturally ftimished with buds in tlio 
manner of the steni. yet many roots have the power of originat- 
ing tbem under certain circum.itances, and some produce them 
habitnully. Tims Apple-trees and Pojjlars send up shoots from 
the groun<l, especially when the snperficial roots are wounded. 
And Uie roots of Madura or Osage Orange so readily originate 
bads that the tree is commonly jtropagaled bj' root-cuttings. 

48. Kinds of Koote. The root, commonly single, which origi- 
nates from the embryo itself, is called the Primabt Root. (H7,) 
Roots which originate fVom other and later pails of the stem, 
or dacwhere, are distinguished as Secokuarv Routs. But the 


liitttT aff as normal as the piiinaiy i-oot ; that is, to stems 
BO eituiitecl that thp_v can prwUice tlicm. Most creeping plants 
emit them fVeely, usually IVom Uic notlra ; and so do moat 
bmnches, not too old. when twnt to the ground and covcrwl 
nitli uarth, thus soeimiig the requisite moisture and darkness. 
Seimrate pieces of jouiig stems (cuttings) can commoulj- be 
made to strike root. l.'|>on this faculty of stems to originate 
roots doiwnds all jtroiiagation by di\'ision, by laying or layering, 
by cuttings, &c. It is mainly annuals and eununon trees that 
naturally de])end on iho primary- iixit ; and most of these can 1k' 
made to produce scconrlaiy roots. E^■cu leaves and Icaf-stnlke 
of some plants may be made to strike root and l)c used as 
cuttings. (77.) 

49. Duration. By differences in respect to tliis, citlier the 
root or the plant, as Ihc casa may Ik?, ia distinguished into 
Annual, Bienmal, or Perennial, according to wlictbcr life is contin- 
ued for a single year or season, for two, or for a greater nnmlwr. 
The difTcrenco is not in all cases absolute or even well marke<l. 

50. Annaals are |)IantB which, springing from the seed, flower 
and seed the same j'car or season, and die at or l)eforc its close. 
Thej- produce /Aro»« roots, cither directly from the embryo and 
succeeding joints of stem (as in Grasses, Fig. 63). or fl-om a 
persistent primary or lap-root, more or less thickened into a tmnk 
or divided into brauclicB. The pi-oducts of vegetation in all such 
herbs are not stored in subterranean or other resenoirs. but arc 
ex[>ended direetlj" in new vegetative growth, in the production 
of blossom, and finally in the maturation of fi'uit and seed. 
This completed, the cxbaustetl and not at all replenished indi- 
vidual |>criBhes. 

51. Out some annuals may have their existence prolonged by 
not allowing them to blossom or secil. Others, witli jirostrate 
stem or branches, may fl-om these produee secondaiy roots, 
wliich, forming new connections with the soil, enable the newer 
growth to sunive when the older parts with the original root 
have perished. And many herbs, naturally annuals, are continued 
from year to year through sueh propagation from the branches, 
used n« layers or cuttings. Moreover, certaiii plants (such as 
Ricinus or Castor-oil Plant), which arc perennial or even arbo- 
rescent in warm climates to which they belong, become annuals 
in temperate climates, early ixsrisliing by autumnal cold. 

62. Tlie aimiials of cool climates, where growth completely 
ceases in winter, germinate in spring, mature, and die in or Itefore 
aut^nnn. But. in climates with comparatively warm and rainy 
winter an<l rainless aunmier. man j- germinate in autumn, vegetate 

. aiul ae 
I WMuon 


Uirough the winter, (lower and aeoil in spring, and perish in 
early siiramer. These may lie termed Wistek Annuals. 

53. Biennials are plants which, springing from the seeil and 
vegetating in one season, live throiigli tlie interruption of winter, 
an<l tilosstiin, tVuctif}, and perish in the nest glowing season; 
their life Iwing thus dividetl into two stages, the first of vegeta- 
tion, the second of IVuctifieation. In typical biennials, nearjy 
Ibe whole work of Tcgetation is accomplishetl in the first stage, 
with the result of accumulation of a stock of nutritive matter, 
to Iw exix-nded in the second stage in the production of blossom 
and aeed. Tliis accumulation is usually stored in the root or in 
^ibe base of a verj- short stem in c >nnection with the root. The 
~ ' ' biennial accordiugly enlarges and Iweomos fleshy, or 
'. as this matter accumulates. At the close of the growing 
tlie leaves perishing and the ^ 

stem having rt;niaine<l vetj- short (with { \l 

undeveloped int;rnodcs), — the root, 1 v'' Ki^ 

crownetl with the bud or buds, contains ^ T^ ^^ 

the main result of the anmraer's work, ,-^5\> v'T^2^ feJ_ 
aa provision for the nest year's 
opment and th; completion of the 
cycU', This development, being thus 
amply provided for. is undertaken in 
sjiring with great vigor ; blossom, fruit, 
and set-d are rapidly pro<luce<l ; and 
the stock Iwing consumed, but not at 
all replenished, the cells of the gi-cnt 
root arc now empty and effete, and 
the individual perishes. The Beet, 
Turnip, Parsnip, and Carrot are fa- 
miliar examples of biennials, with Ihe 
store of nourishment in the root.^ " 

The Kolil-rabi is a biennial with this deposit in the stem : 
the Cabbage. jHirtly in the stem, partlj' in the head of leaves. 

I In Mwtv till- canllclc tnlargee willi the root, so Ihat the upp4?r and 
baiLbmring rnd ia viein. 

Ta^^nott of lhi« kmil nrp laid, in ilea^rlptive bulati}', (n bi> 
FuMifiirm ur SiMmllt'thiptii. when liromli-'r in llie niiJilte and lopering 
towanb bath «ekU, m in the common ltat)i«h {Fig. 07); 

Omiral, when Upeiin^ rripilarly from linec to tip, a> <n cnrrola, ftc, ; 
A'opi/am, L E. Ttrtiip-^i/inl.tfhen the ihickened part isiriilerthanliiiEh, £c. 
FiUKkkd Hoait Are those wliicii form In cluBlen ; these may be slendtr or 
When much Ihickeneil, either Irregularly or not of (lie above 
nirl l() be talrrau: 

Pia. a Raitleli : a rutltxm dtp-mot. 


54. But somo plants, such as the liudisli. whieh wh^n tl 
spring fVom Eocd in autumn arc true liieiinials, will when raised 
ill spring pass on directij- to the Uoworiiig stage in summur, or 
when sown after the warm soasun l>^ns will oltcn run tliroiigli 
their course as annuals. Then there are various biennials whic-h 
tbickcu the root very little an<l hold their leaves through the 
winter. Between these antl winter annuals no elear deman-ation 
can be drawn. As respects annual and hieunial duration, the 
torms may for the most part be applied indiscriminately- to the 
plant or to the root. We may say either that the plant is a 
biennial, or that its rout is biennial. 

35. Perennials are plants which live and blossom or fructify 
year alter year. They may or they may not have iieremiiiil 
roots. In trees and shrubs, also in 
herbs with growth from year to jear 
frotn a strong tap-root, the root 
is naturally pereimial. But in most 
perennials with only flhrons roots, 
these are [iroducert anew IVom lime 
to time or from year to year. Also, 
while some such roots remain fibrous 
t and sene only for absorption, othcra 
S may thicken in the manner of the 
. ordinarj' biennial root and se^^■e a 
similar use, i. e. become reaervoii's of 
elalvoraled nourishment. The Dahlia 
(Fig. (iH) and the Peony afl'or<l good 
examplea of this. Sweet potato is 
another instance.* Most such roots 
have only a biennial duration : they 
are produced in one growing season ; they yield their store to 
form or aid the growth of the nest. When jterennials store up 
nutritive matter nndci^ound, the deposit is more commonly 
made in a subterranean portion of the stem, in tubers, corms, 
bulbs, Ac. (See 115-122.) 

hfi. The distinction lietween annuals and biennials is at til 
BO difficult, and the particular in which they 
— namely, that of blossoming only once, then dj-ing, as it 
hy exhaustion. — that it was proposed by DeCandolle to unite 


wpedally fi 

r part, that it Iihb Wen n 

Flo. M. FbwIpU 


the two uxuli'T the common ttpi>el!alion of MoNocAitPiC |)lant8, 
Planlte monocarpicm, taken in the sense of only oiiPe-fruiling 
pUnts ; and to designate perennials by the corresponding tenn 
of PoLYCAKPic. Plantcp polycarpica, literally mauy-lVuitecI, tnkcn 
in tho sense of many-times fmitiiig.' 

57. But the distiiietion even here is no more abaolnte than 
that between annuals and hienniala. For example, it ia not 
quite clear whether the Cardinal Flower and rclatefl sjiwii'S of 
Lotielia should be ranked as annuals, liiennials, or perennials. 
The plaiitfi may blossom and seed toward the end of the season 
in which they came from seed; or. germinated in autumn, the 
small ticedlinga may Bur\'ive the winter ; but whenever fructiBed 
the filirous-rootcd mother plant dies thronghout ; yet usually not 
before it bus established, and perhaps detached from the l)ase, 
small offsets to blossom the next season; and so on. Then 
Houselcets (Scmpcniviim) and such-like fibrous-rooted succu- 
lent plants multiply freely by offsets which are truly jierenuial 
in tli« sense that they live and grow for a few or several years ; 
1)Ut when at length a flowering stem is sent up producing blos- 
som and seed, tliat plant dies as completely and in the same 
manner as any biennial, only the generation of offsets suri'iving. 
Tho same is true of tlie Centurj' plant (Agave Americana, 
wrongly denominated American Aloe), which vegetates in the 
manner of the accumulating stage of a biennial, except that 
tbifl ponlinnes for several or very many years, while the flower- 
ing stage, when it arrives, is precipitated and terminated in a 
single season. 

aH. Although the stem usually sends forth rooti; ouly when 
covered by or resting on the soil, which affords congenial dark- 
ness and moisture, yet these are in some cases produced in the 
open air. Hoots may likewise subserve other and more sj^eeial 
uses Ihan the absorption of crude or the storing of elaborated 

5il. Aerial Root* is a general name for those which are pro- 
duced in the o[>en air. One class of these may sene tho office 
of ordinary roots, by descending to the ground and liecomini? 
established in the soil. This occurs, on a small scale, in the 
stems of Indian Com: the lower nodes emitting roots which 
grow to the length of several inches before Ihey reach tlie ground 

■ Tliew l«rms or vomc equivalonis lisre n cnnveniencc In i1i?Bcriplive 
botany. But thotp cmplnjed by DcCancIullc arc Dot Impplly chosen, oi has 
nfien Iwen said. MotiOioroai (beuring progtay ornre) «nd Poli/loeotii (hearing 
muj llaiM) would \x mare ippropriKle. 


into wbiclt tliej' p^nctrato. More remarkable cases abound !i 
those tropieol r^yna wliere the sultry air, Baturatetl with moist"' 
are for a lai^e part of tht' jear, favors the utmost luxuriaiHie of 
vegetation. In the Palm- like I'amlan us or Serew-Pine* (f"ig' 
G9), vcrj- strong roots, emitlwl in the open air lYom the trunk, 
-^ vv \ ., J, y anrt soon reat-liing 

SSfil\li\j\M/.y te .oU, give the 

appearance of a tree 
partially raised out 
of the ground. Tlie 
famous Uanyan-tree 
of India (Fig. 71) is 
a still more striking 
illnsti-atiou ; for the 
Beiial roots strike 
fl-om the horizontal 
branches of the tree, 
often at a great 
height, at first smng- 
ing free in the air, 
but finally reacli- 
ing and establishing 
themselves in the 
ground, where they 
inL-rease in diameter 
and form accessory 
tninks, surronnding 
the original iKtle and supimrtiiig the wide-spread canopy of 
branches and fuliagc. Very similar is the economy of the Man- 
grove (Fig. 71). which forms impenetrable thickets on low and 
muddy sea-shores in the tropics throughout most parts of the 
world, extending even to tho coast of Florida and Louisiana. 
Here aerial roots spring not only fVom the main trunk, as 
the Fandaniis, but also from the branchlets, as in the Bany: 
Even the radicle of the enibri-o starts into growth, protrud) 
and attains considerable length nhile the fruit is still attociied 
the branch. 

39*. Aerial Rootlets for climbing are familiar in tbc I^y of 
Old World (Hedera), Trumpet-Creeper (Teeomaradieans), and 
our Poison Ivy (Rhus Toxicodendron) ; by the adhe; 


' So named, rot from Bny rpBemblftiici' I' 
M of Ihe foliage to that of « Hlnc-Applc. 

uia. ^_ 


1 > like- 



which the stems, as tlicy grow, ascend walls anil the trcnka of 
trees with fticility. Ju Hliua a superabuudaoee of tliese rootlets 
is prodiK'ctl, thickly covering all eiilfs of tbu stem. 

60. Kpl^fles or Alr^PlantB hIso have roots which arc through- 
out life ncconiiccted with tlie ground. Epiphyte*, or Epiphytic 
plontn. as Ihe name denotes, are bdcL as prow upon other plants 
withoHl taking nourish incut from them. Deriving tliis from the 
air alone, tliey are called Air-plantt. This name might be 
oxU'iided to the same or other kinds of plants attaching them- 
sc]v4« to bare walls, rocks, and the like, and unconnected with 
the soil, thongh such woukl not technically be cpiphj1«8. Verj- 
nuuiy Licbeua. Mosses, and other plants of the lower grade, and 
not a few jihaint^anious plants, ore in this case. The greater 
part of the phtenogomous Epiphytes jwrtain to two nionocotyle- 
dooousonlors. the Orchis family and tliat to which tlie Pine- 
Applf Ik-Ioi^s, viz. the Bromoliacco;. Their thread-like or 
corH-likc simple roots either ailhere to the bark of the suppoiting 
tree, securing the plant in its jMsition, or some hang loose in the 
air. Of these, Oreliids. t. <r. plants of the Orchis family, are the 
moat dbowii' and nnmerons, and of the greatest variety of forms, 
especially of their blossoms, which are often bizarre and fantas- 
tic. They belong, naturally, to climates which are both warm 
afid boniid : they arc highly prized in hot-house cultivation : 
and. along with the hardy and terrestrial portion of the order, 
th«y are jiecnliarly interesting to the tiolanist on account of tJie 
singular and exquisit* adaptation of their flowers in relation 
to insects which visit them. In some the blossoms curiously 



resemble butterflies or otiier insects ; as. Tor example, Oncidium 
Papilio, Fig, 72. Epiphytic orchitis are iiKligenous to the United 
States only from Geoi^a to Tesus, and only in bumble forms, 
in company with speeies of Tillaiidaia. representing Bromeliace- 
0118 epiphytes. The commonest of the latter tribe, and of moat 
northern range, is the T. usneoidcs, the so-ciiUed Long Moss, 
which, pendent in long and tangled gray clusters or festoons from 
the branches of the Live-Oak or Long-leaved Pine, gives such a 
l>eculiar and sombre aspect to the forests of thu wanner ix)rLioos 
of our Southern States. „ 

CI. Parasitic Plants have the peculiarity that their roots, or 
wliat nnMwer t<j roots, not only fls themselves to other plauts, 
but draw tliLTcfrom their nourishment, at least in part. Among 
crj-ptogamous phinW vcrj- many Fungi arc parasitic upon w 
within living plants or animals. Bnt only phicnogamons para- 
sites are here under consideration. These may be divided into 
two classes ; those with and tliose without green foliage, 

62. Oreen Paragll«s mnj' be either wholly or partially parasitic ; 
tbnt is. tbev may draw all tlieir support fW>m a foster jilant, or 

rashuwyepliiliyiia uf ll> 


f m&y be likewise iixited in the soil, and i 



of elaborating sncli food, whetlier taken directly fi-om tlie soil or 
rnim tUe (rnitle aap of the foster plant. The Mistletoes (Viscum 
and its allies) are the principal examples of complete gi'een 
par8>»itic plants. Seeds dropped by birds on the boughs of trees 
gvrminute there ; the root-end of the eaulicle points thither instead 
of towBiils the earth ; the i-oot, or what would be sueh, i>ene- 
trates the bark and in- 
ivqwrnlea itself with ttie 
sap-wood BO ijerfoctly 
thai tbr junction of par- 
asite with foster trunk 
is like that of bianeh . 
with pan-nl trank. The 
parasite is probably fed 
by InrtJi elaborated and 
crude sap, that is. both 
by what the foster tree 
has assimilated and 
what it has merely taken 
fWitn the soil and air: 
the former it ci 
inoor^Mirate : the latter ' 
it has first to assimilate ' 
in its own green leaves. 
Sometimes one Mistleto 
, parasitic upon an- 
T of the same or of 
rent species. 
B. Partially parasitic plants (mostly green) may bo either wooily 
■ arborescent or herbaceous. The 8i>ecies of Cluaia in tropical 

America (called C'ursed Fig) are examples of the rormer. 
form ti'ees, send dowu acriul roots in the mauDer of \he Bauyan ; ' 
bat, wliile some roots stek the ground, some may attach them- 
selves to other trees parasitieatly, anil draw from them a portion 
of their support. The iwrasitism of certain herbaceous planta 
with green foliage is claudeatiue. the connection being under- 
groun<l and therefore long imBuspected. This ocenra in si>ecie8 
of Gerardia (at least of the section 
Dasjstoma) and other plants of the 
same family, the unenltivabihty of 
which is thereby explained. Also 
indra and in tlicir relatives 
'' the Thcsiums of the Old World, 
belonging to a natural order (the Saulalacea?) which has much 
affinity with the entirely parasitic order (Loranthacea-) to which 
the Mistleto l)elongB. 

64. Pale or Colored ParasltM, such as Beech-Drops. Pine-Sap, 
ic, are those which are destitute of green herbage, and are 
usually of a white, tawny, or reddish 
hue ; in fact, of any color except 
green. These strike their roots, or 
sucker-alinped discs, into the bark, 
mostly tliat of the root, of other 
plants, and thence draw their food 
from the sap already elaborated. 
They ba\e accordingly no occasion 
for digestive oi^ans of their own, 
t. e. for green foliage. The Dodder 
(Fig. 77) is a common plant of 
this kind which is jiarositic above 
ground. Its seeds germinate in 
the earth, but form no projier root : 
when the slender twining stem 
reaches the surrounding herbage, 
it forms suckers, which attach 
themselves firmly to tlie surface of tlie sup(x>rting plant, 
penetrate its epidermis, and feeil upon its juices; while the 
original root and base of the stem perish, and the plant baa 
no longer any connection with the soil. Thus stealing its nour- 

FtG. IS. Seclliinnrinienfiht atUcbed ronrleiaoT OorwiUn. thoiring the onion. 

FIB. TT. Tbe ciiiamau tudOvr at llw Ncirlliern HUlcg ICnvuU Ormuiili), of ilia 
nManl xlie, lArultk- u|»d tlie >kiu of an berti: Uie UDcolled jmrllnn nl Die Inver enil 
■lion tlia male af li* uiacJiniBnt TB, Tlie ciilled datiryn taken Ihini llie xceil. oin- 
■" ■. 70, Tho MUuo 111 gwml- 


i^unent ready prcpareil, it requires no proper digestive organs 
uf iLs own, and, consequently, does not produce leaves. Tbis 
(joonomy b forc-Bhadowed in the eiabrjo of the Dodder, which is 
a naked thread spirally coiled in the seed (Fig. 78, 79), and 
prcavntiiig no vestige of cotyletions or seed-leaves. A sijet-ies 
of LhKldpT infests and greatly injures flax in Europe, and some* 
timet) makes ita appearance in our own flax-fields, having been 
introduced with the importe<l seed. Such parasites do not live 
upon all plants indiscriminately, but only niion those whose 
elalKirate Juices fUruisli a propitious nourishment.^ Some of 
them nre restricted, or nearly so, to a particular spedea ; others 
show little pri'ference, or arc found indifferently upon several 
epdnes of different families. Their seeds, in »orae cases, it is 
aikid, will germiuate only when in contact with the stem or root 
of the s])ecics upon which they are destined to live. Having no 
twMl of herbage, such plants may bo reduced to a stalh tiearing 
a angle flower or a cluster of flowers, or even to a single blossom 
dere-loped from a bud directly parasitic on the bnrk of the foster 
plant. Of this kind are the several eiHtnes of Pilostyles (para- 
sitic (lowers on the shoots of Leguminous plants) in Tropical 
, one Bpeciea of which was discovered by Dr. Thurber 

oenr the southern bonlers of New Mexico. Its flowers are 
•null, only about a quarter of an inch in diameter. The most 
wonderful plant of this kind is that vegetable Titan, the Raf- 
flnia Amoldi of Sumatra (Fig. 8U) which grows upon the aU-ra 
of* kind of a Cissus orVitis. It is a parasitic flower, measuring 
abw feet in circumference, and weighing fifteen pounds! lU 
CCdor is light orange, mottlwl with yellowish-white. 

■ Honotropaorlnilian Plpv (Nnd perhaps snnic rplnird pliuiM), HUhoai;h 
■nbablj parMllic no living roots in tiirly>cmwlli.npptan(o livo aflcrwant* 
n the manner nf ihc Ui-grr Fun^. upoD leaf-iiiouliJ and decaying herbage. 
tn Bwde of life ihoald be inreitigated. 

nO- ML BafthwU Arnotdl: m >i|iwi<l»l (lower, iixl ■ bail. d[nicU; parultic on 


Section II, Of Buds. 

G5. Buds are the geiins of stems : they are axes with their 
a|i|ieD<lngeB in an early state. Leak-duds (Gemu^) are tboee 
ile\oted to vegetation, an<l the parte, or somu of tliem, develop 
as leaves. Mixed bids coutain both foliage and flower < 
flowers. Plower-bli>s (Alabastka) nrc unexpandcd blossom 
These are eonsidered in another chapter. 

G6. The fonspieuous portion of an ordinar)- bud, or that which" 
first develops, usually consists of leaves, or scales the homoli^uea 
of leaves ; the axis itself being very short and undeveloi>ed. If 
this remains com |)a rati vely short, the leaves as developed are 
crowded in a rosette, as iu a Houseleek (Fig. 91*). a Barberry 
and the Larch : when the intemodea lengthen, the leaves are 
interspaced upon the axis. 

67. The i«tylwlons and plumule of the embryo arc, tnorplio- 
logically, the fli-st bud. on the summit of the initial stem, the 
canlicle. This in gcrmiuation and subsequent growth develops 
into a leafv stem, in tlie manner already described. Normally 
this stem has the capacity of giwwing on in this way from the 
apex or growing [joint, which is always potentially a bud, the 
apical or terminal bud (lo). Sometimes it is merely potential, 
and there is no external structure visible until the new growth 
begins, or the bud is said to be lafenl. 

CW. But coramonlj', in phints that live from year to year, growth 
is divideil into seasons or stages, with intenals of reiwse. In 
8uch cases. ca|>ecially iu trees and shrubs, instead of a continuous 
succession of foliage, the perioii of interruption is apt to be 
marked by the production of scales {Bud-KoUt, PemUe, ote.) or 
dry teguments, which sene to protect the tender rudiments or 
growing point within during the season of rest. This being the 
winter-season in cold climates. Linnieus gave to such bud-cover- 
ings tlie common name of Hiuersacullm. From the usually 
iliiamoM (scale-like) character of this corering, such buds take 
the name of 

G9. Scalr Bods. Large and strong ones of tJiis kind, such as 
those of Ilorsechestnut, Magnolia, Hickory, Lilac. &o., may be 
taken ns the type of bud. The scales aowe to protect the ten- 
der paits within against injury fi-om moisture and from sudden 
changes in temperature during the donnant or earliest growing 
state. To ward off moisture more effectually, they are sometimes 
coaled with a waxy, resinous, or balsamic exudation, as is con- 
Bpicnous on the scales of the Horsechestnul, Balsam-Poplar or 
Balm of Gilead, and lialsam-Fir. To guard against sudden 


fes of temperature, thej are ofUn Iiiil 1 or the ru hmentary 

s within iavestnl with oon conductuig donii or nuol 

70. XKtore of Bnd-wales. Tliat the\ answer to leaves is made 

manifest by a coiisidciTition of tiieir 

sitimtion and arrangetneot nhah ore 

I same as of the projwr leaies ot 
Bpecies ; and by tlio gradual trausi 
IS from the former to the latttr in 
DV plants. In the Turioiis or sub- . 
i^oean budding shoots of numerous / 
I'linial bi-rbs, and in the unlokhngn 
m.h of the Lilac and SweLt Bmkt\i. 
(JEaeulus luirtiffora) , everj gradation! 
tuay be traced between bud bcoIg^ an I 
^^^foliftge, showing tliat no lint of distiUL 
^^Ktfcm can be drawn between them but ^ 
^^Hut tbe two arc essentiaU\ of the saniL 
^^^■Rtarr, are different mochfications of 
^^Hhe aame oi^n. In the Lilac thej 
^^^■Mv be r^arded as the blade of the 
^^Bbtf. eaodified and depuuiKmte in the 
^^"Bnckcye (Fig. 233), and thin. lore in 
Uoraecbestnut, as the linse of leaf stalks 
in Magnolia (Kig. f^l. H2) in the 
'ulip-trec. and in the Beech the} are 
lently stipules. They must therefore 
referred to in the section on the 
lorpholt^- of leaves. (227 ) 

1 , Kaked Buds, Mc.) of shrubs anil 

a, even in climates with Bl.^erc 

:er, are not unknown, that is huds 

rotected by special scales or othir 

n-prings. For example the lattst 

llrofleaves of the season in \ ihunium 

nlum. V. lantanoides (Hobblebush), 

i the like, remain in a nascent state 

r«r winter without eovering, and ex- 

(i into the firet foliage in the spring. 

1 V. Opnlns (Snowball, &c.). another species of the same | 
nas and inhabiting the same region, has well-foiiuMl scaly . 

. Bmneb ot Magnolia tliDlirella. of Iliu ni 
.Ixsl bail: uti below anhJbmiig Ibe Utve i«nn<l«l 
« ■Hinolar toot IrR by Ihs BUI of 
■Tklf frnm ■ Dtmllitc bud ; It* thk^' 
MeioaiiMM DfUwialiofttlpiilegutiKed wllhlt. 

»n. u wcU u the rl 
.Huaou. XI. AUcUcbtd \ 
of K lear-«Ulli ; the niiiiDbninDni 

M0BPB0L0O7 OF BnD8. 

k'af-buds. In other hardy shrubs and trees, the buds, cqimlly 
or almost destitute of scales, 
are rainut«, hidden in or un- 
der the bark, or otherwise 
ineon»|>ieuouB until vernal 
growth commences. Phila- 
del]jUue and Taxodium are of 
this kind. 

7i. Snbpetlolar Bnds. Some 
leaf-buds are singularly cov- 
ered in their early state and 
through the sunmier. us in tlie 
Locust (Robinia). Honey-Lo- 
cust Fig. 9C (where they re- 
main very undeveloped), in 
Yellow Wood ( Clad rastis), and 
I more conspicuously in the 
Plane-ti-ee (I'latanus, Fig. 87) : 
here they are all formed un- 
der the base of the protecting 
Icaf-slalk, wliieh in Plane-tree 
forms a sheath or inverlcil cup, 
» »• M ver\hkeacandle-estinguishcr. 

fitted to and concealing the conical bud until autumn, when by 

the fall of the leaves tliesc buds arc exiwsed. 

Fia. »i. ntiignm ot verUFkl Kcttoii of k Rrnni bu,: 
M. Th« BKh nf Uw HDiv ilv^elnpliii. the el'TigBllcin beel' 
nnlu. noaii nilloiisil by (lie nUien In iD«««ian. ML A x« 
cmwTMil irllh a trrminitl bnil: a, Nsnlefl tf Ilic buJ-i 
b. •oin liift l>r Uie fjillni lHif-«tsl)[>: e. axillary bu<l« 
FIO. M. UmnfhaiHlbadXKllulllaritlntilHiI-Uao 
Fid. ST. L«f-tiud DDiler Uie pcUola of tbe FI»ie-liM 


, FlMkj Bnds, Bulht arc peculiar buds of certain herba- 
a plaiit«. witli'llcsh.v scales, ami uI^'D uf a more permanunt 
laracter. Thtir uature ami efoiiomy iiiay most couveiiiently 
I iibistrstetl under subse«iuent sections. Usually bulbs are 
ibUtrTKUeui or [Mittly so. lint small bulbs (BulbltU, 123) regu- 
irlf aiipenr in tlic axil of neaily nil the leaves of certain common 
ilu«. being obviously onlinary axillaiy buds, under certnin 
HlificaUuiis. Tliey become detacLud at matm-ity, fall to the 
Kind, protlnee roota. and grow as iudei^eudent plants ; and 
teir desby scales are storebouscs of nouiisliment for the early 
bltwrt uf tliia indei^endent growtli. 

, ftnd^propagatlon is a nuraial mode of i-epnxluctiou in cases 
PBce tbe above, the spontaneously detached bulhlets or buda 
I^^IUabUslung themselves as progeny. In several 8i>ecie8 of 
Jliam (Onions and Leeks), such bnlblets usurp the place of 
iwer-buds. making the analog^' seem closer. Stems or branches 
I habitually root in the soil, or along its surface, equally 
■agate or divide into new individuals, becoming distinct by 
G perishing of the older connecting parts, or by breaking away 
a tbem. Propagation hg euttingi is an acceleration or esten- 
n of tliLs same natural operation. The cutting is a |>ortion of 
a bearing one or more buda, which, through the faculty of 
! stem to strike root, is made to gi-ow independently. In 
rafting, sucli a cutting, and in budding a bud only, with a small 
^rtion of wood and bark, is transferreil to the stem of another 
but of the same or of some related s|)ecies, and made to grow 
lere, uniting its wood and bark with tliosc of the stock, and bo 
a limb or branch, in place of striking root into the soil 
pd becoming a separate plant. The horticultural advantage of 
J-propagation is, tliat the offsets or new individuals share 
I all tlie peculiarities of Uig parent as completely as if still 
nnches of that tree. In propagation by seed, the special 
nliaritics or extvllencics of inilividuals or varieties may not, 
ut some measure probably will not, be reproduced. 
I. ^formal or Regular Bo^, as to position, are eitJier terminai 
axillary, as already stated. (15.) They are single, that is, 
> bud normally occupies the apex of a stem or branch, and 
ftpiwars, or usually may ap|)ear, in the axil of (or upper angle 
med witlj the stem by) any well-develop«l leaf. In these 
)HttIona, buds ara so usual, or so capable of appearing, that 
■ ar* commonly regarded as [xitential when not actually 
The potentiality may be manifested by the actual 
welopment of these buds in shrubs or trees after the lapse of 
. (M-) The terminal leaf-bud is to continue the axis it 



surmounts : axillary and any other lateral Icaf-ltuds are to 
tome branches. l)ut wen of butia nbieb aetually ap^tcar a larf^ 
proportion do not grow. WLen a terminal bud is formed (aa 
Fig. 81, 85. 91), this is commonly the strongest, ornmong the 
stronger. But in many ea«es it habitually or commonly fails to 
a])[>ear. In the Elm (with leaves and therefore buds alteruate), 
the bud axillary to the last leaf of the scasou takes its place. 
In the common Lilac, a pair of buds, wUicb ncn- in the axils of 
the uppermost of th(! (op|K)8ite) leaves, acein to rei>laee the 
terminal bud, which seldom develops. (Fig, 8C.) When all the 
regular buds make tlicir appearand.', and the leaves are opposite, 
the stem will l»e crowned with the t£i-miual bud, having an axil- 
lary bud on each aide of it. (Fig. 88.) 

7fi. ArwBsory Buds. These are, as it were, multiplications of 
the regular axillarj- bud, giving rise to two, three, or more, instead 

to m Bmncli of v 


la. 89, PtmjnfBhl 


10. BO. Pnni.t«lm 

ni li nf T»na 

' of one ; in some coses situated one above an- 
other (tuptrpoied), in others place<I side by 
side {roitaltrtU) . In tlio latter case, wtiicli 
occurs occasionally in the Hawthorn, in cer- 
tain Willows, in the Maples (Fig, 68). &c., 
the asillaiy bud seems to diride into three, 
or itaelf to give rise to a. lat^^ral bud on each 
side. On some shoots of the Tartarean 
Honeysuckle (Fig. flO) from tliree to sis liuds 
ap|)ear in each axil, one aliove anotlicr, the 
lower being sucwBsiicly Uio stronger and 
earlier pixxluced : and tlie one immediately 
in the axil, therefore, grows in preference : 
occasionally two or more of them gi-ow, and 
8U|)eii>oseil accessory branches result. It is 
much tlie same in Arielolochia Sipho, except 
that the up|>crmost bud is there strongest, 

[ills brnrlnn irljile uiJInry timli. |iUcsil 

I it Is in the Bcttomut (Fig. 89), where the true axillary bud 
Pii miDiitc nnil usiiall.v iiMnaiiis Uitrut, nhile the act'CBsory 
I Are considerably remote, aud the up|M?miust, which is much the 
I MruD^st, is far out uf the asil : tliis usually develops, and gives 
■ rise to nn Krtra-itxiUar;/ branch. 

. jldrentltloiu Buds are such as arc abnormal and irregular, 
f being |»rodu«.il without onli-r and from any port of tlie stem, or 
'■•ven IVom loots. The latter, like the internodes of a stem, 
although normally destitute of buds, do produce them notwith- 
sI«tuUiig in certain cases, especially when wounded, and in some 
plants (sudi us Blackberries) so freely that gardeners propagate 

Itlicm by root-cuttings. The stems share this tendency ; and 
ibads are apt to break ont on the sides of trunks, especially whea 
vonnded ur ixillanled, or to spring from new tissues produced 
on cut surfaces, especially where the bark and wood join. Even 
.Inrea may develop adventitious buds, and then be used for 
^ropagatioR. In Bryophyllum, such buds, followed by rootlets, 
«re freely produced on the margins of the blade or of its leaflets. 
In B<^onia, a leaf, nsetl as a cutting, will root from the base of 
the petiole stuck in the soU, and produce buds on the blade, at 
the Junction with the petiole, or elsewhere. 

Sectios III. Of the Stem. 

S 1. General CnAKACTEBitiTiCH akd Growth. 

78. Tlie Stem is the ascending axis, or that portion of the 
mnk which in the embrjo grows in an opposite direction from 
e root, seeking the light, and exposing itself as much as |>os- 
iRile to the air. All phwnogamous plants jiossess stems,' 

e which, in botanical desaiplions, are said to be acatilescenl, 
r Miemleu, it is either verj- short, or concealed beneath the 
mnd. Although the stem always takes an ascending direction 
it the commencement of its (irowth, it does not nnifonnly retain 
: but sometimes trails along the surface of the ground, or 
mn-oira beneath it, sending up branches, flower-stalks, or leaves 
bto the sir. The common idea, that all tlie subtciranean [MrtioD 
a plant belongs to the root, is incorrect. Equally incorrect is 
the common expression that plants spring fi'om tlic root. Roota 
spring from the stem, not the stem flora the I'oot. (21, 24,37,44.) 

■ Tliere (re. however, reduced forma in which Ihere ii di 
axi« and foliafte : bul moti nf ihc^e arc clpurly Ipafleu mther Ihan alptnlea 
Uil not eren in Lemiu and Wolffla can the ilem be aaid lo be wonting. 

79. While the root normally gives birth to no other 
but itaeir performs those fmictioiis whieh |>enain to the relatioi 
of the vegetable witli the suil, — binding it to the enrtli and 
ftlisorbing nourishing materials from it, — the aorini functions of 
vegetation are chieflj' carried on, not bo much by llic sK-m it- 
Bcir as bj' a distinct set of organs which it beara. namely, tlie 
leaves. Hence, the produftion of leaves is one of the charac- 
teristics of the stem. Tliose are produced only at certain definite 
and Bymmctricflliy arrange*! points, called nodes. (1.1, 23.) 

80. DeTelopmrat and Structure. In a bud or undevelopeil sl 
the nodes are in contact or close proximity. In the dcv 
ment, gntwth in length takes iilai* in snth manner as to ci 
these a[)art more or leas, according to the degree of elongnti 
that is, the intemodes (13) elongate. The order of developm 

is iVom below upward, the lowest intemode first Icngthcnii _ 
the others in regular succession. Each completes its growtbj 
with more or less rapidity, although the length attained 
greatly in different stems, in different parts of tlie same steiBi' 
and under different conditions. Unlike the root, in which th« 
elongation of formed parts is ven,' soon finished and liierefore 
only the tip is i)erceptibly growing, intemodes go on growing 
tliroughout, and several formed intemodes may Ite growing 
simultaneously, thus producing elongation throughout a com 
emble extent of stem and with considerable rapidity. But 
intemode grows indepiendentlj-. Some parts of an intern* 
may lengthen faster or continue in growth longer than others: 
this ia usually the upper portion, at least in long intemodes 
when everj- j^art is equally exposed to light. 

81. The de\elopment of a stem from a hud is wholly like that 
from the embryo, and has already been descril)e<i in Chap, II. 
It exhibits similar variations as to rapidity and vigor, dependent 
upon the constitution of the bud, — which, like the plumule in 
tlie seed or seedling, may be either latent or much develoi>ed 
before growth begins, — also upon the amount of nourishment 
provided. Strong buds commonly have Uieir parts, or some of 
them, ready formed in miniature, and a store of elaborated 
ishment in the parent stem to draw uixm. Those well-develoi 
buds which in many of our shrubs and trees crown the apex 
occupy the axils of stem and branches early in the precedii 
summer (as in Magnolia, Fig. 81, Horsecheatnut, Fig. 85, 
Hickorj', Fig. 91) often exhibit the whole plan and amount ofj 
the next year's growth ; the nodes, the leaves they Ijeor, 
sometimes the blossoms being already formed, and only requil 
the elongation of the Intemodes for their fiill expansion. 

wing ^ 


the Ui 
Tor a 


the bud ia well supplied with nourishment in spring by the stem 
on which it rests, its axis elongates I'apidly ; and although the 
growth oommencea with the lowest internode, yet . 

the second, thinl, and fourtli inte: rootles may ^\ 

bv^u to lengthen long before the firat has attaine<I 
ita nill growth. Siieh very strong buds are usually 
Ivnainal ; but sometiniea, as in Lilac (Fig. 86), tlicy 
are the upiiermost axillary, which take the place of 
a 8iippn!8se<l or abortive terminal bud. 

8i. Sueh wood}' stems, developed from a strong 
b«id. and tcrminatc^l at the cluse of the season's 
gruwtli by a similar bud, may be continued tVom (\r # 
j-ear to year in an unbroken eeries. A set of nanow "jylg 
rings on Uie burk (Fig. 83 a) commonly marks 
limit of each year's growth. These are the 
](!fl by tlie fall of tlic scales of tlie bud ; and 
in tlie Horsechestnnt, and in other trees with 
scaly buds, may be traced hack on the stem 
ftw « writ's of years, growing fainter with age, 
until ihey are at length obliterated by the action of 
the weather and the distention caused by the increase 
of the stem in diamet«r. The same is the case with the more 
consiVicuous Leaf-*ean. or marks on the bark left by the separation 
of the leaf-stalk, which arc for a long time conspicuous on the 
sbcHiLs of the Horsechestnut (Fig. 85 i) , the Magnolia (Fig. 81), 
ami Hickory. Fig. Hi, 

83. RuilBcatiDD. Bbakcres (14-lC) are seeondsry stems 
dtn'cloped from a primary one, or tertiarj" ones from these, and 
BO on. Ultimate or small ramificationB of latest order are some- 
times called BRAXCttLETs. The terminal bud continues the stem 
or Axia which bears it. Lateral buds give rise to branches.' 
As the normal lateral buds are axillary (75), so arc normal 
branches. The simmetrj' or arrangement of branches, being 
tltat of the buds from which they are devclo|>ed. is fixed by and 
follows tliat of the leaves. When the leaves are alternate, the 

■ DidaiaMii or forking. Ihe <llvi»ian nf nn ap«x into (wo, ahlmugh uf com- 
mon occurrencp in the lower crypt opamous plants, occurs so rnrel)- «nd 
eicvpllnnallj'. if at atl, In phKaoBamoiu plants tliat it may licro he left 
mit of vii>ir. 

Ia phanoganioiu plant* only the raniittcatiou of axes ahnulJ take the 
nam? of branohet. Tint i». roots and st^ms branch ; and the lenn may 
wilhoul FonfiMion be extended lo liain and all T&icuomes (3S3) when com- 
pound, but not to leavGR and their modiQ cations. 

W3. 01. End of a Hlckorr braneb (Carya alba), wltb a strong terminal nndamallot 

branches will l>e alti'rnate ; when tl»e leaves are opposite, and 
the buds develoj) regularly, the branches will be opitosite, &a. 
This holds in fact suHleiently to detenninc and exemplifv tlic 
plan of ramiScatioQ ; but. if entirely carried out, there would be 
aa many branches as leaves. This could rarely if ever be, even 
in primary ram ill cation. 

H4. Non-devplopment of Bads. Some of the buds are latent or 
merely potential, tliat is, do not make their ap|)carance : of those 
which do apjiear only a part actually grow into branches ; and 
of these some are apt to perish at an early st^;c. In our trees, 
most of the lateral buds generally remain dormant for the first 
season : they a|ipear in the axita of the leaves early in summer, 
but do not grow into branches until the following spring ; and 
even then only a i>nrt of thorn grow. Sometimes the failure 
occurs without appreciable order ; but it often is nearly uniform 
in each species. Thus, when the leaves arc ojtposite, there are 
usually three buds at the aiwx of a branch : namely, the termiiuil, 
and one in the axil of each leaf; but it seldom happens that all 
three develop at the same time. Sometimes the terminal btid 
continues the branch, the two lateral generally remaining latent, 
as in the Horsechestnut (Fig. 85) ; sometimoB the terminal one 
fails, and the lateral ones grow, when tlie stem annually becomes 
two-forked, as in the Lilac, Fig. 86. The undevelojied buds 
do not necessarily jicrish. but are ready to be called into action 
in case the others arc checked. When the stronger buds are 
destroyed, some that would else remain dormant develop in their 
stead, incited by the abundance of nourishment, which the for- 
mer would have mono[iolized. In this manner our trees are soon 
reclothe<l with verdure, after their tender foliage and branches 
have been killed hy a late ^■emal (Vost, or consumed by tusecU. 
And buds which have remained latent for several years occasion- 
ally shoot forth into branches fi^ra the sides of old stems, 
especially in certain trees. 

85. Most lirandies springing from old trunks, however, as in 
Willows and Poplars, especially when wounded or pollarded, 
originate from adventitious bnds (77), which occur without 
order. So also wlien accessory buds (76) develop into branches, 
normal symmetry is more or less disturbed, as by contiguous 
shoots standing directly over each otlier in Tartarean Honey- 
suckle, or bj' a branch fur out of the axil in Walnuts (Fig. 89) 
and Honej'-Locnst, Fig. 9fi. 

86. ExCTtrrent and Deliquescent Stems. Sometimes the primary 
axis is prolonge<l without interruption, even tlirough tlie whole 
life of a tree (unless accidentally destroyed) , by the contiuued 


^^^Phtion of a tcrmitml bud, or bj' aome iipjjcr etroiig bud ivliicli 
^^^klly b«fomc8 a Icailcr, — forming an unilivi<lttl main trunk, 
from which IntL-ral branches proceed ; aa iu most Fir-trees. 
Sncb a trunk is said to be excurrent. In other eases, the main 
item is arrestetl. sooner or later, either by flowering, by the 
fnilnre of the terniinai shoot, or hy the more vigorous dcvelo[}- 
mL-nt of some of the latcrai buds ; and Ihua the trunk is dissolved 
into )>ranches. or is deliifueteeul, as in the Whit« Elm and most of 
our <teoi(luoiis- leaved trees. The first naturally gives rise to coni- 
cal or sptre-shai^eti trees ; the second, to rounded or spreading 
fbnns. As stems eicteud upwanl and evolve new branches, those 
near the tutse, being overshadowed, are apt to perish, and thus 
the tnink becomes naked Iwlow. This strikingly occurs in the 
excurrent trunks of Firs and Pines, grown in forest, which seem 
to have been braneliless to a great heiglit. But the knots in 
the centre of the wood are the bases of branches, which have 
long since perished, and have licen covered with a great numlier 
of annual layers of wood, forming the dear itujf a( tht; tniuk. 

87. l>cflnlte and Indeflnlto Annual CIrontli of Braacbes. In 
nutny of imr trees and shrubs, esjiecially those with scalj' buds, 
the whole year's growth (except on certain vigorous shoots) is 
either already laid down nidimentally in tlie bud, or else is early 
fbrmetl, and the development is completed long before the end 
of summer ; when the shoot is crowned with a vigorous tenninal 
bud. aa in the Horsechestnut (Fig. 85) and Magnolia (Fig. 81), 
or with the up[)erRiost axillary buds, as in the Lilac (Fig. 86) 
and Elm. Snch tUfiniie shoots do not die down at alt the follow- . 
ing winter, bnt grow on directly, the next spring, from these 
terminal or U|>i)er buds, which are generally more vigorous than 
thotM; lower down. In other cases, on tlie contrary', the branches 
grow onwanl indejiniulij, until arrested by the cold of autumn ; 
tlie buds at or near their summit are consequently young and 
tinniatnred, or at least the lower and older axillary bu<ls are 
more vigomus, and alone develop into branches the nest spring ; 
Uie Uter-fonncil \\\t\ycv portion most commonly perishing from 
tlie apex downwanl for a certain length in the winter. The 
Rose and Rasplterry, and among trees the .Sumac anil Honey- 
Loritst. arc good illustrations of this sort; and so are most 
perennial herbs, their stems d.ring down to or beneath the sur- 
fiice of the ground, where the persistent base is charged with 
Tigomus hnds, well protected by the ground, for the nest year's 

88. Hany of the details and applications of ramillealion. of 
isort importance in morpholi^y and descriptive botany, relate 

to anthotaxy or infloroscence (Chap. V.)i which has ite own 
temuDology. But soiiio of its ttrms may be convcnienllj- 
etnplwyed in the dtscriptiwn ol' ramilicatioii uucomnjcted with 


g 2. Forms < 

> Branches. 

89. On the size and duration of the stem the oldest and most 
obvious division of [ilants ia founded, namely, iuto Herbs, 
bhrubs, and Trees. 

90. H^rbs are plants in which the etem does not become 
woody and iH.-»ist«nt, but Alva annually or after flowering, down 
to the ground at least. The ditference between aanuiii, bienaitil, 
&ud perennial herbs has already tx'en pointed out in the chapter 
on the root (50-57), and the gradations between them imliuated. 
Herbs pass into shrubs and slirubs into trees through everj- gi%L 
dation. The following definitions arc therefore only general ; 

91. UnderBhTDbs, or Sajfraticose plants, are woody plants 
bumble stature, their stems rising little above the surfaee. If 
less <teeiiledly woody, they are tormed Suffnileaeent. 

^'2. ^mbx are woo<ly plants, with stems branched fVom or 
near the grouud. and less than five times the height of 
A slinih which approaches a tree in size, or imitates it in asp 
is said to 1)0 Arborescent. 

93. Trees are woody plants with single trunks, which att^ 
at least four or Hve times the human stature. Yet the name of 
tree is not to be denied to a wood\- plant having a single and 
stout trunk of less altitude; and tliose which grow in a busby 
manner, sending up a cluster of stems from the ground to 
height of thirty feet or more, may still iw called shrubs. 

94. The erect ixisition. elevation above the soil, and self-ai 
port, are normal conditions of the stem, but are far from univcrsi^, 
And certain kinds of stem or branches are sutflciently [leouUar 
to have received substantive names : other equally peculiar forms 
have no special names. There are, moreover, certain organs 
(such as spines and tendrils) which are commonly homologous 
(12) with stems, but not always. Two kinds of erect stems 
Lave special names in descriptive botani\ 

!)o. Cnlm is a name applied to the peculiar closed-jointed stem 
of Grasses and Sedges, whctlier herbaceous, as in most Grasses, 
or woody or arborescent, as in the Hamboo. 

9C. Candex is the name technically applied to the trunk of 
Palms (Fig. 126), Tree-Fems, and tbe like, consisting of a 
commonly simple column, the surface beset with scales, — the 



: of 




basefl or former kaf-stalks. — or marked by scars, left bj' their 
fiill. Tliis naiDv was used hy botanists anleriifl- to LinuEeuB for 
*ny trpc-tnink, but is now iiscci for the peculiar stems aboi-c- 
montioned ; also for the persistent base of a stem, otlicrwise 
MMiual. whid) throws up fresh herbaceous stems or stulks fhim 
yi-ar Ui year. Such short and enduring stems, lieing usually 
near the ground or under it. were commonly mistaken for roots. 
The okl English name of Sfoek is sometimes used iu liotanical 
dcwrription for all short and enduring stems of this sort. 
whellier rising somewhat above or concealed bcneatli the aurlaire 
of the soil. 

97. A Scape is a stem or branch which rises from beneath or 
Mn the suriiu^e of the ground and bears flowers, but no i>roiTer 
flifilge. It therefore lielongs to inflorescence, (205.) Scajwa 
omally spring fVora some one of the subterranean forms of st«m. 

9«. or stems which do not stand upright in the air there are 
various mod iH cations and gradations. 

U9. Seandent or Climbing Stems are those which rise by 
attw:hiiig tliemselves to some extraneous supjTOrt, This is 
effects) in various ways ; in some by the action of the stem 
Itself, in others by that of organs which it bears.* 

I0<). Tolnble or Tnloln? Stoms, or Twiners, are those which 
B«c«nd by coiling round a nupi>ort. wliich must accordingly be 
comparativelj' slender, or at least not too lar^e. Some ascend 
by coiling " with the sun" (that is, f>om right to loft of the 
observer viewing the coil from the outside ') . as the Hop ; more. 

» S« Darwin, The MoremenI* md lUbits of Climbing I'lnnls, LoniJon 
ntd New York, 1870. Also Ilie eftriicr paper on thi^ aubjo^^t in Journal c)[ 
the Unneu Socitij, ut. 1866. 

Nolc tliat In Nnrth Amcricii climbing planls in general are in pnimlar 
lanfuagc lullcd VitiM (t. g. Hop-Vine, Grape- Vine, Squash- Vine, &c.(, a 
Mune which properlf belongt to Vilia only. 

» />7frarvani] Siniilrorte. i. tlic right or U> the ielt, are almost india- 
pcDHble tenm, but lliere ii an ambignily «nd diierepancy in lliuir use. 
Darwin (In Climbing Plunla. above referred to) aeeki to avoid this liy usually 
«RildAjing ihe lerma " wiih the nin." and " agslfut the aun," phraeca which 
woald he nnmanageable in lenDinology. The writer (in Amcr. Jour. 8cl. 
•cr. 3, xill. .tOl) aiitritesti^l Euiropir: for the former, Aniitropie for the latter, 
to bo iwmI in ca«u il is preferred to c»ade rather than to encounter the 
amlrifuitr. rroluiblf the term* dexlroree nnil giniBtrone, or right and left, 
will eontinne in uae, b« mo»I nnluritl and convenient. Kow. in the first 
placv, it should be understood that a plant, or at Icut a plant's axU. havtnit 
tin friml and b*cV can liave no right and left of lis own. Those relations 
of iGnwtian mnal refer to the right and Ivfl of an observer. All ilcpendi, 
accordinglr, apon the pogltlon which the viewing observer is anppoAed to 
occupy when be predicates the direction of the turns of a belli or of the over- 
lapping ul the {larti of a bud. LinnKUi suppoecd the observer to view the 



by coiling in the opimsiu.- direction, as the Bean (Pbaseolus), 
Uic woodj' AiTstoUii-liia Siplio, the Horning Glon,' (Fig, 91*) and 
I other Convohni- 
, laceiB. The Dod- 
der, a leafli^s [lar- 
asilic plant of the 
latter family, not only gains snppoit by coiling 
on the sterns of other plants, but by attachment, 
through the development of sucker-like discs, 
along the whole eontiguoua snrface. (Fig. 77.) 
The lariona actions through whicii plants climb, 
and the attendant phenomena, are physiological, 
and will l>c treated in the second part of this 
Test Book. The moat complete and satisfac- 
torj' discnssion of the subject, of a reatlable sort, 
ia that of Uarvin'a volume, referred ta in a 
preceding not*. 

101. Leaf-nimbers are those in which supjiort is gained by the 
action, not of the stem itself, but of the leaies it bears ; in most 
by the coiling or clasping of petioles, as in Clematis, Alaurandia, 
Tropieolum, and Solaniim jasminoides (Fig. 235) ; in some by 
the Incurvation of leaf-blades or portions of them, as in Adlu- 
mia : or by an extension of the midrib into a hook or short ten- 
dril, as in Gloriosa; or by the transformation of some of the 
blades of a eomimund leaf into hooks or tendrils, as in Cobsa 
and the Pea. 

102. Tendril-Climbers (Fig. 02-05) are those in which the 
prehension is by a tendril, n slender liliforra body, cither simple 
or branched, specially adapted to the purpose, and capable of 
coiling, either to secure a hold, or to draw the stem up to the 

roil or citele (mm the iniide ; Mnhl, Pnlm, Braun. and tlie neCandolk-i 
•dopl llii*. ftiitl the latter insisC nn It. Such aulliurii}' should be dec-isife, 
\I coRirnaii Mtnge and popular wnec wmt along wiili it. But some of ihu 
bolanUlB following LiunieUR Hdopted (he reverse view ; and to Ihr preicnt 
writer, M to fienlham nnd Hooker, Darwlti, dcliler, nod in part 0. Hcnslow, 
it was ao naliiral to viev the coll from tlie outside that ve without concert 
adopted this position and mode at exiireseion. A right-liand eoil, or one 
turning to the right, willi us, is on* the turns of whitii pass from llie left to 
right uf a b}'sland(.>r who confronts the coil. It is in this svnse that a com- 
mon screw is called a right-liandtd screw, and Iliat tho right bank of a river 
Is that to the right of the person who follow* tlie eourie of the strenm. So 
natural is this, that eien on a map or plate, which has face and hack, and 
therefore a right and left of its own, tlii' figures oceupylng it* right oi 
portions are understood to be Ihoae which are toward the right oi 
hand of the observer who stands before il 

Fio. r 

Dvalrotiel)' li 

D of Mornlni Qlorgr, IpomiBa I>i]ipan». 

I or the te^i^H 

uporea. ^^^H 


eapport. In oertain tendrils tbc attAohment to the support is by 
ft sucker-like disc at the ai>ex, as in the Vh-giiiiu Cittper ov 
Ain|ielopsis. Fig. 94. 

103. Boot-Clltnberg are those in which tbo stems produce aerial 
ittotlot^ (*''•*') T whJL-h fix themselves to a 8iipi>ortiiig aiirface 
along wbich the etem crt-eps or ascends. In this way Trumixit 
Cree[>cr (Tecoma radicans). Ivy, anii Poison Ivy (Rhus Toxi- 
codciidrou) eliinb extensively. 

104. Stems or branches which neither tllmb nor stand upright 
may have their direction or habit of growth expressed by certain 
adjective tenus ; such as 

Attending or Auiirgrnt, when they rise oblique!_\' upwui-d ; 

Iteclininff, when from all ascending or erect base the up|»r 
part recurves and trails ; 

Dtcunibfiii, when trailing along the ground, but with ajiex 
assurg<>nt : 

Prvcain&mf or Proitrate, when lying at length iiiK)n the ground ; 

Rrptnt or Cieeping, when growing prostrate on the ground 
and rooting as they grow. Also applied to similar stems grow- 
ing under, as well as upon the surface of the soil, as in Couch- 
Grass and Mint, Fig. 99. 

105. A Sucker {SuretUua) is an ascending stem rising from a 
subterranean creeping base. The Rose and Raspberry inulti|ity 
Aieely by suckers. Such plants atv easiest to propagate " by 

106. A Stolon is a prostrate or reclined branch which strikes 
root at the tip, and then develops an ascending growth, which 
tiecoRiea an inde])endent plant. 

107. Ad onset is a short stolon o 
(Fig. 91') offers a familiar 
example, liy offsets, some 
herbs, otherwise annuals, are 
cnntinued from year to year in 
a ^-t^jelative i»rogcny (Lobelia 
rardtnalis. ice), and pereii- 
iiinls may thus establish colo- 
nies around a parent individual. 

short suck CI 


109. The two following are organs which may be of sxial 
nature, or may not. This may ordinunly Itc dctennine<l by posi- 
tiou. Any direct contiauation of 
eteiD or brancti must be of axiul 
nature, that b, of the nature of stem ; 
and the same is true of whateyer 
primarily develops in the axil of a 
leaf. Converselj , wbutcvcr Bubtendg 
a lateral axis or branch may be taken 
for a leaf or foliar gii'oduetion, being 
1 the place of emh. 

110. A Tendril, a thread-sbaiHKl 
ud leaSesB body, capable of coiling 
spirally, and used for climbing (102), 
I homologous with stem in Grape- 
inea (Fig. 92) ; for the uppemioet 
tendril is seen to be a direct continu- 
ation of the stem. The small bud 
wliicb apiKBrs in the axil of the 
uppermost leaf will in its growth 
, produce another intemode and leaf, 
some species more than one, 
B but will terminate in a similar 

tendril ; the present terminal tendril will have then become 
, latertd and opiiosite the leaf, like the three in the lower part of. 



t iliu anpc-vlna, wlib joune tBmlrili: ■ QHtpo 
I at Aiaiwl'ipilii riDlnqnaTolIik or VIijIdIb CrespMi *< 
tnlnieixl. ilinwlng Uie expuulud Up* or lUica b7 vl 




The tendrils of Virginia Creeper (Fig. 93) are of the 

L> nature ant) position. But. instead of layiog bold by a coiling 

be tip. orhen it has reacbetl any solid surface, such as a wall 

r tree-tnink. the tip exiinnds into an adhesive disc, which forma 

e attachntcut. (Kig.94.) lu a related plant, Vitis(Cissus} 

nisiMilata of Jaiian. these disks tenntnate the branches of very 

, tendrils: consequently the shoots as they grow are at 

e appliMl closely and secured 6nnly to the surface of the sup- 

~ port, — an admirable adaptation for climbing walls and trunks. 

111. The simple tendril of a I'assion- 
flower, being in the axil of a leaf (that 
bin the position of a branch), is also of 
axial nature : it is a leafless and simple 
branch, composed of one long and slen- 
der hiternode, devoted to the puqMsc of 
climbing. Fig. 95 shows in all stages the 
admirably active tendrils of Passiflora 
eie}oides. This is a Slexican sjKciea, 
remarkable for the rapidity and freedom 
with which the tendrils move. The lowest 
tccidril in the figure is attached aud 
coiled : the nest is ftee and coiled in 
one helix : the thinl is outstretched 
and seeking a support. For tendrils 
which arc not homologous with stains, 
see Sect. IV. 228. 
[2. A Spine or Thorn (Fig. 96. 97) is usually a branch or 
termination of a stem or branch, indurated, leafless, and 
nuateil to a point. The nature of spines is manifest in the 
iwthom (Fig. 97). not only by their position in the axil of a 
if, but often by producing imperfect leaves and buils. And 
Ihe Sloe. Pear, &e., many of the stinted branches liecomc 
Fiw»e or ipintteent at the apex, tapering off gradually into a 
d and leafless point, thus exhibiting eve rj- gradation Iwtween a 
and an onliiiary branch. These spinose branches are lesa 

' Tllia tumu wlial is called a Sympiydium or Sympedial item, which ia mor- 
phulntticall}' miide up of a aeries of auperpoied branchei. (Spc Chapter V. 
1!8I.2^.) In conlradiMiHction, a alcm formul hy Ihocominucil lievelopraent 
of ■ icrminal Iiud ia M'/noindial or a Afoaopodiuni. Pig. OG ia an rxampli 

Firt. go. l^alj ibiiot at PaHlflon ■IutoMm, of Maiko. with Sisd uhI ooUed, ttm 
m, anil torming teitilrlla. 



liable to appear on the ciiltivateil ti-ee, when duly cared for, sucba 
branehee being ttirowu mostly into inoip vigorous growth. la. I 
Hawthorn, the spine»| 
spring fVum the maiti axillary | 
biid, wiiilo accessory bi 
(TG), one on eaeh side, 
pear, an<l grow the neict Be*< 
son into onlinarj" branciieB.^ 
In the Honey-Locust, it Is 
the uppermost of sevei^l ac- 
cessory buds, ptacetl far above 
the axil, that develops into., 
the thorn (Fig. 96). Heretl 
apinc itself iisuallj' bmiiohefl 
and Bometimi>B becomea ( 
trcnielj- couijiound. 

113. For spines which i 
homologous with leaves, i 
parts of a leaf, see Sect, TVA 
227". PriekUi, such aa tbosBS 
of Brambles and Roses, 
BU]>erllcial outgrowths fhintj 
th^ bark, of a dilTurcnt natu 
(383), and of small morplio 
logical sign! ti cation. 

114. Snbterrsneui Htetna arc hanilj- less diverse than thef 
aerial. They arc classed as Uhizomks, Tt'unna, Corms, KaA\ 
Bi'LBs. the forms passing one into another by gradations. 

115. Hhlioma {R/iiiomr, or in F.ngUsh Rootstock) is a | 
eral name for any hurizotial or oblique i>crennial stem, which lleil 
on the ground or is buried beneatli its surface. It sends off3 
roots of a fibrous or slender sort wherever it rests on or is C0V»^ 
ered by the soil, and usually produces tVom its apex some kinoil 
of aerial stem, either Icaff or as a flower-stalk (tcape, 97)i}[ 
which rises into the air and light. Before moriihologj- 
understood, rootstocks were called ereepinif roott, gcdg rault, i 
Some arc slender, such as those of Mints (Fig, 99), of moi 
Sedges (Fig. 9S>, and ofCouch-Graas. Their cnuline nature W^ 
evident from their sthietnrc and apju-aranci' : their nodes and 
intemodes are well marked, the former bearing leaves reduced to 


\» ; and the advancing ajwx rises at longtli into nn oi 
, while the oppuaite ntid ukler end giailuullj' ilies awt 

bud forma in the axil of each scale-like luaf, or 
in some of them i i^oots procewl from the nodes 
in preference ; the rtestruetion of the ascending 
stem only brings these bads into activity ; and 
tlie cutting or t4.-aring of the rootstoclc into 
pieces li.v the hoc or plougli merel3' hastens the 
establiabment of as many new plants, each with 
roots, bud, and a small store of nonrishment 
naidy provided. It is this which makes Couch- 
Grass or Quick-Grass (Triticnm re]>ena) veiy 

troublesome to the agricnltnrist ; and the Nut-Grass (CyperuB 
^jotondus, var. Hj-dra) of the Southern Atlantic States is even 

a>ore so, portions of its rootstock being tuberiferous, 
•Jargrd into a tuber which contains a supply of 
Hicentrated nourishment to feed the growth. 

Thickened rootstoeks a 
Oilrishing matter, elaborated in the Icav' 

lieing ac-cnmulale<l in them, just as 
N> is in thickened roots, and for the same pur- 

>. (A3-55.) Such are the so-called roots of Sweet-Flag, of 
■. of Iris or Flower-de-Luce (Fig. 210), of Bloodroot, of 
iotomon's Seal (Fig. 100), &c. These grow after the manner 
r ordinary' stems, advancing from year to year by the annual 
levclupment of a bud at the apes, and emitting roots fhtm the 
Diler side or the whole surface. Thus established, the older '< 

nari*, at EimpCi wliluh bl 

la thinini H 




portions die ami dccny as corresponding ailditinas are n 
the opposite growing estremitj'. Each year's gi-owth i 

innrke^l uonspiououaly. aometimes l)y a atitrng contraction whett' 
the intemiptiontookplni'u, as in certain species of Iris (_Fig. 216); 
or hy the circular im- 
pi-csscii scar (likened to 
impressioQ ofa seal) 
in Solomon's Seal ; tb^f 
liciog tbe place whi 
the annual aerial stei 
bearing the vegetation, 
sepai-ntetl in autiimn 
n-oni tliG perennial riii- 
zoma. The numeroua 
slender lines enoircling the rootstock are the scars left after the 
decay of the scale-like leaves or bud-aeales, such ae are aeen at 
the young and growing end of the rootstoek. 
The rootatock of Diphylleia, of the Alleghanf , 
Mountains (Fig. 101), is aiinilar; but 
3-early growtliB are so esceedingly short 
they l>aconie vertical, the bud of each y 
is close to the stalk of the year precedi 
and the scars marking previous growths 
in contact,* Trillium makes a short and 
mostly vertical rootstock, which, when it 
rental us simple and dies away promptly 
below (us in Fig. 102), comes nearly within 
tlic definition of a corm. But in several 

> TbcroDistuvkia I'olygunalum nnil Diphylleia ia a bynipudium (110. not*),. 
the lermlnal bud dcvi^luping yearly t!ic Krowlh hIhivc ground and perislilnK. 

PIQ. IMI. Bnnlntflck of Polycnnatum nr Snlomon'ii Sonl. with the Mrmlnitl bDil. th*. 
bue or U» slalk nt the hhkhi, and three Nsarn frum wliluli iho laCler bu (eiiaraMd 
M many ftirmer jcawn. 

PIO. IDl. Rhluimn nf DIphjIlelM iTinnM. ohnnln)! six yenra' (n^wih.anl ■bmllhr 
the HTenthI a, the buil: b, twH nf (he ([ntli nr Uie cnrrenC yenr; c, nt-jir leR hj ttie 
i)am)r'>'tha annnnl nuilliorOiB j»rhefn™; ■ni'lbeyundnrethoBCBmntpieTloinjeaT*. 

FIO. 102. Shoot HDil yoBOg roolstOEk of TriUlam erectam, with only temlnal bod. 



■MB, and in older individuals, it is longer, often oblique, and 
tiraDching, aod bears tbe scan from wbich tht; annual aerial 
growths have separalal.' Nyniplinja odorata, 
thp sweet-Bcented white Watt-r Lily, grows by 
verj' long, stout, and simple rootstocks. In 
tuberosathc sides of the rootstouk produce 
lort lateral branches or tubers. 

A Tuber may Ik morphologically ebar- 
actcrized as a short thickened rhizoma on a 
slender base, or a rootstock some portion of 
which — mostlya terminal portion and involv- 
ing sei'eral nodes — is thickenetl by the depo- 
sition of nourishing matter. A jxitato and a 
Jerusalem artichoke are t}~pical examples 
(Fig. 104-107) ; and the dift'erence between 

ic subterranean branches and the roots which they maj- bear i 
verj- obvious. Their eyn are axillary buds ; the leaves whicb I 
^bteud them are plainly dis- 
oemible, in the form of short and 
closely appressed scales. In the 
attempt, occasionally 
form axillary tubers above- 
ground by the Potato-plant, the 
leafy nature of the scales is 
evidenced. (Fig. 

The number of iioih 
be many or few. There 

o be renewed by an aTillary bui), which makee iu gubtcrraiioan 

li and Ihc rudimenu -it th? nerial in curly summer. 

' Thia rhiioma U a monnpodium, being continued year by year by the 

minal bud. and the aerial alem or stcni* a^nt up In aiiring, bearing tba 

ri ot lesTci and blouom, are axillary branchei. 

I. US. AnoldcrBiHl langeroneaf til* ametpHle*. ahowingbniiFtici. Kan 1e(b 

and flnweMMArlngBfDma:alviatIip(iftTlp|«d(if tliflcoTDrLii;Ka]«>Mll# 




be called a Monomeroui Uibcr, namely in Nelumbium luteal 
(Fig. 108*), where it ixjuaisteof a single tluckpued iuteniode a 

sn aquatic ruuner, which is accordingly quite destitute of acales 
or buds. The growtli proceeding fiimi tliis simjile tnber i9 
necesaarily from a bud oT 
the uode at its apex, whenodj 
also a cluster of mots i»' 
produced. Of a somewhat 
similar nature are the con- 
catenate tulwrs of Apios 
tuborusa (se^-eral of whicit 
are stning as it were upoD 
a long filiform axis), the tulwrs not unfVeijucnliy being mo- 
nomi-roHs. ntlhongli the larger ones are not so. 

]I7', TnberclM, as they may be termed, are of a mixed or 
amliiguous eharacl4>r Itetireen tiii>ers and tuberuus rituts. A good 
example of tlic latter is afforded by Dahlia-roots. (Fig. 68.) ' 
Tliey yield their nourishing substance to growing buds on tlw 
stem aliove. but do not themselves normally produce 

FIG. IM. Fnnninff pntslow In vnrlim Mngn IM Onp of ilic yan 
tatd"!. IW. Sn'llnn nf smipill porlm imnrtne timnali mi rve, nr limt. n 

FIO. IfWta. A innnomenia>(t.<.aDe-Biemb«red)lub«rariiii1umbIuinlii 
of Kilngla IntcnHolo. 


nlveotitious buds. Sweet potatoes (55). although equallyl 
Irmits, do prodiK* adventitious biicU, especially IVom near t 
■ tipper end. The somewhat similar tubfrclet or tumefied i 
I of certain OrcbiseB and other plants of the same tribe,' definito| 

. number and shajie, and aometimes imitating a conn, c 
I charged with a bnd at the upt>er end, near their origin. Ap*l 
I parently. the origin is a bud tVom the base of the parenti 
which bud directly forms a tumefied siiort root from its" 
I very base.* 

118. A Corm (Cormus) is to be compared on the one band 
I with a short rootstock or tuber, on the other with a bulb. It 
lis a subterranean fleshy stem, of rounded or depressed ligure , 
■iuul solid tcxtnrc. Some of it« buds grow into now eorma, audi J 
f these, upon the death of or separation from the parent, become J 

r [ndi\-iduals : some develop uiwve ground 
■tfae Testation and the blossoms of the season, 
1a good tjpc of eorm is that of Cyclamen 
I^^Fig. 101)), in which the verj' base of the 
ediiug stem grows fleshy, and widens from 
Ijvar to year, but hardlj- at all lengthens, and 
\wa liccomes far broader than high, or de- 
rased. As tlie main bulk belongs to the vo 
Kflrst intemode, or cauliele, the buds fVom which the yearly 
ruwths of leaves aTiil flower-stalks spring are at the centre of 
the summit or up|x'r surface, the roots 
a the lower, and the sides seldom pro- 
tuco any hitds. The eorm of Indian 
mip (Arisicnia triphyllum. Fig. 110) 
' !a Bomewhat similar, but it sends up a 
•ingle stout stem, and the roots spring' 
ftom around the tuise of this. These 
comptet«-ly nake<I corms. 

119. But in Crocus (Fig. 111. 112), Colehicum (Fig. 117), 
Gladiolus, and the like, the sheathing bases of one or two Iea\'es -| 
enclose the corm with a membranous- scaly coat, giving it exactly 
the appearance extcmalty of a eoated bulb. Such have been not 
inftppropriatcl3- named lolid bulb*. Jn common parlance, they 
will doulrtlesB continue to be called bulbs, and cveu in popular 


^^H Bot. 278. 

> Not, Imwcvcr, eiitli as Ihoae of Aplwlruio. Tipularia, pit 
gmuine cormi ur tulxrn, 

' Irmifch, flcilr. Mni. i. Murphot. Orcliid. 18G3, fide Dutharire, felSiB. 


botanical descriptions. In faot, wliilo tlicv HifTer from naked I 
corrus in ha\-iiig some invtatiufnt, Uiey differ from trae biilba J 
only in tlie greater size of the solid axis and the fewness at I 
the investing scales; I 
Ilie etL-m or solid IXMly I 
making the greater i>art 1 
of tlie corni, but a very I 
small part of a proper I 
hull>. There are, mor^ I 
over, all gradations be- f 
tween the two. 

120. Jl Bnlb, as comparwl with a corm, maj- he said to ho an ' 
exceedingly abbreriated stem, reduced to a flat plate, from the 
lower face of which roots are produced, from the upper face, 
leaves in tlie form of scales ; these scales being either reduced 
and thickened leaves or the thickened bases of ordinarj- leaves. 
Compared with buds (73), it is a very fleshj" bud, usually largs I 
and subterranean, the axis of which never elongates. It is a f 

provision for fliture growth, the stored nonrishment of which h I 
depositcfl in the leaves, or the homologues of leaves, instead of -I 
in the stem. 

PIG. 111. Cormnf C^oct^^ tliBfew tlitn rr 
■cm, wlilcb nutrk th« ooHa, the tbrlTPllO'l tchIIik dT t}ic lu 
will linill developing Into new onra on mri'Mia pariB nt Iti lurBi 
of aainiUtkrconn. ullh > lermlnal ■»! nno lalernl buJ. 

Fia. IIS. SecticinptslunlciiteilbalboriheOnimi. 

FIO. lit. VerflCHl ««tlnii at tba bulb at tbe Tulip, ibon 
iMMl (e) (uirt Iwo iiiiin«ry hnil* - '■ 

Flo. I 

Vorllciil Beoilnn ofllie 
pcvcodlns la), anl tl» lornilng n 


tlio wltliOTed oorm of ■ 


1L>I. A Tnnlcatcd or Coated Bnlb (Fig. 113-115) is one in 
whk-L llie stales aru Uroad and «>m(>letcly enwrapping, forming 
concentric coatings. These are tUiekish when fresh, but thin 
when exbaustei] and dry, as in the Onion, Garlic, and Tulip. 

122. A Scolj Bulb 
baa the bulb-scales 

• coniparalively nar- 
row, thick, and small, 
imbricated, but not 
severally enwrapping 
each other. That of 
the Lily is the most 
Quniliar and char-, 
a<'teristic example. ' 

(Fig. U8, nu.) "- >.. 

123. Bslblets are small aerial bulbs, or buds with Qcsliy scikles, 
which arise in the axils of the leaves of several plants, such as 
the eummon LUium bulbifenim and 
L. tigrinum, the Tiger Lilies of the 
ganlens (Fig. 120). Here they ap- 
[lear during the summer as axillary 
bnds: they are at length detached, 
and falling to the ground strike root, 
)ind grow as indei^ndont plants, la 
the common Onion, and in many other 
species of Allium, similar bnlblets 
take the place of flower-buds in the 
unihel. Unlblets plainly show the identity of buiha with buds. 

124. All these estraonlinarj-, no less than tlie ordinary, foi-ms 
of Uie stem, grow and branch, or multiplj-, by the development 
of lenninal and axillary buils. This is i»erfectly evident in the 
rhizoma and tuber, and is equally the caae in the eorm and bulb. 
Tlie stem of the bulb is usually reduce<l to a mere plate (Fig. 
Ilia), which produces roots twm its lower surface, and leaves 
or scales from the upper. Besides the terminal bnd (r), wliich 
UHiiaUr fonns the flower-stem, lateral bnds (i, 6) are produceil 
in the axib of the leaves or scales. One or more of these may 
develop as flowering stems the next season, and thus the same 
Imlh snnnve and blossom fVom year to year ; or these axillary 
Imds may themselves become hulha, feeding on the jwirent bulb, 
which in Uiis way is oO*n consumed by its own offspring, as in 

L ttcalybnlbnrCitneliilJI/.LIIIuu 

le lisivn ol Tlg«[ Ulj. 

64 MoapuoLooY of steus. 

the Garlic (Fig. 115); or, finally separating from the living 
parent, jnst ns the bulhlets of the Tiger Lily fall IVoin the 8t*'ia, 
tliey may form so many iudepeudent individuals. So the corm 
of the Crocus (Fig- 111, 112) produees one or more new ones, 
which feed upon and exhaust it, and take its place ; and the 
next season the shrivelled remains of the old corm may be fouDd 
underneath the new. The corm of Colobicum (Fig. 117) pro- 
duces a new hud on one side at the base, and is consumed bj' it 
in the eoursc of the season ; the new one, after flowering hy its 
terminal bud, is in turn consumed by its own offspring ; and 
ao on. The llgiire represent* at one view. a. the deail and 
shrivelled coriu of the year preceding; 4, that of the present, 
season (in a vertical sectiouj ; and, f, the nascent bud for 
growth of the ensuing year. 

125. Condensed St«iiu, homulogaus with corms, tubers, 
and similar in mode of growth, but above groun<l, and multiptj 
ing in the same waj-s, are not uncommon. The Cactus family 
mainly composed of such forms, of flat- or round-jointed Prii " 
Pears (Opuntia), flut«d or angled columns (Cereus), and glob- 
ular Melon-Cactus, Mamillaria, and Eehinocactirs. The latter 
types, which completely imitate conns, are the most consolidated 
fonns of vegetation. WTiilc orrliiiary plants are constnictcd on 
the plan of great expansion of surface, those present the least 
possible amonnt of surface in pi-ojwrtiou to their bulk, their 
permanent spherical Bgnre being that which exposes the smallest 
iwrtion of their substance to the air. Such plants are evidently 
a(lap1«<l to veiy iliy regiom ; and in sucli only are tlicy naturally 
found. Similarly, bullious and corm-bearing plants, and the 
like, are a form of vc^tation which in the growing season may 
in the foliage expand a large siu'facc to the air and light, while 
during the period of rest the bring vegetable is rdlnecd to a 
globular or other form of the least surface ; and this is protected, 
by its outer coats of deiwl and dry scales, as well as by tta sidil 
ranean situation ; — thus exiiibiting another and very simil 
adaptation to a season of drought. And such plants maini 
belong to countries (such as Southern Africa, and the interior 
of Oregon and California) wliich have a long hot season, during 
which little or no rain falls, when, their stalks and foliage aboie 
and their roots beneath being early cut off hy drought, the plants 
rest securely in the corm-like fonua to which they are reduced, 
and retain their moisture with great tenacity until the rainj' season 
returns. Tlien they shoot forth leaves and flowera witli wonderlUl 
raiiidity, and what was perhaps a desert of arid sand bceoi 
green with fohage and gay with blossoms, ahuost in a duy 



rlnh. ^^ 


196. Stems serrlng the purpose of foliage, Phfllorlftdia. Most 
of these condensed and pcrmaDcut sCtms are illustrations of 
this, their green rind doing duty for leaves, which 
uv either absent, or transient, or reduced to 
spines or other organs not effective as foliage. 
Id tile flat and Ijroad-jointed species of Opuntia, 
lind still more in Phjllocactus and Epiphyllutn, the 
Turms assninc<l give a considerable surface of green 
rind, which well answers the puqiose of leaves. ^^ 
Flattfoed stems or branches of the same sort and 
economy not seldom occur in other than Ueshj- or 
succulent plants (such as the Cactuses) ; sume- 
tunea accompanied by a certain utimber of real 
foliage- leaves, but these moro or less transient) 
ws in Bossiiea and Carmicbfclia among haga- 
miuons shrubs, and Muhlenbeckia platyctnda, now 
in common cultivation (Fig. 121); sometimes 
irith all the leaves reduce<l to small and function- 
IwM Sluice, as in the XylophjUa (i.e. wooden- 
teaved) section of i'hyllanthus, and in I'hyllo- 
clailus (Nevf Zealand and Tasmanian trees of 
Umi Vcw family). In all these, the enulinc nature 
b tniuiireat by the continuous or prolifei'ons 
growth, by the marked nodes and internodes, 
and often by the bearing of flowers. 

137. ^tecUd rollirorm Branches, Cladophflla, are more decep- 
tive. ttn<l commonlj' pass for leaves. They are well shown by 
Bnscus. M^Tsiphylhim, and Asparagus. — all of one family. In 
all these the projier phylla (12) of the shoot are little scales, one 
to each node, and functionless : from the a^l of each there 
immeilintcly develops a body in almost everj' respect similar to 
the blade of a leaf, subservient to the same purpose, and equally 
dvfinito in growth. That is, it has a definite form for each 
s]N.-raM, and is not continued by any ulterior growth fVom sides 
or apex, it is usually an axillary branch, of one intcrnode. nil 
(Urtber development being permanently arrested. In M.^TsiphyU 
lum, this false leaf is soft and pointless: in Ruscus (called 
But^lier's Broom in England. Fig. 123). it becomes flrm, hard, 
and Bpiny-tii)|ie<l : in both the cauliiic nature is evinced by the 
axillary origin ; also by vertical instead of horizontal expansion, 
though this peculiarity ia shared with moat leaf-stalks when they 

a pUlycro 



assniiie the character and function of tlie blade. (217.) The 
dadophyll of Kuscus reveals its character farther by bearing a 
flower on the middle of one face, 
in the axil of a scale-leaf, so that 
tliis may cODsiBt of two inter- 
nodes ; or else the flower-stalk 
may belong to an accessor)' axil- 
lary bud, bear the seatc-leaf close 
to the flower, and be congcnifaliy 
adnnte up to this point with the 
axis of the cladophyll. Id 
MyrsiphjUum (a South African 
climber, common in greenhouse 
cultivation under the erroneous 
name of Smilax, Fig. 122), the 
cladophyll exactly counterfeits a leaf in form and texture, as well 
as in function, and it never bears cither acale-leaJ or blossom ; but 
the dowers arc on slender stalks from accessory buds out of the 
same axil. The true leaves arc represented by thin and minute 
scales which may escape notice. 

128. To all such branches which imitate leaves, IJischofl' baa 
g^ven the name Phtllocladia, sing. Piiyllocladicm. To those 
definitely restricted to one intemode, and which so closely 
counterfeit leaves, Kuntb gave the name of Cladouia, sing. 
Claiwdiuu. The licst common name for all productions which 
imitate leaves would have been that of phyllodium 
(meaning simply a leaf-like body) ; but that tei 
was first applied and is restricted to the caM^ 
of a pi'tiole imitating the blade of a leaf. The 
name PAt/llocladium (meaning a leaf-like branch) 
may properly be retained for the whole series of 
leaf-bkc bodies here described. But for those of 
the preceding paragraph, which are so peculiarly 
leaf-like, Kunth's name of Vladodium (i 
branch-like body) is false in meaning, and may 
be replaced by that of Cladophtllvm (t, e. leaf: 
branch), or in shorter English CLADOpim-L. 
129. Frondoee Stents. Finally, in some 
ph^nogamoua plants, the whole vegetation is 
duced to a simple leaf-like expansion, as in Duckweed (Lei 

FIG. IB. MyrripbyUnin, irith clmlnph jlli iwrvinK for rQll««e; Untnwlei' 
dating at mlnuU nnd very lncDnii|ilcuoa> kbIs sabtending thg furmur. 

Flu. m. A>lnKtoc1mi1opl.yl1orRuMuaacnlei>luilnIlieunork*ali^1oar,bnTlnK 

-— ' ■ - - ■ -)mil1arthl& 

Ql In thrwta, DUgnlflsd, 





Fig. 124. Here ia no diflerentiation wliatever iato stem aiiH 
foliage ; but tlie expanded floating Iwdy which servos for both 
must be counted as stem devclo]]ed horizontally into a flut plnte, 
for it produces a root from the under surface and a flower from 
the edge. This eimplificadon is common in some orders of 
CtTiJtogamons plants ; and such a body, which answers both for 
Btem and foliage, is termed a Fkond. from the Latin /roM, which 
means either leaf or leafy bough. In some B]>ecies of Lcmna 
the frond is thickened or plano-convex : in Wollfla, the simplest 
and smallest of pho^uogamous plants, it is a globular green mass, 
seldom much larger than the head of a pin, wholly destitute of 
root, propagated by proliferous budding from one side, and from 
within the top producing a flower or pair of flowei's. 


ISO. The investigation of the intimate structure of the stem, 
as of the other oi^ans, belongs to vcgi'table anatomy or histology 
(treated in Part II.) ; but the general outlines of structure, so 
for as ia requisite to the explanation of what is \-isible to the 
naked eye. should be here explained. 

131. The stems of phieni^amous plants anatomically consist ■ 
of two general elements, the cellular and the woody ; the former 
exoroplided in the commoner stems by the pith and outer bark, the 
latter by the wood. Both are equally composed of cells, or origi- 

QBte BB such ; Imt those which form the woody system of the stem 
msinly nndergo, at a very early period, transformation into tubes, 
some of which arc of such smalt calibre that their common name 
of fibres is not inappropriate ; others, of largcT size or ampler 
calibre, take the name of duct« or vessels. The latter arc almost 

no. IM* A mwtnlllal rilce nfa pnrtlnn nr Iba flower-fiUtk oT Ulclitrdli^tliliifbn 
rtb«*u-islle<ICKUaUIr).iru«TerMitlTh>i>mGli.Di;l(urliniavi«w- m^iitf iiriinchynia. 

U>.|iiaa(H|i HHT tlu (vnm ■ ccM»40CtliHi of ■ Sbn-TMculai bimdis, anil nut Uia 



always associated with the wood-colls, so that they are in a general 
waj- taken together as consti luting the wood, or woody tissue, and 
B8 forming what is more deilnitely termed fibro- vascular tissue or, 
when distinguishable into threads, flbro- vascular bundles. These 
run lengthwise through the stem, sometimes as such separate 
threads, sometimes confluent into a compact structure. The 
softer or at least the non-fibrous portions, Conned of comparatively 




abort and commonly tliin-walled cells, form cellular tisaae. Its 
ordinar;- form (of roundish, culiical, or polyhedral and tliin-walled 
cells) is called parenchyma. This abounds in herbaceous stems or 
herbaceous parts : in trees and shrubs, woody tissue lai^ely pre- 
vails : in most herbs, it forma a notable portion ; in some (especially 

FIO. 123. FlbTv-TMcuIu clemonla. a. Bwl-cotle I lung vood.calti) of flbraoi tiu-k 
oTLlndon or Bua-wooil. b. Bamc wnod-csUs and (belDWIi duct, anil c. ■ iletaclieil 
-cell (it tliu wuoJ uT umii troo, equiUlf pucnlHud vllfa a. d. A ilouched wood- 
vm m shaving of Wli[te Fine, nhovlng the pBculIardltk-lllieniiirklngi. e. Portion 
le dhsTtng. /. Portlnn nf ■ dutted duet rtnm tlw Vine. VTtdenllj rnwls dp of a 
or (bort cetU. g. Pari otsamiillerdiKIed dnol, iliovingnn ippearMice hThicIi 
wlUnn. h, i. Sptral iIdcIs or vnula, nf tha ordlnir; kind. J. S|>1rft1 dact at 
na. *. Dncl ftom Coleiy. tbe [breul wliLIn iplral or annular buJow. niUculated 
, and blRbcr |<a»ln|[lnIo the state ul dotted duct. I, T)ni-l from Itnimtlona. VlUi 
ign iplral jiaialDS InUi ilngn at the middle. All magnifliid lomtwhal eqi]all7. 


in wrtain aquatic herbs), it is reduced to a few threwls or 
vessels, generally delicate, aud sometimes obscure. The ac- 
companying anatomical illustrations (Fig. 124°, 125, willi their 
es|ilaiuitiana) will give a general idea of the nature of tbe ana- 
tomical elements of the stem. 

132. In the forming stat*, the whole stem is parenchyma ; but 
an early differeutiation takes place, coDverttug certain portions 
iuU> woody or fibro-vascular tissue. This is arranged in two 
ways, giving rise to two kinds of stem in pha.'nogamoii9 plants, 
which ha*-e been termed the Endogenoui and the Uxogmoui,^ 
meaning inside and outside growers. 

133. The two plans of st«m are usually manifested in external 
confonnation as well as internal structure, and are correlated 
with important differences in embryo, foliage, and dower.* Palms, 
Lilies, Rushes, and Grasses are examples of the endogeooua 
class : the ordinary trees and shmbs, especially those of cool 
climates, and a larg;e part of the herbs, are of the exogenous class. 
In an exogenous stem, the wood occupies annual concentrie layers, 
one of each year's growth ; the centre is occupied by a i)ith, 
cumposcil of jinreiichyma only, the circumference by a separable 
bark; so Itmt a cross-section presents a 
series of rings or circles of wood, or 
tbe first year one ring, surrounding the | 
pitb and surrounded by the bark, 
endogenous stem has the wood in distinct I 
threads or fibro-rascular bundles, travers- I 
ing the ccUnlar sj'stem or parenchjTna with I 
little or no obvious order, and presenting 
on the cross-section the chvided ends of these bundles in the 
form of dots; these usually (but not always) diffused over 

' Tcrmi introduced by l)eC&ndulle, following Ihc iilcas of Deefontainei, 
■nd orhich bare jilajed an important part in structural and ayBlcmallc 
Ixiiuiy erer since IleCandolle adopted Ibese namea at those of the two 
primary diTleiom of phsnogaraous plaau, Erogemc and Endagtna. But it 
hu lunp been seen that tlie name of the second kind is not appropriate; &nd 
the oJdiT and belter {I honich longer) names of Juesieu, Monucoiyjedones and 
Dicotjlcdono. uc reverted lo. Yet the Candollvan nnmcs are still much 
cmploj^ed. with due explanation, to designate Ihc two kinds of structure of 
itw stem. 

> T«t «ilh aonie more or less ralid exceplions. as when the annaal stem 
of PodophfUum and the rhizoma of Nyttiphsa. among; dicotyledotious plants, 
imitate ilic endogenous structure: or where Ihc pitli of an efidenily exoiccnuus 
■Irm. as in the Pipcrncen, has scattered woody liundlcs 
fashion; or where rounocotjledonous plants have aii their woody bundles 
■ definite eirtle, as in Luzula, Croomia. &c. 

no. tM. SedhiDr 

Jl Palm-al 

1, in u 




the whole section, or wheu few in number of Bomowbat definite 
position or arrangement. The ordinary appearance of such a 
atom, both on the longitudinal and the cross-section, is tthown 
in Fig. 126 ; it may al)H> be examined in the Cane or Rattan, 
the Bamboo, and in the annual stalk of Indian Com or of 
Asparagus. The appearance of ordinary wood is verj- familiar. 

135. The newer woody bundles of an endogenous stem arc vari- 
ously inlerminglcd with the old. When DeCandoUc gave the name, 
it was supposed, from Desfontaines'a researches, that the older 
bundles occupied, or came at length to occupy, the circumference 
of the tnink, while only new ones were formed in the centre ; 
and that increase in diameter, when it took place at all, resulted 
from the gradual growth and distention of the whole. Ueaoft.. 
the contrasting name of endogenoat, or iniide ffrowing, and fc 
Buch plants the name of EuoooENors Plants, or Endor] 
Our actual knowledge of the structure and growth of ttiese stei 
as will be seen, cannot be harmonized with this view 
way which gives to the name endogenous an appropriate 
cation. The name continues as a counterpart to the more coi 
one of exogenous, and as a sunival of former ideas. 

ISO. The Enilogenons StmctBre (so calleil) of the stem is 
related with a monocotyledonous embrjo (39), usually with k\ 
ternary arrangement in the flower (322), and commonly with 
parallel-reined leaves. (173.) Endogens, although they have 
many herbaceous and a few somewhat woody representativ 
in cool temperate ciimes, mostly attain their f\dl variety of fba> 
turea and rise to noble arborescent forms under a tropical' 
sun . Yet Palms — the arlwreons type of the class — do extend' 
as far north iii this country- as the coast of North Carolina (the 
natural limit of the Palmetto, Fig. 12G*) ; while In Euro[)c the 
Dat« and the Chamierops thrive in the warmest parts of the Euro- 
pean shore of the Mediterranean, The manner of their growth 
gives them a striking appearance ; their trunks being unbranci 
cylindrical columns, rising to the height of fVom thirty to 
hundred and fidy feet, and crowned at the summit with a sim| 
cluster of peculiar foliage. Palms generally grow from 
terminal bud alone, and perish if this bud be destroyed ; th^i 
grow slowly, and bear their foliage in a cluster at the summit 
the trunk, which consequently forms a simple cylindrical column. 
But in some instances two or more buds develop, and the stem 
branches, rarely and accidentally in ordinary species, regularly 
in the Doum Palm of Upper Egypt, and in the Pandauus, or 
Screw-Pine (Fig. 69), which belongs to a family alii e<l to Palms: 
in such cases the brunches are cylindrical. But when lateral 



ait of '^H 


buds are freely developed (as in the Asparagus) , or the leaves 

are Bcatt«re<i along the etem or branthes by the fbll development 

of internixles (ns in 

the Itiimboo, Maize, 

Ac). they gradually 

t*i»er upward in the 

tnitnner of most ex- 

of stem compriaea 

srreral sMbordinato 

n-pes as lo internal 

stnictnre. wUkh to 

be well understood 

must ■»■ studied Ui»- 

lolofEical ly. under t he 

microscope.' To one 

of these, by no means 

tiie simplest, belongs 

tlic onliuary palm- 

atem. the anatomy 

of which was made 

claseinil by Mohl, 

and has been 

Bupjilementi'd ■vn. .uj., , 

by NiefTi'li. ^' ' 

In thiBalll^^'l■ * ,_- 

part of itii' 

bunt lies, or all 

of the more ^^ 

conspieuoua kind, starting from the baso of the leaf to which 

tliey re»|wctively itelong. cur>e inward more or less strongly 

l«>wanl the centre of the stem, and thence gradually outward 

as they descend until they reach the rind, in wliieli the 

attennatctl lower extremity mostly terminates. Consequently, the 

buDiUes from different heighta cross in their course, somewhat 

1 For Ihc bol and moil BcccuiMc memoir on the tutijMt. of reoent date, 
are ODillaad, Recherche* «iir I'jVnHtomiE L-umpor^ et le DevclnppemenC den 
Tlitu* tie l« Tige dans les Monorolyl^oaes, published in Ann. Sci. Nat. 
•IT, 0. T, 1-176, 18T7. Sii types of the stem of Moiiocotrledons are hero 
rrrogniied by analomical characters and mudes of growth, one of Ihem 
baTUig four nKxliScatiaiu. 


as shown in Fig. 127. It is partly owing to this connection ( 
these fibres with the rind tliat the latter is not separable 

the st^^m. lu some Palms, and in GrassesiJ 
^ there is no marked distinction betwee 
I the wood and rind, or no proper rind at'^ 
Hall. In others, such as the Palmetto 
I (Fig, 126), there is a markiMl rind 
i or false bark, which receives indopoudent 
I Bbro-vascnlar bundles from the leaf-stalks, 
I and is traversed by them in parallel lines. 
I In Groas-Btems, and others with long inter- 
I nmli's Biul closed nodes, the flbro- vascular 
I liuiidles nil run approximately straight 
I and purnllel through ttie intemodes. but are 
I intrieate and anastomosed in the nodes. 
The whole centre of the intemodes, when 
not hollow or before it becomes so, is occupied by a true pith*,^ 
like that of an Exogen, and in some eases equally destitute of ^ 
fibro-vascular bundles, but often with scattered ones, after the 
manner of curtain Exogeus anomalous in this reape<;t, such as 
Nyctaginaceie and some Araliaecie. Endogenous steins of 
simpler structure, as in herliaeeous Liliai'eip, Commelynaceffi, , 
&c,, have a distinct cortical portion (at least in the root-stoc 
or portion of stem properly comimrable with palm-trunks f 
the like) ; but this is mostly destitute of 6bro-vasciilar bundles.! 
Most of them have two kinds of vascular bundles, ons.a 
of which not rarely occupies an exact circle in the line of. I 
division between tlie cortical and medullar)* portion (betweeuJ 
bark and pith), and the other is within this circle, either (rfl{| 
verj' few and scattered bundles, as in Convallaria majalis 
numerous and scattered, aa in U\ulHria and the \ealy stems <^^ 
TradescAutia Virginica ; or these bundles are few and i 
neariy in an inner circle close around the centre. Finally, Luzula 
and Croomia have only one kind of bundles, answering to the 
outer ones of Convallaria ; in other wowls, the woody system 
forms a simple circle, dinding a purely cellular meduUary from a 
similar cortical portion, thus closely imitating an berbaceoiU 
exogenous stem of the same age. 

138. An annual endogenous stem increases in diameter 1; 
general growth until it attains its limit. Ligneous and enduring | 
c similarly up to a certain period. Then the rind J 


sooner or later ceases to distend or adapt itself to fiirtlicr in- 
orousc in diameter, and there is no interior prorision for indefinite 
incrcsfle in the greater number of woody endogenous trunks. But 
in Draewna (Dragon-trees), in the arborescent Yuccas, and the 
like, the zone intermediate between the cortical and interior re- 
gion, which is for a time active in many Endogeus. here grows 
contiuuously and indefinitely. Such trunks increase in diameter 
thronghout life ; they may attain a very great age (as some 
Dragon-trees have done) ; and tliey imitate exogenous trunka 
to a considerable extent in mode of growth. 

I3'J, The wood of an endogenous wootiy stem is hardest and 
most compact at tlic circumference ; in palm-stems commonly 
it is lai^ely mixetl with parenchjina or pith at the centre, even 
iu old Ininks. 

140. The Exi^enons Stmctiire, that of ordinary wood, is char- 
acterized by the formation of a distinct zone of woo<l between a 
central cellular medullary portion (pith) and an outer chiefly 
cellular portion (bark), traversed by plates from the pith (medui- 
Urj' rays) , and hy increasing from the outer surface of this zone 
between wood and bark, the increase in enduring stems consist- 
log of dcflnite concentric annual layers. 

HI. Ita BeirlDnlBK. at the earliest growth of the embryo, is in 
the appcnranw of a few ducts (Fig. I2b,/-i), at definite points 
ill Uie common parenchyma of the initial stem (four equidistant 
ones in ihe Sugar Maple) ; each is soon surrounded by incipient 

proper wood-eclls (Fiff. 125,6. e), together forming a fihro- vascular 
bundle or thread. Additional ones arc intercalated as the second 
ami third intcrnodes develop, and so a column (in cross- 
section a ring) of wood is produce*!, alwajs so arranged as to 

Plii. UK OUiRnni • 


no. Va TheuOHii 

' ■ cmMaecllcin ot a. niimlni; r»ilUng item, (taoalDg Uu) 
: k IMsr pcliad. ILg waoilf buDclla Incieuod •> M neulT U 


BUrround a purely cellular central part (the pith), while s 
rounded by a. cellular external rind, the baik, or outt-r bark. 
The diagrams (Fig. 12M-130) rudely shoir Bome stages iu the 
formation of the zone of wood. The fihro-vascular buncllea 
originate in the bases of the leaves, and develop outward into the 
forming leaves as well as downward into the forming stem. 

142. First Tear's Growth. The wood, even in a herbaceous | 
or annual stem, at the completion of tlie first year's growth^ 
Id forms a zone or tube, .1 

enclosing the pith. But I 
it is traversed by plates t 
(in cross-section linesj-J 
of parenchyma, or 
lular tissue of the same ] 
nature as the pith,^ 
which radiate fh>m: I 
that to the bark, and', f 
thus di\'ide the wood 1 
into wedges, These I 
lines, forming what is I 
called the st'lver-ffraiii ] 
in wood, are the Mf-d- j 
ULi.AUY Rays. They ] 
represent the cellular j 
sj'stem of the wood ib» I 
self, or untransformed ] 
parenchyma. Being j 
pressed by the woody 1 
wedges, their cells are 1 
laterally Battened. In .1 
some stems, the med- ■, 
™ ullarj' rays, or many 4 

of them, are comijarativcly liroad and eonspicuoue ; in otherst ( 
thin and inconspicuous or irregular. The growth of the woody I 
wedges is soon complete, except at the outer portion, nextj 
tlic bark: here they usually continue to grow through theiT 
season ; that, is the wooil grows externally. The general ana- 1 


via. 131. LnngHndlntl uml 

no. 133. PortidnDftlieuii 
IB wood, uid ibMA bj the \mr1t. 
FIG. 133. Man magniaod i 
imrlottbaplth; ' ' ' 

■t year's fnwih ; ot III 

lice of the Mme, mthlnR rnun llie bark totheplUi: 
^hemslutlaryihea']): c. thowool; ri, if. iloltod ducti tn 

■lopai CUisaklaoi aptOcroilii t.oDBofUiota ~ 


tomicol stniehire of a wooiiy exogenous stem of a year old is 
displavcd in the Fig. l!tl~133. Viewing the parts particularly, 
ami in onler fVom centre to circumference, there ia, — 

1st. 7%t Pith or MtduUa, consisting entirely of soft and rather 
large Ihin-vrallcd cells,' goi^ed »-ith sap or other nourishing 
matter <luring the growing state, becoming light, dry, and empty 
whi-n olfete. 

2mi. Tht Lnyer of Wood., traversed by the meduilarg rays. In 
V\aea anil other Conifene, the wood is of uniform structure, being 
wholly composed of & woody tissue with jieculiar markings (Fig, 
12a. rf, *) : in other wood, ducts of one or more sorts occur ; the 
most conspicQOua being what arc termed dotted ducts. These 
■re so large as to be evident to the naked eye in many ordi- 
nary kinds of wood, especially where they are accumulated in 
the inner portion of the layer, as in the Chestnut and Oak. In 
tlic Maple, Plane, &c., they are rather equably scattered through 
the annual layer, and are too small to be seen by the naked eye. 
Next the pith, i. e. in the very earliest formed jjart of the wood, 
some spiral ducts are uniformly found, and this is tho only i)art 
of the exogenous stem in which these ordinarily occur. They 
may be detected by breaking a woody twig in two, after dividing 
the bark and most of the wood by a circular incision, and then 
pulling the ends gently asunder, when their spirally coiled fibres 
xrc readily drawn out as gossamer threads. As these spiral 
ducta form a circle immediately surrounding the pitli, they liave 
ooHectively been termetl the medullary Mlieath, but they hanlly 
deserve a special name. The vertical section in Fig. 133 divides 
one of the woody wedges, and shows no medullary ray ; but there 
is one at the posterior edge of the transverse section. But, in tho 
mnch more diagramatic Fig. 134, the section is made so as to show 
the BTirfaoe of one of these plates, or meduUary rayi, passing hori- 
jEontally across it, connecting the pith (j>) with the bark (i). 
These medullary rays form l\ie tilver-grain (as it is tinned), which 
is so conspicuous in tlie Maple, Oak, &c., and which gives the 
glimmering lustre to many kinds of wood when cut in tins direc- 
tion. A section made as a tangent to the circumference, and 
therefore perpendicuhir to the medullary rays, brings their ends 
to view, as in Fig. 135. much as they appi-ar on the surface of a 
piece of wood from which the bark is 8tri[>i:)ed. They are here 
seen to be composed of parenchyma, and to represent the horizon- 

' In mre ii»Uinue», a frw Gliro-viucular thrends nrc found disppntd 
through tlie piih, prcRciiting a tomcwhat remarkablo annmslj. Thii 
Dccura in Amlin raocmoia, an<l more airikingly in Mirakilii and otlicr 
NfcuginaM*, and in Pipeiaccoi. (liJ3,foot-Dol«.J 



tal 8j"Bt*m of ihe wood, or the woof, into wbich the vertical vooA'f' 
fibre, &c.. or icarp, is interwoven. The inspection of a piece of oi ' 
r maple woo<l at once shows the i»ertineuey of this Ulustralion. 



3rd. 7%e Bark or riml. i..... ^;. .a... < „>>. ul' simple 

parenchyma, Uko that of the pith, ext-epl lur the green color 
dcvelope^i in It, the same aa that which gives verdancy to foliage. 
This green matter is formed in the cells of all such ]>arts when 
e:cjMs«.tl to light, consists of gi'een grains-of somewhat complex 
chemical compoBitioo, has imjKirtant functions to perform 
aesimilation (i.e. in the conversiuu of the plant's onicle foodiiita< 
vegetable mutter), and is named CHLoKopjiVLt, i'. t. leaf-green. 
The completed hark, when all its parts are apparent, as es|ie-: 
cially in most trees and slimlis, is composed of three strata, of 
which ttie green bark, the most conspicuoiis in the young shoot, 
is the middle lajer, therefore named the fttGsornuEuu. This is 
aoon covered, and the green color obscured, by a superficial 
Stratum of cells, generally of some shade of ash-color or brown, 
occasionally of brighter tints, which gives to the twigs of trees 
and shrubs the hue characteristic of each species, ttie Corkz 
Envelopb or layer, or Epipuheum. Tlie latter name denotes itg' 
external i»sitiou ; the former, that it is tlie layer which, when 
much develope*!, foi-ma the cork of Cork-Oak and those ooAyi 
expansions which are so conspicuous on the twigs of the Swi 
Gum (Liquidambar) , and on some of our Elms (IHrnue alatS; 
antl raceniosa). It also forms the pa[>er-like exfohating layem^ 
of Birch-burk. It is composed of laterally flattened parendiyv. 
matous cells, much Ukc ttioso of tlie Epidekws (Fig. 133, t), 
T?bicb directly overlies it, and forms the skin or surface of the 


Fia IM. Vertlml wmtlou Hire 
>D u tdnhnw ono oT tbe tuoliiUnry 
barkW: mucnlflsd. Bnt m ■actln 
plnM (iratctilRE Kcma tbo vnoil. u In IIUk Ii 

Fia lU. A tenlcBl •ecclon urou tbn ii 

fh UiA wfiod of ■ brmnoh of tliv Hftfle. a year oM, 
lyi, piuaing InuiarerHly tma tlw p(l1i (j)) la tho 
can wlclnm ho made M lU to Bbow one otiliruluo 


Stem, and of the whole plant. Lastly, the inner bark, accord- 
ingly Duned EKDoniLiECM. takes tlit; special name of Libek. nnd 
is tlie most irajmrtant portion of the hark in tlie stems of trees 
aotl shrubs. Complete and we D-tleve loped liber, like that of 
liuden or liasswootl, contains two peculiar kinds of cells in 

■Addition to common parenchyma, botli of the fibrons or vascular 
Velass: \iz., 1. Ckibrifokm or Sieve-cells, a sort of diiots the 
I valla of which have open slits, through which they communicate 
J with eavU other; 2. Bast or Bast-celw, tlie fibre-tike cells 
I give to the kinds of inner bark that lai^ly contain thorn 

>. Pnttkin of a intnavens Kcilmi IfiImtb), uiiI ■ imrmpnnillnR mtlcul ttr- 
A MVlflxl. rfHfhliif Ititm the i>]ih ip) to llio ppdlennh (<) of > ginni of 
■ jwrold: 0, tbebirk; K'. tliu wuud ; and C Ihsoinibliini-Uyer, lU (ounil 
■J. "n* larti nrfermi tn bj iin»ll Irttrn anji p. ■ pnninn of IhB iiltli; 
n p«nMD of a m«lBlUr|rnT wtwn ttramlTilntliBpllb^ r<iuriwiii[il>i« Rwd- 
i)r* M *een nn ■ tningr«nw wrtlon, apimtr In llio oi-iwr nEiiiw. mnnlDC tnta 
«rk: aw, inRlnllarT >btAiti.a'lnleuf *|ilml nnrulUliletliicK.ane k«ii lonpb- 
b imsalllnc nlnmilt)' In Dm Inwtir flgurs: w, ». wnndtHmae: M. nnaaflb* 
vrvef] In lh« 'wwA- et. camMuoi-layor or ■oiut'^r new growth of 
: : l-b. Iltwr or loner bark, Itan Itinsr pnftion at wLlrli In ben nllulnr. 
T Ih) nauvmi of >lBn.1er aiirj ihlek-walled bui-relli or trno libcr-crll*: 
f. gntn enTcloiw ut lunar ccIlDlac bark: a. coikj envelope « onieraiUulaTbark: 

their strength and toughness. They are like wood-cells excepf 
in their greater length and flexibility, and in the thickness < 
their walls, which greatly exceetla the calibre. This is i 
material which gives to the bail or inner bark of Basswood, &c,f M 
the strength and pliability that adapts it for cordage and tot'm 
making mats : it is the material of linen, and the like textilS:! 
fibres. (For a view of the whole Lftrnposition and structure of kfl 
woody stem at the close of the first j-ear's growth, and immedi- ' 
ately before tliot of the second year begins, see Fig. 135',) 

143. Aanaal Increase In DIamoler, An herbaceous stem does 
not essentially differ from a woody one of the same age, except 
that the wood forms a less compact or thinner zone ; and the 
whole perishes, at least down to the ground, at the close of ttW:J 
season. But a woody stem makes provision for continuing itti 
growth from year to year. As the lajer of wood continues to 1 
increase in thickness throughout tlie season, by the multiplication 
of cells on its outer surface, between it and the bark, and when 
growth ceases this process of cell- multiplication is merely sus- 
pended, so there is always a zone of delicate J"0img cells in- 
tcrjioaed between the wood and the bark. This is called the 
Ca^mdictm, or, better, the C'AJUiiuM-LAyEU. It Is charged with 
organizable matter, which is particularly abundant and mucila- _ 
ginous in spring when growth recommences. This mucilaginom J 
matter was named Cambium by the older botanists : they sup- 1 
posed — as is still jjopularly thought — that the bark, then m 1 
readily separable, really separated from the wood in spring, that a 
quantity of rich mucilaginous sap was poured out between them 
and became organized into a tissue, the inner part becoming new 
wood, the outer, new bark. But delicate slices show that there J 
is then no more intemiption of the wood and inner bark than ■ 
at anji' other season. The bark, indeed, is then verj- readily I 
detached ftom the wood, beeanse the cambium-layer ia gorged ■ 
with sap ; but such separation is effected by the rending of a 
delicate forming lissiio. And if some of tliis apparent mucilage 
be flcrape<l off fivam the surface of the wood, and examined under 
a good microscope, it will be seen to be a thin stratum of young 
wood-cells, with the ends of raedullarj- rays here and there in- 
terspersed. The inner portion of the cambium-layer is therefore 
nascent W(X>d, and the outer is nascent bark. As the cells of 
this layer mnltiply. the greater number lengthen vertically into I 
woody tissue : some are transformed into ducts ; and others^ I 
remaining as parench_\Tiia, continue the medullary raj's or C 
menee new ones. In tliis way, a second layer of wood is formed' 1 
the second season over the whole surface of the former layer J 


Ilietween it and the bark ; and this is continuouB with the voodj I 
layer of the new roots below ami of the leaiy Bhoots of the eea- ' 
Bon aboTe. Each succeeding year another layer is added to the 
wood in the same manner, coincident with the growth in length ' 

tby the development of the buds. A cross-aeetion of an exoge- 
Boiis stem, therefore, exhibits the wood disposed in concentric ^M 
lings between the hark and the pith ; the oldest Ij-ing next the ^M 
bttcr. and the 3oungest occupying the circumference. BJich ^M 
byer being the product of a single year's growth, the age of aa ^M 
exogenous tree may, in general, be corroctlj' ascertained by ^M 
counting the rings in a cross-section of the trunk.' ^M 

144. Demarcationof the Annual Layers results IVom two or more ' 
OMsea, separate or combined. In oak and chestnut wood, and 
tbe like, the layers are strongly defined by reason of the accumu- 
lation of the Iftige dotted ducts (here of extreme size and in 
great abundance) in the inner portion of each la;yi'r, where their ^t 
open mootha on tlie cross-section are conspicuous to the naked ^M 
eye, making a strong contrast between the inner porons and the ^| 
exterior solid part of the successive layers. In maple and beech 
wood, however, the ducts are smaller, and are dispersed through- 
out the whole breadth of the layer ; and in coniferous woo<l, viz. 
»tiiat of I^ne, Cypress, &c., there are no ducts at all, hnt only ft ^— 
uniform woody tissue of a peculiar sort. In all these, the dft- ^M 
mareation between two layers is owing to the greater Hneness of ^M 
the wood-cells formed at the close of the season, viz. those at ^M 
tho outer border of the layer, while the next layer begins, in its ^M 

I The snnnal Ujera o-re moil di«Iincl in Irece of tcmpornle climates like ^H 
^^^^ oars, where Ihcre is a prolnnged ppriod of total repose, from the wiotcr'a ' 
^^^L GDld. tnllotrcd by s ri^iurous resamptinn of Tcgelalion in ipHag. In tropical 
^^^1 tKvs,lhey ire rarely lo well dvSoed : but evun in ihese there is generally a 
^^^^P muTf or let marked annual suspension of vegetalion, occurring, however, 
^^^1 ta Uw df7 and holler, rather than in the cooler season. There are numeroot ^ 
I caiM, moreorer, in which tlie wood (ornis a unifunn «tratutu, whatever be ^M 

tbe age of the trunk, as in the arborcseent species ot Cactus ; or wlierc tbe ^M 
i^fprt arc few and by no means corresponding with the age of the trunk, u ^| 
In the Cycu. ■ 

In many woody climbbig or twining stems, s«ch aa thn«e of Clematii, 
Aiiat«lochla Sipho. and Mcniapermum Canadense, tiie annual iaycni are 
rallurr obscurely marked, while the medullary rays are unusually broad; 
and tbe wood, therefore, forms a series of separable wedges disposed In a 
drcle around llie pith. In the stem of Bignonia capreolata, Ihe annual ringi, 
aflM the flr«I four or Ave, are interrupted in four places, and here as many 
tvDad plates of ueiiular tissue, belonging properly to tlie bark, are inler- 

poacd, pasdng at right an)flcs tu each other from the circumference towarda 

Ihc centre, so that the tnuisrerse section of tbe wood nearly resembles a ^M 
Maltese crois. But these are exceptional caaei, which warcely require ^| 
notice in a general view. ^M 


vigorous Tcmal growtli, with much larger cpUb, thua mavkii 
an iibnipt tranaition from one layer to the next. Besides bcin^ 
finer, the lat«r wootl-cella of Ibe aeasou are commonly flatteaed 
ant^ro- posteriorly, probably by growing under greater pressure. 

145. Each layer of wood, ouee formed, remains fssentially 
unchanged in position and dimensions. But, in trunks of con- 
siderable age, the older layers undergo more or leas cliauge 
color, density, perviousness to moisture, &c. 

146. Sap-wood (Alburnth). In the planttet and 
dovelopiug bud, the sap ascends through the whole tissue, of J 
whatever sort : at first through the parenchjma, for there is thi 
no other tissue ; and the transmission is continued through 
csiweially through ita central portion, or the pith, in the growii 
a[ies of tlie stem throughout. But, in the older parts below, 
pith, soon drained of sup, becomes filled with air in its pli 
and thenceforth it Iwars no part in the plant's nourishment, 
goon aa wooil-cells and ducts are formed, they take an actii 
part in the conveyance of sap, for which their tubular and 
pillary character is especially adapted. But, the ducts in older 
parts, except when gorged with sap. contain air alone ; and in 
woody trunks the sap continues to rise year after year to the 
places where growth is going on, mainly through the proper 
woody tissue of the wood. In this transmission, the new lay 
are most active ; and these are in ilirect communication with 
new roots on the one hand and with the buds or shoots and leavM 
of the season on the other. So, by the formation of new annual 
layers outside of Ihem, the older ones are each year removed a 
step farther from the region of growth ; or rather the growing 
stratum, which conuects the IVesh rootlets that imbibe with the 
foliage that elalmrates the sap, is each year removed farther from 
them. The latter, therefore, after a few years, cei 
sap, as tbey have long liefore ceased to take part in any vital 
operations. The cells of the older layers, also, usually 
have thicker walla and smaller calibre than those of the newerj 
Thus arises a distinction — sometimes obscurely marked, 
times abrupt ami conspicuous — into sap-Kood and htart-teooj. 
The former is the popular name given to the outer and newer;] 
layers of softer, more open, and bibulons wood. The early physt' 
ologista named it aUtumum from ita white or pale color. Being 
more or less sappy, or containing soluble oi^aiiic matter, and 
readily imbibing moisture, this part of tlie wood is liable to decay, 
and it is therefore discarded fVum timber used for constmction. 

147. Heart-wood (or Ddbamen, so called from its greater hard-i 
ss or diimbility) is the older and mature portion of the wood> 


.-ital ^^ 





In all trees nliich have the distinction between the sap-wofxl and 
heart-wood well marlted, the latter acquires a deeper color, and 
Uiat peoiiliar to tlie species, aueh as the dark brown of the Blaik 
Walnut, the blacker color of the Ebony, the puriJlish-red of Red 
t'wlar, and the bright yellow of the Barberrj'. These colors- are 
owing to apccial vegetable products, or aometinies to alteiations 
r«!iulting from age. In the Red Cedar, the deep color belongs 
eliiefly to the ineciullary raya. In many of the softer woods, there 
is little change in color of the heart-wood, except iVom incipient 
ilecaj-. as in the White Pine, Poplar, Tnlip-tree, &c. The 
heart-wood is no lonj^r in any sense a living part : it may perish, 
«8 it frequently does, without affecting the litfc or health of the 

148. The Growth and Dnratlon of the Bark, also the dilTereneea 
in structure, are much more ^'a^ious than of the wood. Moreover, 
the bnrk Is necessarilj' subject to grave alterations with advanc- 
ing &ge, on account of its external position ; to distention IVom 
the conslsntly increasing diameter of the stem within, and to 
abrasion and ilccay Ttota the influence of the elements without. 
It is never entire, therefore, on the trunks of large trees; but 
tbe (lead exterior parts, no longer able to enlarge with the en- 
larging wood, arc gradually fissured and torn, and crack otT in 
strips or pieces, or disapjtear by slow decay. So that the bark 
of old trunks bears only a small proportion in thickness to the 
wood, even when it makes an equal amount of annual growth. 

140. The three parts of the bark (142), for the most part 
rvodily distinguishable in the bark of young shoots, grow inde- 
pendently, each by the addition of new cells to its inner face, so 
long as it grows at all. The green layer commonly does not 
increase after the first year ; Ihe opaque corky layer soon excludes 
it fh>m the light ; and it gradually perishes, never to be renewed. 
Thp corky layer usually increases for b few years only, by ihc 
formation of new tabular cells : occasionally it takes a remarkable 
development, forming the substance called Cork, as in the Cork 
Oak. and the thin and parchment-like layers of the White and 
I'aper Birches. 

150. The liber, or inner bark, continues its growth throngh- 
oot the life of the ext^nous tree, by an annual addition fVom 
till- (mmbium-laj'er applied to it^ inner surface. Sometimes this 
growth is plainly distinguishable into lajers, corresjmnding with 
or more numerous than the annual layers of the wood : often, 
ihvn is »cart*ly any trace of such layers to be discerned. In 
composition and appearance, the liber varies greatly in different 
plants, espevially in ti-ees and shrubs. That of Bosswood or 

Linden, and or other plants with a eimilar fibrous bark, may bft] 
taken as lieat repreBentiiig the liber. Here it consists of nltei^ 
nate strata of fibrous bast, and of the peculiar liber-cells called 
sievu-cells, in whieh nourishing matter is especially contained 
and elaborateil. While the latter, or their equivalents, occur 
and piny an important part in all inner bark, the bast-cells are 
altogetlier wanting in the bark of some plants, and are not pro- 
duced alter the first year in many others. The latter is the caoB' 
ill Negimdo, where abundant bast-cells, like those of Basswuod, 
com|>oso the exterior portion of the first year's liber, hut none 
whatcvci' are formed in the subsequent layers. In Beeches and 
Birches, also, a few bast-cella are produced the firet year, but 
none allerwards. In Maples, a few arc formed in succeeding 
years. In the Fear, bast-eells are annually formed, but in very 
email quantity, compared with the parenchymatouB part of the 
liber. In Pines, at least in White lines, the bark is nearly as 
homogeneous ns the wood, the whole liber, except what answers 
to the medullary- rays, consisting of one kind of cells, resembling 
those of bast or of wood in form, but agreeing with the propo; 
libor-cclls in tlicir structure and markings. 

151. The bark on old stems ia constantly decaying or failing] 
away from the surface, witliout any injury to the tree ; just AM 
tlie heart-wood within may equally decay without harm, except' 
by mechanically impairing the strength of the trunk. There 
great differences as to the time and manner in which the oldOT 
bark of different shrubs and trees is thrown olf. Some have 
their trunks invested with the liber ol' many j'ears' growth, 
although only the innermost layers are alive ; in others, it scales 
off much earlier. On the stems of the common Honeysuckle, of 
tlio Nine-Bark (Spirtea opulifoUa), and of Grape-iines (except 
Vitis vnlpina), the liber lives only one season, and is det^ichcd 
the fbllowing year, hanging loose in paiiery layers in the former 
species, and in fibrous shreds in the latter. 

152. While the newer layers of the wood abound in crude 
which they convey to the leaves, those of the iuner bark about 
in elaborated sap, which thej- receive from the leaves and con' 
to the cambium-layer or zone of growth. Tlie proper juices 
peculiar products of plonts ore accordingly found in the folii 
and the bark, especially in the latter. In the hark, tlierefore 
(eitlier of the stem or of the root) , medicinal anil other principles 
are usually to l>e sought, rattier than in the wood. Nevertheless, 
as the wood is kept iu connection with the bark by the medullary 
rays, many products which probably originate in the former am 
deposited in the wood. 


rmer ^^ 



133. The Lirtntr Vurts of g tree er sbrnb, of ths oxc^enoiu 

[ kiud, are obrioimly only tlifse: Ist. The Bunitnit c 

[ anil hraiK'lies, wilh the buda which continue tlicm upwards and 

t aniiually develop the foliage. 2d, The IVesh roots uni) rootlets 

I ftniiually developed at the opposite oxtremitj-. 3(1. The newest 

I ttratA of wood and bark, and csi)ccia]ly the inl«rpoBcd cambium- 

I I«.ver, which, annually renewed, maiutain a living eoinniunieati<HI< 

bctwwn tiic rootlets on the one hand and the biide and foliage 

on the otlier, however distant they at length may be. These are 

all that is coneemed in the life and growth of the tree ; and these 

are annaully renewed. The branches of each year's growth are, 

therefore, kept in fresh eommunicntion, by means of the newer 

layers of wood, with the fresh rootlets, whieh are nlono active in 

•li9urbing the crude food of the plant fj'ora the soil. The fluid 

they absorb is thus conveyed directly to the branches of the sea- 

I SOD, which develop leaves to digest it. And the sap they receive, 

having been elaborated and converted into organic nourishing 

matter, is partly expended in the upward growth of new branches, 

imd parti}- in the formation of a new layer of wood, reaching 

from the highest leaves to the remotest rootlets. 

154. Lonffevft; of trees. As the cx(^enoua tree, therefore, 
annually n-uewa its buds and leaves, its wood, l>aik. and roots, 
— i-very tiling, indeed, that is concerned in its life and growth, — 
there seems to be no necesaarj- cause, inherent in the tree itself, 
why it may not live indefinitely. Some trees are known to have 
lived for one and two thousand years, and some are possibly 
older.' Equally lung may HU^^-ivc such endt^cnous trees as the 
Dragon tree (Dracwua), which have provision for indeflnite in- 
crease in diameter (138), and for the production of branches. 

r The famous Dragon tree of Orotava, in Tcneriffe, now destroyed 
' by hurricanes and other accidents, had probably reached the age 
of more ttian two thousand years. 

155. On the other hand, increase in height, spread of branches 
and length of root, and extension of the surface over which the 
annual layer is spread, are attended with ineWtable disadvantage, 
which must in time terminate the existence of the tree in a way 
quite analogous to the death of aged individual animals, which 
ia not directly fK>m old ^e, but from casualties or attacks to 



' The »nbjecl of the lotmevily of treei Imt been discussed hy DeCnnilollB, 
in IhG " Bil)liuUil'i|Ue rnivrnellc "of Genorn. tor .Ma)*, lH-^1. and 

" PliyBiolofcie Ve'p>'tale ; ■■ more rwenlly, by Alphonse Tk-CtM- 
thc " Blbliulheque Cnivertelle ; " sml in this t-ouiilry by myielf " 
■■ Konh Americui Review." for July, 1&44, For Kn ■ecoiinl of the huge Red- 
wood* (SeqaoiM) of CsUfomio, lee Whitney'* VtMemile Book. 



which the aged are either incrensingly incident or less able 
resist. A tree like the BanyaD (59, Fig. 71), whiiih by aeriat 
roots continues to rorm new trunks for the support and sustenance 
of the spreading branches, nnd thus ever advances into new soil, 
has a truly indefinite existence ; but, then, it beeoraes a forest, 
or is to be likened to a colony propagated and indefinitely in- 
creased by suckers, olfsets, or other subterranean shoots, 
the question of the secular continuation of the individual plant' 
becomes mei^d in that of continuation of the race, — at least of 
a bud -propagated race, — the answer to which is wholly in the 
domain of conjecture.' However this may be, it is evident that 
a vegetable of the higher grade is not justly to be comparc<I witk 
an animal of higher grade; that individuality is incomplete! 
realized in the vegetable kingtiora ; * that rather 

15f>. The Plant Is a Composite Being, or Commonltr, lasting, 
the case of a tree, through an iudctinile and often immense nnm^ 
ber of generations. These are successively produced, enjoy 
term of existence, and perish in thetr turn. Life passes 
continually (Vom the older to tlie newer ])artB, nnd death follows, 
with equal step, at a narrow interval. No portion of the tree is 
now lii-ing that was alive a few years ago ( the leaves die annu- 
ally and are cast off, while the intemodes or joints of stem that 
bore them, as to their wood at least, buried deep in the tnmk 
under the wood of succeeding generations, are converted into 
lifeless heart-wood, or ijerehance decayed, and the bark that 
belonged to them is thrown off fVom the surface. It is the 
gate, the blended mass alone, that long survives. Plants 
single cells, and of a delinitc form, alone exliibit complete 
^■iduality ; and their existence is extremely brief. ITie more 
complex vegetable of a higher grade is not to be compared with 
the animal of the highest organization, where the offs|)ring always 
separates from the jiarent, and the individual is simple and indi- 
visible. But it is truly similar to the branching or arborescent 
coral, or to other compound animals of the lowest grade, where 
successive generations, though capable of living independently 
nnd sometimes sepaniting spontaneously, yet arc usually devel- 
oped in connection, blcndecl in a general body, and nourished 
mora or less in common. Thus, the coral structure is built Up 
by the combined bibors of a vast numln'r of individuals. — by 
the successive labors of many generations. The surface or the 
recent shoots only are alive ; bcneatli arc only the dead remains 

1 See Darwiiiii 

* A«, perhapg, was tir«I explii-id}' <tal?d liy Engelmi 
ensy, De Antliul;a1 Prodroniiu, Intrtxtuctfon, { 4. 





« is 



; that ^^ 



I of ancestral generations. A3 in a genealogical tree, only the | 
r later ramifications arc among the liiing, Tlie tree differs from 
1 Uie eorul structure in that, as it ordinarily imbittcs its nouiish- 
I nicnt mainly from the soil through its roots, it makes a downward 
I gruwtli also, and, tiy constant renewal of ftosh tissues, maintains 
I'Uie oommunication between the two growing extremilies, the J 
IbucU and tliv rootlets. Otherwise, the analogy of the two, 03 to | 
liDdividuality, is weil-uigh complete. 

Section IV. Of Leaves. 

§ 1. Theib Nature and Office. 

157. Leaf (Lat. Folium, in Greek form Phyllum), as a botani- 

leal teiin, bn^ on the one baud a comprehensive, on the other b 

I Rstrict«d sense. In its commonest sense, as used in descriiitive 

ff botany, it denotes tbe green bhide only. Yet it ia perfectly 

I vnderstood that the fix>t3tulk is a part of the leaf, and therefore 

I tbat the phrase " leaves cordate," or the like, is a short way of 

1 Mj ing that the blade of the leaf is cordate or heart-shaped, 

I Moreover, two appendages, one on each side of the base of the 

I fbotatalk. when there is anj', arc of so common occurrence that' 

tliey are rankul as a pro|>cr t>art of the oi^an. So that, to the 

butanist, a typical leaf consists of three parts: 1, Blade or 

Lahixa : i. Koot-stalk or Leaf-stale, technically Petiolb ; 

"I, A pair of STiPirLKs. (Fig. 142.) 

15H. The blade, being the most important part of an ordinary 

l;kaf, may naturally be spoken of as the whole. Petiole and 

islipules are indeed subsidiar)- when present, and are not rarely. 

tvanting. Vet sometimes they usurp the whole l^inction of foli- 

jgc, anil sometimes there is no sueh distinction of jiarts. 

159. Physiologically, leaves are green expansions borne by the 

Vstem. outspread in tbe air and light, in which assimilation (3) 

1 Aod the processes connected with it are carried on. Vegetable 

I assinulation, — the most essential Amotion of plants, being the 

IponrerBion of inoi^anic into organic matter, — takes place in 

[all ordinarr vegetation only in green part^s, and in these when 

lyxiMMed to the light of the sun. And foliage is an adsptatioD 

rfbr lately incieasing the green sni-face. But stems, when green, 

I take part in this office in proportion to the amount of surface, 

liBometimcs monopolize it, and in various cases increase their 

r means of doing so by assuming leaf-like forms. (126-1'29.) 

Leaves, especially in such cases, may lose this fiinclion, appear.! 

only aa useless vestiges, or may be subscn-ient to various wholly; 

different uses. Form and function, tUerofore, are not sure indi- 
cations of the tnic nature of organs. 

IGO. Morphological l.v, ami in tlie most compreliensive sense, 
leaves are spcdal lateral outgrowths lYora the sU-m, definitely 4 
and s^-mmetrically arranged uix>n it ; in ordinnrj- vegetation and 
in the most general form constituting the assimilating apparatus 
(or foliage), but also occurring in other forms and subsening 
various uses. Sometimes these uses are combined with or sub- 
sidiary to the general function of foliage ; sometimes the leaf is 
adapted to special uses only. So the botanist — recognizing the 
essential identity of organs, whatever their form, which ap|>car 
in the position and conform to the arrangement of leaves — 
discerns the leaf in the cotyledons of a bean or acorn, the scale of 
a lily-bulb or the coat of an onion, the scale of a wint«r bud, and 
the i>etat of a blossom. Therefore, while expanded green leaveB 
(which may be tautologically termed /o/iajeJeorM) are taken as J 
the proper tyjie, the common name of leaves, in the lack of any 1 
available generic word, is in mort>hological language extende<l ti ~ 
these sjiccia] fonns whenever it becomes needful to express their 
phylline or foliar nature. 

IGl. In the morphological view, all the plant's oi^ans eseept- 1 
ing roots (and excepting mere superficial productions, such s 
hairs, prickles, &c.), belong either to stem or to lea 
either cauline or |)hjlline in nature. To the latter belong all U 
primary outgrowths fVom nmlcs, all lateral productions whid! 
are not axillary.' Whatever is jjroduced in the axil of a leaf ii 
cauline, and when developed is a branch. 

mi. The Daratlon or Leaves is transient, compared with tbat^ 
of the stem. They may be fui/acious, when they fall off soon 
after their appearance ; deeidiious, when they last only for a 
single season : and pertfttrnl, when they remain through the cold 
season, or other inter\-al during which vegetation is interrupted, . 
and until after the appearance of new leaves, so that the stem iS| 
never leafless, as in Ertrgreem. In many evergreens, the leavei 
have only an annual duration ; the old leaves fulling soon after';! 
those of the ensuing season are expanded, or, if they remaiaa 
longer, ceasing lo bear any active jiart in the economy of tlia J 
vegetable, and soon losing their ^'itality altogether. In Finea;J 
and Firs, however, although there is nn annual fall of leavM 
either in autumn or spring, yet these were the produce of soni 


1 There 

whii^h thii rule ii of rliffli'ull appliollo 
p« 1)/ Ihr *iippre**inn of tiw sublcndini; leaf, a 
of Crucifera", rarelj in other w»j», to be cxplidned ii 

_< k_ 



season earlier tlian the lust ; and tlio brandies are continually 
dollied with the foliage of tVom two to five, or even ten or n 
8uc4«Baive jears. On the other hand, it is seldum that all the 
leaves of an herb endurv thiviigh the whole growing season, the 
earlier foliage near the base of the stem iierishing while fresh 
leaves are still npite-aring above. In oui' deeiduous trees and 
shrubs, however, the leaves of the season are mostly develoitud 
within a short period, and they all perish in autumn nearly 

1G3. Leaves soon eomp!et« their growth, and have no power 
Hirtlier increase. Being organs for tmnapiratioii, a verj' large 
-part of the water imbibetl by the roots is given out by the foliage, 
leaving tlissolved earthy matters behind. Assimilation can talte 
plaee only in fVesh and vitally active tissue. It is incident to all 
this that leaves should l^o of only transient duration, at least in 
tfaeir aL'tive condition. 

164. DefoUatloD. The leaves of most Dicotyledons and some ' 
Konocotyledons separate tW>m the stem and fall by m 
articulation at the Junction with the stem, whicli begins to foiTi | 
«nrly in tlie season and is completed at the close. There is a kind 
of (liiiintegratiun of a transverse layer of cells, which cuts off the , 
petiole by a regular line, and leaves a clean scar, such as is seen ' 
in Fig. SI, 83, 01. Some leaves, notably those of Palms, 
Yucca, and other endogens, die and wither on the stem, or wear 
away without falling. 

165. In temperate climates, defoliation mostly takes place at 
the approach of winter. In warmer climates haiing onlj- winter 
nun. this occurs in the hot and diy season. 

Normal Direction or Position. The leaf-blade is e^anded 
irizontally, that is. has an upi>er and an under surAiee. When 
the upper snrfaeo faces tlie axis which bears it. To this, 
lere are many seeming but do real exceptions; that is, none 
rhieli are not explicable as deviations or changes ttom the normal 
idition. (213-217.) 

I 2. Their Stricture anti Forus as Organs of Assi»ilatiox 
on Vegetatiom, i. e, as Foliage. 

. The Internal Stractare or Anatomy of the leaf newls here 
obe examined so far as respects its obvious jtarts and their 
[VDorsl composition. The leaf, like the stem, is composed of 
> elemenU (131). the ceUidnr and the leoodff. The cellular 
portion is the green pulp or parenchyma, and in this the work 
of assimilation is carried on. The woody is the fibrous fVame- 

ar _ 



worfe, tlic si'iiarate parts or ramillcatioas of wlucli form what an I 
t'uriuusly uolleil the iVi», — a ftuflioieuth proper term, — nervti opT J 
Vtiat. The latter names may suj^esl false analogies; but th^.f 
are of the commonest use in descriptive botany. That of mn#, J 
and uf its (liminiitive. ivialels, for the smaller ramifications, f 
not UToias ; for tlic fibroua framework not only gives firmness 
ancl supjwrt to the softer cellular apparatus, t. e. forms ribs. 
hut serves in thi; leaf, as it dues in the stem, for thv more rapid 
conveyance and tlialriltution of the sup. The subdivisions con- 
tinue beyond the limits of unosaisted vision, until tlie fibiti-vas- 
cular bundles are reduced to attenuated tibi-eg ramiKed liux>ugh 
the parenchj'ma. In leafstalks, the woody bundles arc parallel, 
not ramiltctl, ami an-aiiged in various ways; in Exogens usually 
BO oa tu funn in cross-section au are or an incomplete or eou- 
pletering. In leaves semnjr as foliage or organs of assimilation, 
the blade is the iinpoitsnt jtai-t, and this oidy is here regarded. 

IC8, The churaeleristie couteut* of these c«ll8 of luireuchyma 
an? gmins of ehloraphgU (H2*), literally Uaf-ffreen, to which 
thu green color of foliage is wholly owing, and which may Iw 
regiu-dwl as the most imjiortaut of all vegetable pi-oduels ; 
because it is in them (or in tliis green matter, whatever its form, 
ISO) that all ordinary assimilation takes plae^. As it nets only 
uuilcr tlie influence of light, the ex|iaud»l leaf-blade may be 
viewed as an ammgcmeut for e.\posiiig tlie largest jiracticnblc 
amount of this green mutter — the essential element of ^egeta- 
tion — to the light and air. 

169. The Parenchfma-celU, (^instituting the green pulp, arefl 
themsi'lves arranged in aceonlanwl 
iviih this u<laptation. The upjwr stm- 
t inn is mostly of oblong cells, compactly 
iirraiigeil in one or more layers, their 
InngiT diameter iwriJendicular to tho j 
Mirfaee. Tlie stratum nest the lowi 
-tiiface of the leaf consisU of Ioose1]|^ 
inranged ceUs, with longer dinmete 
usually jiarallel tu the plane of the leaf,^ 
often irregidor in form, and so dis[M5 
as to leave intervening sinuous air-spu(.-es iVecly |>ermeatiug s 




Da(h tbe Ililctnun nl ■ IhT nf lIlMun 

Oanam, (liairliig liie lireguUr 

tlw uppct Ujr«f at tbs pwti |iuli>. tlia celli of wLfcli ([ilaral TerilMllj) . 

IwMcd. ■outalcavaaiilymlnuUvMiilitisaiiliglrraiiiHlal mi.ln: Init Itm apiuu 

Unt« aul c«|>luiu In th« mt of the loaf, wLo™ the m1!» an tar lowlr nmnt 

■!«• IIh c]ri.txni>li or iklii of ib« a\>fST la\ an<l of ilio lowur >nrfiuo ut Uio lokf 

II In 


wt part of thf leaf. (Fig. 136, 137.) Heuce in good part the ' 
sejier green liue ul' llie upper, and the paler of the lower face | 

170. EpIdfrmU. The whole eiirface of leaves, as of young | 
terns, is lQve>ite<l with a translucent membrane, composed of I 

i or Etoiiietiiiies two or three layers of empty and ratlier- 

ick-wallMi cells. This is ibe skin or epidermit, which is so 

iclily scparahle fVuni the succulent tissue of such leaves as 

■ those of Stoneerop and other species of (iediiui. Il is of a single 

luyiT ill the Illiciiim (Fig, V6G) and Lily (Fig. 137) ; of aa 

many as three in the firm leaf of the Oleander ; la gcnei'ally 

d and thick in such coriaceous leaves as those of Rttosporum 
i Laiinistimis, whieh therei>y tlie better endure the dry air of 
(oms in winter. 

171. Slomata or BreatblnK-pores.* The epidermis forms a 
Millauoua protective investuK^ut of the leaf except where certain 
tganizeil openings occur, the xtomala. They arc forme<l by a 
insfuTmation of some of llie cells of the epidcnnia ; and consist 
ally of a pair of cells (called guardian-celis) , with an opening 
Blweeii lUcni, which cnmmunicatcs with an nir-chaml>cr witliin, 
lul itiencc with the irregular intercellular spaces whicli permeate 
e interior of the leaf. Through the Btomatu. when open. IVce 
tcrchange may take place Imtween the uir and that 

«, fillRUll 


within the leaf, and thus transpiration be much facilitated; 
When closed, this interchange will be interrapted or impeded. 
The meehanistn of stuiuata is somewhat 
recondite, anil will be illuBtrated in the 
anatomical and physiological volume of 
this series. 

172. It is only when leaves sssnme 
vertical or edgewise ^Kwition that the 
slomala are in equal numbers on both 
faces of a leaf. Ordinarily, they occupy 
ir most abound on the lower face, which 
is turned awaj- from the sun ; but in certain coniferous trees the 
reverse of this is true. In tlie WaUT Lilies (Nymphtea. Nnphnr), 
and other leaves which float 
upon the natcr, the stomata all 
belong to the upper surface. 
Leaves which live under water, J 
where there can be no evajwra- J 
tioD, are destitute, not only of 1 
etomata. but usually of a distinct epidennis also. The number I 
of the stomata varies from 800 to about 170,000 on tlie square \ 
iuch of BUi'facc in dilfurent leaves. In the Apple, there are said f 
to be about 2-1,000 to the square inch (which is under the a 
numlvr, as given in a table of 3C species bj- Lindley) ; so that J 
each leaf of that tree would present about 100,000 of liiese 1 
orifices. The leaf of Dragon Arum is said to have 8,000 I 
stomata to a square inch of the upjjer surface, and twice that J 
number in the same space of the lower. That of the Coltsfoot I 
baa 12,000 stomata to a square inch of the lower epidermis,.! 
and only 1,200 in the up|)er. That of Uic AVhito Lily hAim 
from 20,000 to 00,000 to the square inch on the lower su>J 
face, and perhaps 3,000 on the upper; and they are s 
niarkably large that they may be discerned by a simple lens of 1 
an inch focus. 

172. Venation, the veining of leaves, Ac, relates to tlie mod«fl 
in which Uie woody tissue, in the form of ribs, veins, &c., 
distributed in the celhilar. There arc two jmncipal modes, ' 
paraliel-etined and the retieitli$tr.d or nelted-vetned. The formpf^ 
is especially characteristic of plants with endogenous stem and 
monoeutykdonuus emlir^'O, and also of g,>'mnos])ermou9 trees, 

.0 (f^u^ltfl nalauu. wltb 



which have exogenous stems and at least dicotyledonous 
embryos. The latu-r prevails in oitiiuarj' piants with exogenous 
8t«m and dicotyledonous embryo. 

173. Parallel-Telned or Nerved leaves (of wbieli Fig. 143 is 
an iliustratiou) Lave a framework of simple ribs (called by the 
earlier botnnisU nentt, a name still used in descriptions), which 
run trom Uio base to tip, or sometimes Trom a central strong rib 
to margin of the leaf, in a generally parallel and nndivided way, 
r connected by uiiuute vcinlets only. Grasses, 

Uly of the Valley, and the like, illustrate tiie commoner mode 
wluch the tlireatla of wood run from base to njKis. Tlie 
hknana and Cnnna are familiar illustrations of a mode not un- 
nmon in ti'opical or subtropical cndogeus. in which the threads 
■s" nm from a central rib (mtdrii) to the margin. 
P.arallel-volned leaves arc genevally entire, or at least their 
margins net toothed or indented. The principal osception to 
this occurs wlien tlic ribs or the stronger ones are few in number 
Ud radiatcly <livetgent, as in the Jhbelliform leaves of Fan- 
peculiar modification of tlie parallel-veined ty\K. 
etween leaves with De^^■cs wholly of basal origin, and those 
h ner\-ea all springing from a midrib, there are various grada- 
ipns, and also in res[]ect to cuning. Uut parallel- veined of 
r^'ed leaves may be ckssifieil into 


or rliE QuIncR. or tbe neCIn 
l-vtlDsd hnf of the Uly of tb 

VmUey. Conr&Uarta i 



Baud-nerved, ttiat is, with the ticiTes iiU sprin^ng iroia t 
base of tLe leaf, and 

Cottal'nerved^ springing from a midrib or costa. Eithur may be 

Rectinerved, the nerves muuiiig straight from origin to apex 
or margin of tlie leaf, oa the case may be ; 

Currinentd, wlien curving in their C'om^e, as in tlie leaves 
of Fuukia and in Cauna ; 

ftai«llin«rved, where straight nerves and ribs radiate from the 
at>ex uf the petiole, as in Fati-pabus and the Gingko tree. 

174. In typical pai'allel- veined leBvcB, all reticulation is con- 
fined to minute and straight cross- ve inlets ; in many, these an- 
coarser, bi-anching, and reticulated : in some, as in t>niilax and 
Dioeeorea, only tlie primary ribs or strongest nen-es are on the 
pai-allel-veined plan ; the space between being filled witJi reticu- 
lations of various strengUi ; thus jtassing by gradations into 

175. Betlcnlated or Netted- veined leaves. In must of tbesc, 
from one to several primarj' [lortions of the fiamework are 
l>articularly robust, and give tirigin to mnch more slender ram- 
illeotions, these to other still smaller ones, and so on. The 
Bb'ong primarj' portions are Rms (cotfee) ; the leading ramifi- 
cations, Veiss (rente) ; the smaller and the nltimat« subdivisions, 
Veiklets {vemiiai). All or some of the veins and veinlels are 
said to anatlomoK, i. t. variously to connect with those from 
other trunks or ribs, apparently in the manner of the veins and 
arteries of animals, forming meshes. But, as there is no 0{)ening 
of calibre of one into auotlier, the word is etymologically rather 
misleading. More properlj', it is said Ibat tlic veins or veinlets 
form reticulations or net-work. A primary division of redculated 
leaves, and indeed of nerved leaves also, into two classes, is 
rounde<I uimh the iiumlwr of primary ribs, 

176. There may be only a single primarj- rib; this traversing 
the blade from base to ti|i tlirougli its centre or axis (as in Fig. 
H2, 132-15G) is called the Midrib. There may be oUiei's. gen- 
erallj' few (one, two, tliree, or rarelj' fonr), rising from the a]>ex 
of tJie (letiole on each si<le of the midrib, running somewhat par- 
allel with it or more or less diverging from it : these are lateral 
ribs. Among }>arallel-voined leaves, the Vanana, Canna, &c., 
have a single rib. from which the veins (in the older nomenvla* 
tnre here called nen'cs) all proceed. Most Lilies and the like 
have several appi-oximately parallel ribs, but the midrib pre- 
dominant: in otlicr cases. Die midrib is no stronger than tlie 
others. In Fan-palms, the ribs are radiately divergent, glf'ing 

fkn-shaped or rounded outline to the blade. In reticulated 
leaves, in which the veins alt spring from the ribs, the two 


cLissrs iuto wliich Ihcy divide are the pinnately veined and Ihc 
paimately vetnrd, 

177. Pinnat^lj or Feather- vetned (or Pmninrrved) leaves 
are act-onliugly those of wliii'h tlie veins and tlieir siihdii'isions 
»n> side branches of a single central rili (midrib), wliitli traverses 
U)f Wade (Vom base to ai>ex : the veins thna being disposed in 
1\k mnnDcr of Ibe plume on tiic shatt of a feather. (Fig. 142, 
\^i, &c.) iSometiines these continue straight and nndiminished 
from midrib to mai'gins (straight- veined, as in Beech and Cheat- 
nnt. Fig. 152), sending off only small lateral veinlets ; some- 
timea they ramify- in their course into secondai'j- or tertiary veins, 
and these into veinlets. Pinnate venation in i-eliculatetl leaves 
naliimlly belongs to leaves which are decidedly longer than wide. 

178. Some of the primary- veins, commonly among the lower, 
nuty be stronger than the rest, and thus take on the character of 
ribs, or by gradations irnss into such. The leaf of the common 
MiDtul Sunflower (Fig. l^'^i) liecomos in this way iripk-ribbed or 
trtpli-ntrrtd. The apiwarance of a second pair of snch strength - 
vncd veins makes the venation quiatapH-ribbed or •jiiinlupU-ueifed. 

Through the approximation of siicli strong X'cins to tlie hnse of 
the blnde. this venation may pass into the 

179. P«lm»t*lj, DisltKteIr, or Raaiatelj' Veined (or Palmi- 
nerrtd) class, of which leaves of common Maples and the \'ine 
are fiuniliar e.vamples. (Also Fig. 15H-ir.O, &e.) In tlieac 

riO- 1«-1SI. VmIou* formi cfT •Impto iMVe*. eiciiUlned In Ui> lent Binl in Hio 


there Itre thrM. five, seven, it Kimetimes more libs of (?<]nal 
strPDgth, the ecntral being the mitUiti. an<i eaeh witli its syslem 
of veiBS whifh ramify and funn meahe* in the intcrepaces. Here 
the whole woody portion of the leaf divides equally into a num- 
ber of pari* uix>n leaving the petiole or entering the blade. The 
ribs there eommonty diverge more or less in a palmate or dictate 
manner (i. e. like outspread fingere of tlie band, or the claws of a 
liinl. or like radii of more or less of a eirele) : so, in the corre- 
lation of outline and venation, this chtss of veining goes witli i 

roundish circumscription. This is not so true, however, in ( 
special case, viz., wb ere the ribs, however diveigenthelow.cur^* 
forward and all run to the apex of the blade, thus imitating the 
parallel- veined syst4?m. as in Kliexia and generally in the family 
of which that genus is the single northern representative. 

ISO. Forms as to Ondine, Ac. DeCandoUo conceived the sbi 
of leavM (both the general circumsi'ription and the s|)ecial ooi 
figuration) to dei^nd on the ilistrihution of the ribs and veins, 
and (iitantitj- of Ihe parenchyma in wliicli these were outspread, 
— a too mechanical view, and not confonnnble to the history of 
development. Tliis prftvcs that the fVamework is adapted to the 
paroneh.nna. which grows and shapes the oi^an in its own way, 
rather than the paa-nchyraa to it. It were better to say that the 

' In LinruFUi lerminoloey. paimait *nil diyiiaie tcterred la parllcuUr oul- 
Une onir, and wen- >p|iaratdf ntccj lo denote titcnt of division, — iiaimaif, not 
diTidcd down to ihc peliult^, di^iiale, when divideil, like llie pIb*» of ■ bird, 
quite down the l«te. llrCandolle fK-neraliird llie vte of Uie former lerav< 
and ever lincc (hu two 1i»tc licon used tntercliangcsblj. 

FIQ. ISS-IOO. VarloDi rormi at Blmplg, cblsflf pklmMsljr Telnad le 



two cleinonta of the structure are oorrclat^d. Dyscriptive terms 
u|i|)lio(l to loaves are equally a|»plicable to all expaii<le<) organs 
i>r jiurts, and indeed (o all outlines. 8ome learliiig furms are 
heiv enumerated ; and all are defined in the Glossary. 

181. As to genera) Clrcuinseri|itIon, proceeding I'roni narrower 
to hroader 6ha|>e8. and then to tlioee with filher iiarroweil or 
nolche<l base, leaf-bhulos are 

Linear, when narrow, several times longer than wide, and of 
almut the same breadtli Ihronghont. (Fig. I'lT. ) 

t/ntrtotaU, or Laiieeshnped. when several times longer than 
wiile, and tapering n|)wnnls (Kig, 153. ICJ^), or tapering both 
upward niul downward. 

OWotjj?, when nearly twice or thrice aa long as broad. (Fig. Ifi!).) 

E/lifHirai, oliloiig with a flowing outline, the two eiitia alike 
ill wi.llh. (Fig. 170.) 

Onil, the same as broadly elliptical, or elliptical with the 
flth consiflerably more than half the lengtb. 

■pralt, when the outline is like a section of a hen's-egg lengtli- 
the liroader end being downward. (Fig. 171, 1J.">.) 
'aiTr, or tffl^unrf. circu- 
lar in outline, or nearly so. 
(Fig. IGO.) 

Obarait, inversely ovate, or 
ovoto wilh the narrower end 
toward the base, tlic hroader 
upward. (Fig. 173. 145.) 

dineate, or Cuneiform, that Is, Wedi/e-shapcf, bi'oad above and 
tapering by straight lines to an acute l«iae. (Fig. 176, 148.) 

Spatulide, rounde<l aliove, long and narrow below, tike a 
].patula. (Fig. 174, 147.) 

OUanetolait, inverted lance-shaped, •. f. such a lanceolate 
leaf as that of Fig. 108, but with the more tapering end at Itase, 
as in Fig. 173. To those who restriet the tenn lanceolate to the 
sense of a narrow leaf tapering cqually'in both dircetiims, the 

lai-m, OutlliiracrfvuriouBBlinpliJlMViiB. 




term oblanct^lsle is snperflnona. The following terma Ace 
nate l«»ves with a notehiil instcarJ of narrowed liasp, 

Cordair, or Hrart-thaped. when n leaf of an ovate form. 
enrneUiing like it, has the oiiUiiie of its roiinileit lutsc ttimecl i 
(rorminjr a Doh^'b or linut) when? the stalk is atteciie<l. i 
Fig. 172. 151. Also Fig. H9. Ponlwieria. a leafof the parallel 
reined class. 

Reuifiirm. or Kidnttf-thaptd, like the last, only roandcr and J 
broader than long. (Kig. t^6.) 

AnnenlaU, or Eared, having B pair of small and blunt \ 
jectious. i>r«fr», at the bssc, as in Magnolia Fraseri. Fig. 1 

Snffiltote, or Jrrmo-tAapfd, where snch ears an- acute and tiim«1 1 
ciownwanls. white the 
main body of the blade 
tajK^rR upwanis to a 
point, aa in the cont-^ 
mon ejKcies of Saf 
taria or Arrow-heai^ 


the Arr 

leaved Polvgonui 
(Kig. 165. 177.) 

Hanlate, or Ilalbf. 
thaped, when 

lolx-t) at the base point oiitwanls. gii iiig the leaf the shape of tlitt'J 
halbenl of the olden time, as in Polygontim arifolium (Fig. 179M^ 
and Sorrel. Fig. 163. 

182. PAate or Sliield-xhaped Ipnves are those in which a bli 
of rounded or sometimes of other shaj>c is attaclutl to tlie petioV 
by soinc jiart of the lower surface, instead of the basal margin': 
those of Water-shield or Brasenia. of Nehmibium, and of Hydro- 
cotyic nmbrllata are maiketl examples. The anomaly is mor- 
phologically esjjlaineil by a eomimrisoH with deeply conlote or 
reniform leaves hn\'ing a narrow siuiis. such as those of Xjtii- 
phica or Water Lily, and by supposing n union of the appru:ci- 
mateil crlges of the sinus. Fig. 159 and 1(!0, fVum two species 
of Hydrocotylo, one with oi>en and the other with closed s" 
obliterated by the imion, illustrate tliis. 

183. As to Estremltf , wlicther base or apex, there arc sort 
descriptive tcnns, expressive of the principal modidi^tionB ;] 
such aa 

Aeujainalt, tapering, either gradually or abruptly, into i 
narrow more or less prolonged termination. (Fig. 180.) 

FIG. lT7-iro. Sneliuuo, Burtt 


Anttt, ending in an acute angle, without special tapering, as 
in Fig. I»l. 

Obtuu, ending with a blunt or roundish extremity, Fig. 182. 

TrnneaU, with U-rminaliou us if cut off bj' a straight transverse 
line, as ut Fig. 183. 

Kettm, with an obtuse extremity slightly depressed or re-enter- 
ing, as in Fig. 184. 

EmargimUe, with a more decided terminal noteh, Fig. 185. 

Obcordatt, inversely heart- alun>e<i, i. e. like cordate, but the 
broader end and its strong notch at apex instead of base, Fig. 
186. Tliis and the fiillowing terms are applicable to apex only. 

Aliteronale, abmptly lipped with a sniuU and short point, like a 
projec-tiou of tJie midrib, as in Fig. 188. 

VtupidaU. tipped with a sharp and rigid point, as in Fig. 187. 


184. As to MarEin or special Ontllne, the terminology proceeds 
tipt>n the convenient supposition of a blade with quite entire margin, 
but subject to incisions, which give rise to notches or ctefls, if we 
ivfcanl the sinuses ; or to teeth, loltes, segments, &c., if we regard 
the salient i>ortions Ix^tween the sinuses. The ribs, or the stronger 
reins, Ac, commonly terminate in tlie teeth or lobes ; but in Cicuta 
macubla, and m a few other cases, tlicy run to tlie notches. 

185. DentsUon relates to mere marginal incision, not extend- 
ing deeply into the blade. The blade is said to be 

Sntire,* when 
the margin is com- 
pletely filled out 
to an even line, as 
in Fig. 173-17!!. 

Srrraie. when J 
with small audi ^ 
shnrjilit^Jidireet-l - 

erf forward, '^''^i . "X"^%-^\. "^31^ '' ^ \ 
the teeth of a saw, \^^ ^t^^^. \ ^ 
as in Fig. 189. W 

Serrulair is the uT* 
dimimiti\'c of serrat*. and is equivalent to miniil«ly serrate. 

jfcr mauii imdiviilpd nr nnt lobiil. 

FIO. im-iiM. TmDlDBl 
riO. im-ivi. DddUUui 

n I«tin IcmiiDoluKy. Inte- 

of fitoaatelj Tclnal leave 




Dentate, or Toothed, a general term for tooUiing, spccii 
applknl to tlie case of salient teeth wUith are not directed 
ward or towards tbe apex of the blade. Fig. 190. 

Crenaif, or Scalloped, the same aa dentate or serrate, but 
teeth much roiindtKl. Fig. l!ll. 

Repand, or Undnlatt, when the margin is a wavy line, bending;] 
slightly inward and outwanl. Fig. 19^, 

SiHuaie, when this wavy line is stronger or distinctly sinuoiu,. 
aa in Fig. 193. 

Incited, when cut hy sharp and irregular incisions more or les9 
deeply. Fig. 194. This is intermediate between dentation and 

18ii. Lobation or Seffmeutatlon, When tlie blade is more 
deeply pcnetratctl by incisions fi\>m tlio margin, that is, when 
Uie spaces between the ribs or princi|ial veins are not filled to 
near the general outline, it is said to be lo&ed, cleft, parted, or 
dirided, accor<ilng to the degree of sejiaration ; and the portions 
arc called loliei, tegmmit, dm'tiont, &c. The most general name 
for such parts of any simple blade is that of lubei. More par- 
ticularly a leaf-blade, or other body, ia said to tie 

Lobrd, when tlie division extends not more than half way dowa^> 
and either the sinuses or the lobes arc rounded 

Cltji, when the division is half way down or more, and thfl' 
lobes or sinuses narrow or acute ; 

Parted, when the divisions reach almost, but not quite, to the'! 
base or the midrib ; 

Dieided, when tliey sever the blade into distinct parts, which 
makes the \vbX rimpound. (193.) 

187. LoBK is the common name of one of the parts of a simple 
blade, esi»cciaUy when Uiero is only one order of incision. But 
when there are more, as when a leaf is di\-ided or parted and 
these primarj' loljcs ngain lolied or cleft, the lolios of first order 
are commonly called Seomests (sometimes diPtn'ont or partitions). 
and the parts of these, Lobet. Or tlie lobes may be designated 
as primar>', secondary, tcrtiarj', &c. intimate portions or small 
lobes may be called Lobtdet or Lohelela. Also the portions of a 
quite divided blade take the name of Lmfiet*. By proper seleo- 
tion of terms, the degree of division or lobing may thus 
exgiressed in a single word. 

168. As \a Number of parts, this may l>e tersely expressed 
combination with the adjective term apjilicable to the degree ; 
Two4»hed, ThreeJobed, F've-lobed, Many-Uibtd, &C. ; or 7\oo^Fii 
elffi, Many-clejt, Ac. in Latin form IHfd, Trifid, MuUifid, 
Tiro-five-parifd, &c., according to the number of divisi< 
which extend almost to the base or axis ; Tiro-Five-divided 


the d 


Ijitiii form Sitecled, Trueeted, &c), when there arc two or tiu-ee 
or more complete diiisious of the blade. 

189. As (a AiTBiiKeineDt of pRrts, this may be simply and best 
expressed by taking into account tlie imtiiro of the venalion or 
the distribution of the riba, Ac, which controls or is co-ordinated 
the disposition of the lobes. Piniiatoly veined leaves, 
len lol>ed, miisl needs have the incisioDs directed to the mid- 
palmately-vdned or radiated, to the apes of the petiole, 
lobes or divisions of the first will be pinuately, of the second 

lately disposed. Accordingly, the three leaves of aa many 
ciw of Oak, Fig. 195, li)6, and 107, represent res|>ectively a 
oi^y lobed, pinnate}^ f^UJi., and ptnniUtly parted leaf, wliile the 
»mpanying leaf of Celandine, Fig. 198, \a pinnately dirided, 
K first three, however, when the degree of incision is not ])ar- 
salarly In question, usually pass under the common term of 
{nrtalifid, Fig. li)5 moderately. Fig. 197 deeply. The number 
r lol)P9, when dcllnitcly marked, may come into the descriptive 

spiitnaleli/ 7 -lobed. pinnate!;/ 7-clfJi, parted, or die" 
B the case may be. 

a. Siraihiriy, Flgnrcs 199 to 202 represent, respectively, a 
attly Ihrer-Iobed, thrte-chfi, three-parted, and (hrte-divitied, 
1 Latin form, trilobate, trijid, tripartite, and tritect or Iriiected 
Fig. 106 ifl apa/M«/i*(y 5-parted leaf; Fig. IGi, palmalel]/ 

multijid, *C. Fig. 1C2, a leaf of Dragoo Amm, U pnlmtttel;/ 
9-paried. But, as tlie lateral sintisefi are cot so dcop as the 
others, the leaf U said to be pedalely parted, or ptdatt, 
early lerminologj-. 

191. Moreover, as the lob«s or divisions of a leaf may 
again similarly lobed or parted, &c., this composition may be 
indicHt^^ by the prefix twice, thrice, &c., aa iwiee pinnatijid or 
bipinnaiijid, thrice pinnatety parted, thrice palmatelt/ parted, and 
the Ukc. Thus, a word or two, or a short phrase, may deseribe 
even a complex leaf, so as to convey a perl'ectly clear and defi- 
nite idea of its conformattou. 

192. A distiuclion shoiiKI now be drawn between simple and 
compound leaves. The distinction cannot be both natural and 
absolute ; for the one may pass variously into tlie other. Simple 
leaves, which have been thus far considered, have a single lamina 
or blade, which may, however, at one extreme be entire, at tlie 
other many-parted, and even several times divided. 

193. Conponiid Leares are those which have fVom two to 
many distinct blades, on a conunon leafstalk. Theee blades, 
called Leaflets, may be sessile on the common Icafktalk. or they 
may have leafstalks of their own. As the leaf verj- commonly 
separates in age by an ailiculation of its (letiole with the stem, 
so leaflets ore commonly more or less articulated with the conti'. 
inon petiole. When the leaf, witli its [wtiole, falls from ths: 
stem, the leaflets may as completely separate from the commoD 
petiole. Thoy do not always do this. Divided leaves, such as 
those of Fig. 198 and 202, though ranke<l among the simple 
sorts, are compound tn the sense of having distinct blades, 
but without articulation, ^omc of tliese blades ure apt to bo 
oonUncnt ; that is, a divided leaf is often in part merely parted, 
as in the upper jwrtion of Fig. 198. Such leaves are so inter- 
me<liatc between simple and compound that it becomes indiffer- 
ent, or a matter of convenience to be sellU-d by analog}', 
which head or by what language they shall l»e dcscrilwd. 
ever, most leaves are so constituted as to leave no doubt whel 
they are simple or compound. 

194. The leaflets of a compound leaf being homologous 
the lobes or segments of a simple leaf, indeed beiikg such segmei 
fully isolated, the two sorts fall under the same typos. A pi 
natcly veined simple leaf is the horaologiie of one kind of eoi 
pound leaf; a radiately veined leaf, of the other. That 
comtxiund leaves are either jrinnate or pit/mate. 

195. Pinnate Leares (Fig. 203-205) are those in which 
leaflets are arrangwl along the sides of a petiole, or raUier of: 



longation, the Rhachis, vliich answers to the midrib of a ])in- 
telj- YciDciI simple leaf. TUerc are Uirce iJiiiicipal sorts, aud 
e subordinate ones. That is, a pinnate leaf may bu 

I terminal 

^^^^^fmpari'pinnate, or pinnate with an odil leaflet, i 
^^^be, as iQ Fig. 203 ; and this is the eummoner case. 
^^^^KCirrhi/erou* PinnaU, or pionatc with a tendril iV"ig. 204), as 
^^^^nbe proper I'ea tribe aud Bignonia. Here either the termi- 
^^^^H leaBet only, or the upper lateral leaflets also, are replaced 
^^^K tcrulrlls. 

^^^Bpfiuri-piitnate, or Abruptly Pinnatt, tlestitute of n termiual leaflet 
^^^^t of any thing answering to it, as in Fig. 205. 

Ittitrrupleiilg Pinnatt denotes merely a striking inequality of 
size ituiong the loafleta : Lt/raielg Pinnate, one in which the termi- 

kl luill<.-t ia largest and the lower small. 
^im. Patmat*< or Digitate LeaTes (Fig. 206. 93) are those in 
ti the leaflets all stand on the 
nut of the |)ctiole. Dictate 
lgered)wastUeokl name, when 
6 Ifmi pfilmate was restricted U> 
mpte but palmately lobed leaf 
r this tyi»e. But aineo the time 
of DtCundullc I he two names have 
lieeji used intertiiangeably. Pnl- 

Hle leaves have no primary dis- 
utkin into sorts, exeept as to 
number of leaflets. These can 
ler ho very nnmcrous ; but there arc flilly a dozen in some 

FIG. va. An liD pari- 1-1 nnaui nr o<trl piTiiiitIs luf. SM. PInuts wltti ■ taidrl]. 
MS. AtoapUr |4»TuUc \mt of it Cute. 

WVi. 3M. PatmiUcly or lUelMlalr &-[oU<iUMlwr of* Buckeye, fKuliu. 


Lupines. More commonly there are only five to nine, oi 
three, rarely two, or even a single one. 

197. Number of leaflets may be indicated hy au adjeclive 
exprtrssioD composed of the projwr Latin numeral prefixed to 
foliotate {Foliolum, diminutive of folium, anaweriug to leaflet). 
'rims, bifoHolute. of two leaflets; trifoliolale, of tliroe leaflets; 
quadrifoliolate. of four ; guingur/uliolule, of five : pluri/olio/aU, or 
mullifulhlaU, of several or numerous leaflets, &c. Tliese terms 
are still more dcscriirtive when accompanied by the word piu- 
nateiy or palmately. indicative of the kind of compound leaf; as, 
palmaiclt/ or digHaiety tnj'oUulnta (common Clover-leaf, Fig. 211), 
or 5-/oliolate, as in Ituekeyo (Fig. 206), and so on. Also, piunaleli/ 
lG-/oliotale, as in Fig. 205, or 17-foliolate, as in Fig. 203; 
pi'nnalelg trifoliolale, as in Phaseolus, and in the low Hop-Clover, 
Trilolinm procumbene.' 

19S. But, in either class of compound leaves, the leaflets may 
be reduced to a minimum uumter. A pinnately trifoliolato leaf 
is one of the impari-pinnate kind reduced to throe leaflets, to one 
pair and the odd one ; and this is distinguished fi'om a palmately 
trifoliolat« leaf by the attaelunent of the pair at some distance 
below the apes of the jjctiole, and by the articulation aliove this, 
which marks the Juaction of tlic tormiual leaflet's petiole (or its i 
base, if sessile) with the rliaihia or common i>etiule. ■ 

199. Uniroliolate compound leaves (by no means a direct coa^ 
trndiction in terms) are by tliis articulation distin-'l 
giiiebcd fVom simple leaves which they simulate, 

f See the loaf of the common Barberrj', Fig. 207. 
C In other species, of the Mahonia section, the leaves 
I are all pinnately 3-9-foliolat(j, with well-developed 
' common i>etiole r in the true Berbcris, they are all 
thus reduced to the terminal and tong-petiolulate 
leaflet, on an almost obsolete petiole. Orange and 
Lemon leaves are in similar eose, but with the joint 
close to the blade. A comparison with near rela- 
tives shows that these, are also uuifoliolate leaves 
of the pinnate kind ; though this could not be asccrlaine<l by J 
ins])ecliou. I 

200. Decompound or Twice and Thrice Componnil LcaTcs. Theao" 
arc to once pinnate or once palmate leaves what the latter arc to 

' In pfnnnti^ leRvea, eHcli lontlet usunlly Iihs tis <ipiiu<ite fellon. Anit Ilie 
numbrr may be inditaleil by ihc pairi, m unijurinlr, l-ijugnle, Ifi/rujii 
planjugaU, ftcconling to tlie number otjiiga, gr pairs. 

tia. aOT. Uiiiru1Lolnt£l«irar BBTbarbTulgtcli, wltliintrUiU jieUole artlcaUled 
Umi nmrnely ibott ttue patlale. 


I the n&mo has bwn applied rathpr to irregularly manj'-times 
r {Ilsaectwl loaves (shl-K as tliose of Uieenlra) , or to 
! more Uion iliriue compounded. Of regularly twice or 
oompound leaves, the tommoneat are the 

BipinnaU or 'fwiee Pinnate, of onlinary 
I the Mimosoous aod Ciusnlpi- 

>ODs. but uot in the Fapihonoceous, Legu- 
mrniMie. Fig. 208 represents a bipinnate leaf 
uf the Honey Locust (Gleditschiu), with the 
variation (common with that tree) tliat soiae 
of the partial iwtioles, in this figure only the 
lowcal, Ih'ots a single leaflet, while tlie othi-i's 
oro I'jtteiidwi into secondary riiadiises fur- 
nished with niimiT- 
ous leaflets, mostly 
!b the abruptly pin- 
nate style. ' On the 
saiDc tree, tlic earlier 
leaves, whieh are 
chtstcnxl on short , 
spars, are simply ' 
pinoate. The large 
leav-es of Gjinnocladus are similarly and abruptly bipinnate. 

ex<«pt at the base, wUitih ie aimplj i)iuiiat« or with c 

pairs of eimpie kniluts. 

Tripinrtatt or Tkriee Pitmate loaves of a regular sort are rare 

but, Willi some irregularity, they occur in i|]aiiy.Hj>ecieB, as u 

Aralin, &v. Tliis extent of division, and even mueh greater, is 

eomnion in Fems, 

Digitale-J'iiiiuUe ia wliere the primoiy di^'ision of the petiole 

on the jMilmate or digitate plan ; the aecondary, on the pinnatCi 

This seems tu be the case in the Sensitive Plant, Mimosa pudiea, 

Fig. 209. But the k-af is liere truly bipinnate with the priinury 

divisions verj- crowded at the apex of jjetiole. 

Conjugate- PiunaU is the same arrangement, witli the primarj- 

divisiona a single |inir, at the ajtex of Iht; puliole, and the leaBets 

pinnately arranged on these, 

Digilattlg or Palmaiely Decompound in a nearly n-gular way 
ia not an nnoomnjon ease. 
Usually, the jjetioic is succes- 
sively three-forked, as iu Fig. 
210, wliL'D tile leaf is said to 
Ire bitemale (twice tematc), 
(rilerimte (tliiice tcruate), or 
qimdrittrnale (fonr timea l*r- 
uate), &e,, according to the 
uumlter of times it divides, or 
2-3-4-^ imM Itmately compound. 
The ultimate divbions in such 

cases of tliroca are commonly of the pinnately Irifuliolate type. 

201. Pinnn is a convenient name fur the imrtial petioles of a 
bi|iinnatc leaf, taken togetlier with the leaflets that belong to 
them. Thus, the Sensitive Plant, Fig. 209. has four pinna;, or 
two pairs ; the Honey Locust, Fig. 208, a greater number, 
When such leaves are still further componndeil. the pinuic of 
higher order, or tlie ultimate ones, take the iliminuttve term of 
PiNSLx.E or PiNsui.ES. Tlie blades tlicse bear are the Leaflets. 

202. The Petiule or LeabUlk ia a comparatively uuessentii 
part of the leaf. It is often wanting (then the blade is leiii/a); 
it may be absent eAen in comiwund leaves of tlie [udmate ty 
the leaflets rising side by side tVom the stem. When present, 
ia usually either muuit, or half-i'ylindrical and channelled on the 
Upjier side. In the Aspen, it ia flattened at right angles 
the blade, so that the slightest breath of air puts the Icavi 
motion. Sometimes it is mneh dilated and membrsnaeeoua 


'tia l 

impuiuid or Uruatel; ileEompoantl luT of naikl 




it forms a ^| 

base, MM in many umbclliferouH plants ; sometimes it 
stafath, otxasiouully it is iHjnlcrcd nJtli ap^Kodages, &c. Peti- 
ole* may assume special functions, to be hereatter couaitlercd. 
The HtKKly and vascular tissue runs lengLbwise tbrough the 
pt'liole, in llie form usually of a ileflnite number of parallel 
tbreods, to Ijc ramified in tbc blade. The ends of these threads 
arv apiMrent on the base of the leafstalk when it falls off, and on 
Uie aiiiT Ictl on the stim, as so many round dots (Fig. HI, 85, 
ai), ofu unifonn number and arraugement in each species. 

203. Partial Petioles ai-Q the divisions of the petiole in a 
compouDd leaf. The footstalk of a leaflet takes the diminutive 
JO of Petiollile. 

U4. SUjioIm (157) are lateral ap|)endagcs, one each side of 
base of the iwitiole, sometimes free 
im it and from each other (Fig, 
II!), sometimes attached by one 
U» its base (Fig, 211), somc- 
les united with each other into a 
;le body (Fig. 212) in various 
lysor degrees. Id tlie latter case, 
oaaally appear to be within the 
[tese of the leaf or leafstalk ; or, as 
tbc Plane-tree, they may be joined 
iLii one over against the leaf, as 
o|"posile to it, bnt their normal 
lition is supposed to be lateral or /^ 
irglual to the petiole. Sometimes 
ty are foliawous in appearance and 
ftinction : sometimes they ai*e dry 
colorless or scale-like, ivduced to 
epidirrmal tissue, and evidently 
ictionlcfls : sometimes (as in Uag- 
illa. Fig. 81, Fig-tree, and Bceeh). 
as buil-scalcs. and fall when 
Wares develop ; sometimes they are 
iced to ft mere bristle, or take the 

8j>inc. as in tlic Loeust (Kobinia). Between salient 

ipansions or wing-like margins of the base of tbe pctioti 

those nf tbc SaxifVagc tiibe, and stipules adnate to the 

1 of the (wtiole. as in most Itosaeeo;, there is no clear 

Ml. But presence or abscnec of stipules generally nms 


nu. III. Cl0nr-lcaf,vliLiuliiBti)stlpulo«. 111. Orbnuttoitlpulnfnii 
of ruljxouaiD orisnMlo, ikunilOG Ihn •tem lor nooio dliUncii, >uil ouilius Id > *|iT(*d- 



through a natural order. Yet what are called stipules in one order,^ 
mnj- jiass fiir esitum^iunH or o|ipcndages of the iwtiolo in another.i' 
In S|)ergularia, some stipules arc connate around the base of tb6>l 
pair of leaves, tiicUiding tlicm as well as the stem in the sheath.^' | 

205. Stipules, which are normaUy a pair, may unite into OM 
body, either ailnnte to the inner face of the leaf, as in si 
, species of Potarai^eton, or united opposite the leaf, as in Pli 
tree, or united inter »t in a sheath, as in Polygonum. Also n 
the leaves are opixisite and the slipnles thus brought into prox- 
imity, the adjacent half stipules of the two leaves may coalesist, 
and pi-esent the appearance of only two sti|)ules to two leaves, 
as in many Kuhiaeeas. A notch or fork at the apes often 
indicates the. composition. 

20G. Sheathing stipules, like those of Polygonum (Fig. 212)'J 
are said to be ocAreate, or (better) oeriate ; the sheath, thia 
likened to a leggiu or the leg of a boot, is an Ociirea, as writte 
by Linnivus, or letter Ocrea, 

207. The LiuuLE of Grasses (Pig. 160) is seemingly a thin andf 
scarious extension of the lining to the sheath wliich answers tal 
j>etiole in such leaves : it projects at the junction of the sheatlt 1 
and blade, there forming a kind of ocrea; and it is generally j 
regarded as a sort of stipule. 

208. Stfpels ( Slipella) are as it were stipnles of leaflets, whicj 
are common in certain tribes of Papilionaceous Lcguminosa;, e.§M 
in the Phaseoleic, in Wistaria, Locust. <S:c. ; also in Staphylea 
They are small and slender, and, unlike stipules, they are singllil 
to each leallot, except to the terminal one. which has a pair. Aa J 
leaves fiimished with stipules are said to be itipulaln, so leafletf^a 
with stipels arc itipeHale. 

20!). Sonus nnnsaal niodUlcatioDS of leaves as foliage, 
leaves as illustrated thus far. it is the lamina or blade which i 
expanded to do Ihc work of foliage ; which is exiianiled horfi 
zontally, so as to present upi>er and nnder surfaces, one to thi 
sky, the other to the ground ; which is bilaterally symmetric! 
or substantially so, the two lateral halves lieing nearly ifnotf 
quite alike ; and which is afHxed to the stem at the basal margin, 
or some part of it, with or without a petiole. Various de\-iations 
or apparent donations &om this pattern occur. Some of them are 
of comparatively small account and simple explanation, such a 

210. InnqoE lateral LeSTes, being uns\inmetrical by the i 
greater development of one side. This is illustrated in i 
whole genus Begonia (as in Fig. 161), consisting of many spc 



itlosca that portion of the 

cieB. BOiDP of whicb are m(xkrat«ly, and most of thorn strikingly, 
oblique iu this way. Elm-leaves, and the like, are moiv or leae 
iutwiui lateral at the base. 

211. Connate Knd PerfolUte Leares. Tliesc are explained 
the union of oon- 
tiguoua leaf- edges. 
Peltate lea\es to 
wlinU a paragraph 
has alna<l\ ticea 
given C'**^)' come 
under the same 
braii the seeming 
attaebment of the 
I)etiolt to the lower 
Tof* of tlie blade 
bting the result ot 
a eongenital union 
of the edges of the 
smiis In a seaaile 
leaf, when suih a 
union takes plaee. it aiirroiinds and ei 
stem, which is thus prr/oltate. {Vtg. 
213, 314.) Il is the stem whieh is 
literally perfoliate, i.e. which seem- 
ingly jMifises through the leaf; but it 
is etistomarj', though et)'moIogically 
absurd, to call this a porlbliale leaf 1 
I'vulnria pcrlbliatn (Fig. 213), m the 
Uter growth of the season, reveals the 
explanation of the perfoliaUon : the 
liase of llie lower leaves eouspicuously 
surrounds and encloses the st^m : that 
of the upi^er is merely cowlat* aiwJ 
clasping : the uppermost simply ses- 
sile by a rounded base. Baptista 
perfoliata [Kig. 2U) is a more 
strongly marked case of perfoliation. 
But tliere are goml morjihologieal 

reasons for inferring that this seemingly simple leaf consists of 
a jiair of stipules and a leadet combined. An occasional mon- 
Btrosity veriEies this 8up[}osition. 


1 nf Ir 

.rla porTolUUi. 






»». « 




212. When leaves are op|>oaitt', the pcrfoliation (such as tJ 
of Honeysuckles, Fig. 215J is ohviously the result of a e 
tal miioii of the boaes of the pair liy their coutiguous edg( 
LeavDB connate iq this way by uarrow bases arc not rare i 
reinaikalile ; but, when the two are tlius coalesceot into o 
fbliaeeous hocly, giving this appearance of perfoliatioD, tlie t 
eonnale-pfrj'oliiite is used to express it. 

213. Vertical Leares, those with blades of the ordiuary kiiu 
but presenting their edges instead of their faces 
to the earth and sky, or whon erect with one 
edge directed to the stem and the other away 
from it, are not uiicoimnon. Tliey prevail in 
the Australian Mji-tacew, &c,, and occur with 
less constancy in the Califomian Blanzanitas, 
and in a great variety of herbs and shrubs. The 
anomaly involves no exception to the rule that a 
leaf-blade is always expanded in the horizontal 
plane, when expanded at all ; for, except in equi- 
tant leaves, it is the result of a twist of the petiole 
or of the blade itself.' In strongly marked 
cases, or in most of them, the organization of 
the epidermis and stiporflcial parencb,>ina and 
the distribution of the stomata are the same on 
both faces. 

214. Eqnltant Leaves ai-c vertical on a ditferent 
phm. They arc eonduplicatc, t. e. are fokleil ^ 

together lengtliwise on tlicir middle, the upper surface thus coa-J 
ccaled within, the outer alone presented to the air and light 

> Silphium laciniitum, the so-called Compass riant, ini] (hxrd]}' less w 
S. lerebinthiniicpum, &tc good inalnncos of Ihe kliid, tiioBt of the Icim 
mnlting a lialf-fnUt. tlie radical one* bj their long petioles. In the fon 
■peciee, the pinnatcly parted blade occasSonHlly iniikcg a farther ttriit, » 
to bring the upper part into a ptaoc at right angles to tlic lower, 'me 
blades ptBcc themselves in various direclioii* ae respects the cardinal points ; 
but on the prairies the greater number adect a north and south directiaa of 
llietr cdires, — a peculiarity first pointed out, in the year 1BJ2, liy GenertU 
B. Alvord, U. S. A. 

PIO, llfl. Bqnltant erect l«iv« or Iris, vlch tlia rootdlnck. 
FIG. IIT. A aectliiii acrgss Oieae lenva at Uw base, sbowinK i 

ri/utlanf chnrutlft^^^H 

109 ■ 

their I 
tiooal H 

;, the B 
lid so H 

i;h is H 
most V 


king two-ranked and closely crowded, the outer ones at their 

■ basf fold over or bestride the inner (aa shown in the sectional 
Rdiagnun, Kig- 217), whent-e the name of equitiml, Abovi 

DiitignoQS halves of the inner face congenitally cohurc, and bo 
! the sword-slmpcd or hncar vertical blade 
tebanirteristio of Iris (Fig. 21C) and the Iris (iuiily. 
|-1lKTe is a farther complication, of an excep- 
■tional kiiKl, viz. the development backwards 
rof n |K>rtion of blade from the midrib, often 

■ Jbnuing most of the upper part of such leaves, 
Elriiitrh llierefore may really be sahl to develop 
^fa the wrIJcul plane. 

. Lmtm with no itiHtlnrtlon of Parts, i. f. 

Pof hiadc and petiole. This U the ease in Iris 

r(Fig. 310), Daffodil, the Onion, and perhaps 

r moat parallel-veined leaves of Endogens. 

rbose esiianiled in the horizontal plane may 

nrorer he r^urded as sessile blades : those 

rhich arc not expanded, but filiform, or needle- 

Aaped (aeictUur), or awl-shapod (ntbulale). maj- 

e regarded either as homoli^ous with i>etioles, 

rasiinexpandcd blades, which amounts nearly 

S the same thing where there is no trace of a petiole at base. 

pnder tliis head may be ranked the leaves of I'inea (Fig. 2-18) 

' Uttli the subulate and the 

Mllc-shapcd and adnatc leaves 

"■ iVrbor Vitre, Red Cedar (Jnni- 

s Vlrginianu) . and other lives> 

f the Cypress tribe. (Fig. 218.) 

?IG. Stlpnlea wrilag tor Blade. 

tli.\TOB Apliaca is a goo«l in- 

[•tnnce of this (Fig. 21',i) ; the 

ppliole becoming a tendril, tlie 

Mfleta which its relatives liear 

cing wholly wanting, the ample 

fclJKCCOus 8tij>iilea assume the 

Ippearsncc of leaves. In some 

ther species of Lathnns. and in the Pea, eqnally lai^ stipules 

e witli the pair or pairs of leaflets iu the functions of fuliagc. 

KOn morphological evidence, we judge that the singular leaies of 

no. SIS. AtwlKflf ArborVllK. V 

no. tit. lAtbjTUi Apluuk; portl 

-' • rale iif (iiUaceiiu ntliiulei. and i 

letlalo Iti Clio rota, of a uadrJIi I 


fi^itina ptrfoUftta, sliowu in F%. 214. are not simple blades. 
but «acfa-a pair or sti[>ules, with or witltout a tenuinal leaflet, all 
cxHopletety oonflueDt into one body. Tbe related species of the 
genus have triroliolatc leaves aod foliaanus stipules ; hence these 
simple leaves nithout etijHiles arc best explained in thit iray. 

■217. PhyUodiar or FttialM tmlwf tm BUOe. Sometimes the 
jx-tiolc develops foUa«»us marina, or wings, as in the Bitter 
Urange and in Ubus iiJinlliita. These are eOicient aa foliage in 
proportion to their siate. These are not to be eonfouuded with the 
i-a.4e iu which a petiole specially de^'elops aa a blade-like organ, 
wliich usunifi the <'flii'C of foliage. A petiolc-bladc of this kind 
is named a PmrLLouiuM. (X-curring only in Exogens. pbyllodta 
are generally distinguished from true blades by the parallel 
venation, and alnat-s by their normally vertical dilatation ; i'. «. 
they, without a twist, jirwent their edges instead of iheir faces to 
the earth and sky. The eonunon and most familiar phyllodia are 
those of Acacias in AuBtTHlia (F'ig. 223, 224), where they form 
the adult foliage of over 270 out of less than 300 slides. The 
tnie lamina of these is bipinnate. * It appears on seetllings, and 
occasionally on later growths. Severs] SoDth American e|>ecies of 
Osalis produce phyllodia. So likewise do our tubular or tntmpct- 
leaved species of Sarraceuia iu that i>ortion of the foliage which 
develops the pitcher imperfectly, or not at oil. Indeed, all 
SaiTae«nia-leave9 arc phyllo<Iia with the back in most of tliem 
hollowe«l out into a tube or pitcher: and the terminal hood 
answers to the blade. 

I 3. Leaves sebaisg Special Officks. 

218. Leaves may serve at the same time both their ordii 
and some spoeinl use, or even more than one special use. 
example, in Nejtenthes (Fig. 222) there is a well-developed 
blade, usually sessile, which serves tbr foliage, a prolongation of 
its tip into a tendril, which sen'cs for climbing, then an extraor- 
dinary- dilatation and hollowing of the apes of tliis into a pitvher 
for a verj- special use. and a peculiar development of the a| 
of this into a lid, closing the orifice during growth. Among 
Bl>ecial purposes which leaves sulocne, and the study of whi 
connects sing^daritics of morpliolt^y with telcolog}- 
remarkable is that of 

2m. LeaTCS spcclalbed for the riilization of Animal Mai 
This occurs in leaves which altto assiuijlntc, or do the crdi 
work of vegetntion ; and the special Huiction is usually taken 
by some particular ]>ortion of the organ. The detaUg of t 

oped tH 



^^Vbnhject — which has of late becomo highly interesting — belong J 
^^K to phjBiolt^-, ami therefore to the following volume, to which j 

I historical references are relegated. Only the morpliology of 

ich leavcB ia here under consideration. 

iiCi. An ADcIdla or Pitchers, vessels for maceration, &c. These 

Bcnr in severul widely different 

milies of plants. The coniinonest 

C tbo«e nf the Sarracenias, natives 

r Atlantic North America. They 

! evidently phyllodia (217), the 

■lity 1>eing n hollowed dorsal jwr- 

: the wing-hkcor foliacooiia ]}or- 

in, alwaj-s conspienons and forming 

C v-cntral border, maki^s the whole 

^n or raost of it in the earlier 

IKvea of the tubnlnr species. The 

^tellers of S, pnrimrea (Fig. 221, 

1X5) , the only six-cies which extends 

rth of Viiginia. are open cups, 

~T fillc<l with water, much of which 

■y Im rftin, in which abundance of /f 

•*«^ are usualh' undet^oing macer- "' j^ 

In S. variolaris (Fig. 220). the hooded snmmit, answer- 
; to the blade of the leaf, arches over the mouth in such i 

no no Pltch(Fr.<.rHclUmpl.nn.; Ml. of Sufrscmlaptirjinr™; KH. nfNiip™iIn». 
B3 A iihrlluilluiu uf It Kvir HuUuid Acute. XH. Tbe unie, bcahng > roliiml o 
pmii'l Mxla. 

no. VZ& Pliclict-lcaru of SartBf enia |>arpur«; unc of Iben wltli (b« ii|i]wr]wrC 

ss to mostly excludp the rain ; in S. pBittacina (Fig. 227) ti 

inflexcd and indnU-d hood complotely excludes it. The nater' 
which tliese cwntain is uiniotibUxlly a scfretion. 
All entmp flies, ante, and various insects, which 
ill most species aiv lured into the pitcher hy a 
sweetish secretion around or at some pait of the 
orifice.' Tew Uiat have entered ever esca|>e ; 
moat are decomposed at Ihe Ixittom of the cavity. 
In Darlingtonia Calirornica (l-'ig. 22H), the Cali- 
fornian representative of Sarracenia, the inflated 
boHxI guards against all act-ess of rain, while the 
orifice is freely open to flying insects from be- 
neath ; and a singnlur two-forked appendage, like 
lo a flsh-tail (proliably the lioniiili^uc of the 
blade), overhangs the front. The inner face of 
tliis appendage is besmeaml with the sweet and 
viscid secretion which allures insecis to the oi>en- 
ing. In this and in Siarraceuia variolaris, the 
sweet seeretion in the early season is conlhiued 
upon the edge of the wing, forming a Baecliarine 
trail wliicli leads fVoni near the ground up to the 
orifice of the pitcher." Fig. 220 represents pitchers 
of Ileliamphora. a little-known South American 
representative of Sarraccnia. Its wing is narrow 
and inconspicuous, the mouth widely open and 
directed upward, and the hood reduced to a 
minute and upright, probably fii net ion less ap- 
pendage. In Cephalotiis — an anomalous plant 

of Anstralia. of uncertain affi- 
nity — the leaves for foliiige 

arc dilated phyllodia ; among 

tliom are others completely 

transformed into stalked and 

short pitchers, with thickened 

rim and a well-fitting lid, 

hinged by one edge. Fig, 229, 

Tlie particnlar morphology of the parts is not well jnadc out, 

' Thi» iwoet iM^retioti, which ai times is very obvious in theiouthpm 
ipccit*. Um niBo been dpleclcd by Mr. Edward BiirjwsB in S. purjiuwjt ; but 
it ii nirely iwini, nnd probably plays no important pnrt in the capture and 
drowninsof the multitude of insco'ta which these pilchera are apt to contain. 

* This trail wan dlscororeii by Pr. J. H. Mellichanip, of Sooth Carolia 

See Proc. Am. Assoi-iation (or Adsniiwmcnt ot Science, 1 " 

FIO. SZO. FItchci orSarrumla Tailglarli. an. Same of S. iwUtadoa. 


S21. The piU^Uer-bearing loaf ii 
to (218. Fig. 2-2i) : of tliia the 
some w hat woody climbing 
plants of tropii'ftl Asiatio 
and AlVicau inlands of < 
the soutlipra hemisphere, 
some of thi'm faniiliar in 
conwnatory cultivation. 
Here the t«Ddril may he 
reganieil as a prolonged 
rxtfnsion of the midrib 
of the blade, and the 
pitcher, with its hinged 

liii, as a peculiar development from its apes, 
water containi'd in the pitcher is a socrelion, 
of whieh appears before the lid opens ; and a sweetish 
esi-retion at the oriHce lurea insects. The presence 
of these in the pitcher increases the watery secre- 
tioD in which the animals arc drowned ; anil this 
K-en'tioD Is aseeitaiued to have a certain digestive 

222. The aquatic sacs of Utricularia or Bladder- 
wort are din)inuti>'e aecidia, always under water, 
and tritb lid opening inward, like a valve, preventing the exit 
of minute animals entrapjied tlierein.' Moi'phologieally, they 

) (loubtless leaves or parts of leaves. 

223. An Sensitive FIj-traps. The leaves of all sgweies of 
sera or Sundew are t>csct with stout bristles tipiied with a 

md. which secretes and when in good condition ia covered 
f a drop of a transparent and very glairy liquid, siifflciently 
madoua to hold fast a fly or other small insect. Adjacent 
" "bristles, ci-en if not touche<l. in a short lime l>end towards those 
uixm whieh the insect rests, and thus bring tlwir glands also 
{01*) contact with it. In Droscra filiformiH, the leaves are fili- 
form, with noilistinclion of [letiole and blade. InD. rotundifolia 
and other common ronnd-loaved species, there is a clear distinc- 

flnl mmk' nut by J. I). Ilnoker, ind nnnounccil in his ii<Ic1n?M, 
Pmiilmt of the British Awooitiion for the Advincement of Science, at 
ibutxli, 1S71. 

Darwin, loaecliromus PUnl*, 305. Cahn. Brilr«|ie tur Biolotcie iJa 

IB75, Mre. Tresl. in The Tribune, Sew York, Seplcmbtr. 1874, 

Card. Chron. 187G, 3ai, 

PUclierurDu'llnetoiilikCiilLromlcB. 129. Pltcber of Cepbaloliu I 



tion of petiole and tilado, and the stalked glands thickly beset 1 
the whole up[)cr snrTauc of tlie lalter. A siniill insert alighting j 
thereon is hel]>k8B, and is soon touched by all the glands withinl 
reaching distunce ; alao the blade itself commonly incuncs^ I 
taking part in tlie general movenient. It has recently lH!cnJ 
demonstrated that the captured insect is fed upon, and that tlw] 
plant thereby receives nourishment. Here leaves which do tha-l 
normal assimilative work of vegetation, bet sonicwhnt feebly I 
(having a comparatively small amount of chlorophyll), hav^l 

also the power and the habit of obtaining ready-organized f 
by capture, and are benefited by it. 

224. Species of Drosera inhabit most parts of the wo 
the genus is numerous in 8i>eeies. A near relative, Dii 
of a single species, D. muscipula (\'enu3"8 Fly-trap), inhabiting^ 
only a limited district in the sandy eastern boixler of North 
Carolina. It is more strikingly sensitive and equaUy carnivo- 
rous, but in a different way. It is destitute of stalked and viscid.^ 
glands. The ajipamtus for capture and digestion is tl 
valved bwly at the top of each leaf. (Fig. 230, 231.) 




be takon for the leaf-bladu, the part below woulil be a bi-oadl.v- 
wing«t rwliaf-eoiis jwtiole. If llio latter Iw the true bUuie, the 
ai)|>&ratii8 ID <iiicstiun must be reckimcd ne a j>oc'ulmr terminai 
n|)[ienilB^e. Both are luoilfrately green, and net as foliage. 
Tlio ajHx-ially eiKlowe<i teiiniiial [xirtiuii auts also in a ilecideillv 
aninml-Like manner. When cillicr of the thiT* oi four sletiilur 
briatles of the upper eurfaee arc touched, the trap enditonly 
elosca. Iiy a movement ordinarilr quick enough to cnelosc and 
retain a fly or other small inseet. The intercrossing of the sluut 
marginal bristles detains the captive, unlcBa it liapiwus to be 
small enough to esoat* by the intei-vening little oiwninga. 
Otherwise, the ei<les soun flatten and arc brought firmty into 
contaet, ami a glairy secretion is inured out fiom numerous 
immereoti glands : this, with the extracted juices of the macerated 
insect, is alter some time reabsorbed ; the trap, if in a healthy 
condition, now re-o|(ens and is ready for anotlwr capture. For 
referencea to tlie now copious literature of this whole subject, and 
for its physiological treatment, the succeeding volume should be 

225. Lmtm for Storage. Nutritive matter is stored in lea\cs 
in many cases, and not rarely in lenxes which at the 
same time are suhscning tlic puii»osc of foliage. 
This occurs in all fleshy leaves, to a greater or less I 
cxtcnl, according to the ilegi-oe of thiekeniug or 
accumulation. The leaves of the Ccutuiy Plant I 
or Agave, for instance, arc gi'ecn and foliaceously 
elllcicnt at the surface, while the whole interior ia 
a ston^-house of farinaceous and other nutritious 
matter, as much so as is a [wtato. The leaves 
of various species of Aloe, Ifescmliryanthemum, 
Scdum. nnd other "BUeeulent" plants (in which 
a large fiart of the accumulation is water) are 
mrcty so ol>eso as to lose or inneli disguise 
folioceous api)earnnoe. Sometimes one iwilion of 
a leaf is of normal texture and use, while another y 
Is ns<'d OS a i-eservoir for the nonrislmient which tlio [ 
foliaccous part has produeetl. Fig. 282, a leaf from ' 
the Imlli of White I.ilj-, Ihc base of whieii foi-ms 
one of the bulli-scnies, is an instance of the kind.' 

> In r>ii.fntTft CucuUaliH sn<t (morr tlriklnfcly (mm tlic Kpnrsinc^i of ihi; 
gniin>| In n. Cinadeniis, llie msctiTelBborauxl in ili<> iimeli iHmm'IcJ Unrlc l« 
convcycil to Itie voiy bate of tlic Icing pcliolv, ami iIictv dppmited In n con- 

Pia lai. A twUcal Uif or tiM Whlle U\Y, Tttb lu buo tblckennl 
vUfib l> onl acroM la show Iw thkkucH. 

P 116 



' D&tian 


decisive instance of leaves used Tor storage of food is in that- 
material provision foi' tlio iioiivialimcnt of lliu embryo in germi- 
nation, in wtiich the first leavesi the c-otylcdona, are tiinteil to tliis 
account. (21-37, &u.) Alter or 
wliile diseliarging Ibis s|>ecial duty, 
tlio cotyledons may fuim their gen- 
eral ofticc, by sening as foliage (as 
in Maples, Fig, 8, and Pumpkins, 
Fig. 47) ; ov, tlirougli vaiious intcr- 
mciliBle conditions, they may b^ 
wliolly devoted to storage, as in 
the Pea. Oak, llorsechcstnut, 
(Fig. 37-13.) 

22Q. LeavM as Bulb-scales, liow^i 
ever, are for the most part wlioUj 
applied to this use, being leaves 
rethieed to short scales or to 
ooHccntrio eoata, and thickened 
til rough out hv iiiitritiic de]>osit. 
The accumulation of sucji leaves 
forms the mass of the tmlb, as of 
tlie Lily, Fig. 118, Onion, Fig. 
113, Ac, also of biilbleU. (120.) 
227. LeavM as Bnd-scalea, being 
for prot«cl.ion of nascent parts, have 
boon explained under buds. (70.) 
The p\ideiice of foliar nature af- 
forded liy transition is well exhib- 
ited by tlie Sweet Biickej-e, altliough 
the wliolescries of gradations, flom 
biiil-seales to com|)ound leaves, 
is seldom seen united in one bud, 
as in Fig. 233. In this case, tlMj 
bud-senles are homologous 
petioles. In Magnolia, thej' eonaiife' 
of stipules (Fig. 81, H2) : in tb»r 
Idla«, tliey arc homologous with leaf-blades. The two pairs of 
bud-aeales which sniiteud and protect through winter tiio nasceiA'' 
head of flowers of Comus florida are moq)hologieally the apes of 

centntleit condition, In the fonn of n mlfd fjtiin, whith remaini for next 
yenr'i u»p, thp wliolc leaf except thii thicken e<l bme liying nwaj- at the clow 
of the *hoH ieaann's growtli. 

no 03. LtavCT^r. ilpvolopl"Bl'm' ""lioI-ni'BwMl Biickere(,«iipnlniiI»r»K J 
•HI. •howlnganedtly complelBi --■-■- ... •■ 


A _ 



blndes. When tlii.' blossoms develop in spring, these scales grow 
IVom l)cneatli, greatly expand, and iKJCome obovatc or obcordaUj 
l>e(aluid leaves, tlie brown tenninat notch 
of which is the bud-sc^lc, which was un- 
able to take part in the vernal growth. 

227*. Leaves as Spines. All gradations 
may l>e foiinil ln-twecn Bpiny-tootlied leaves 
(lis in IIoll^\';, in whieh leetli are i>ointcd and 
indurated, and lea\'es whieli are completely 
contractMl into a simple or multiple spine. 
Indcoil. such n transition is seen in the Itar- 
bern-. Fig. 234. The foliar nature of such 
spines is munift'st fivm their iKisition, sub- 
tending a bud fVom which the foliage of the 
season proceeds, and Uiemselves not sub- 
tpiiikil by any organ. In some Astragali, 
Uip |)rtiole of a pinnate leaf indurates into 
a slender spine and pci'sists. tlte IcaQets 
eariy fulling. The spine in Fouqiiicra is a 
portion of the lower aide of the jieliole o 
ini<lrib. indnrated and persistent, tlic rest 
of tlie leaf se|Mirating by splitting when it 
has serveil its office,' "' 

238. LesTM xdapted to CHmlilng. Some plants elinib by the 
aotion of the st^m or of certain branches H|»eciallj- adapted to- 
this )iur]Hise (OD) : others gain the needful 
siipix)rt by means of their leaves (101) ; some- 
times by nn infnr\-ation of the ti(>s, either of 
a sinijilc blade as in Gloriosa, or small partial 
bbulcs, as in Adlumia, and often in Clematis, 
thereby grappling the support ; sometimes by 
the |)etiolo making a turn or two aiunud a 
supiwrt (as in Mauraudia. ctimliiug Antinhi- 
niuns, RhodoL-hilon, and Solaninn Jasminoides, f. 
Fig. 23.')) ; sometimes by the tmns formation | 
of one or more leaflets of a eom|>ound leaf I 
into tcndrits, as in the Pea nixl Vetch (Fig. 
204) : sometimes by the suppression of all the 
leaflets ainl tlic conversion of the whole jictiolu into n tendril, as 
in LathyruB Apliaca (Fig. 219) ; ami i)orliai« by tlie comeraion 

" Dererllieil in rknlm Wri(thtmii=. II. 03. 
FIO. -m. A nnml -liiial atamta-m Bu-berry. uliowlng ■ lowsr l«f in Ui« >u 
•Ufa: llw nsil pnnUllT. tJiOHHIII hlclier eimiiileUIj, Innirnrniivl Inin >iiiTii]>. 
riQ.^as. So1iuinniJ«*ininal>lM,ellnil>lntbrcolllngiuii1ulenphtnilataUiiK[ietii>1e(. 

of n l»air of stipules into temirils in Sniilax. At least the 
ilrila here occupy llie ]>08itiuii of atloatc stipules. Tlie t«.'iiilril 
of CiicurbiUtceit! arc ix.H.'uliar and ambiguous, on account of 
lateral ami extra-uxillajy iMwition and tLc munner in wliici 
ijotn|X)und ones develop tlieir branches. But-tliey are doubth 
partly if not wliolty foliar.' 

2-2ii. Pptatold Leaves, Bracts. Ceitain leaves, situated near 
lliiwcrs, and developing little or no oblorupliyll in their pare 
eloina, esehnnge the ortlinaiy green Inio and herbaceous textmc 
foi' the bri}{bter colors and more ilclieatu etnictiire which aix: 
commonly seen in and thought to chamcterizc flower-leaves. 
Such are said to be colured, meaning, as ap|iUcd to foliage, of 
some otiiei- color than green. As petals arc the typn of su*' 
wilored i>arts, they are oaid to bepeiahtdt i. e. i»etal-Uke, ~ 
utv like petals, moivover, in one of the puii>oses which these sub- 
Bcrve. (299.) Examples of these pctalold lenvcs are seen in the 
shnibby Mexican Euphorbia called Poiusettia, in Salna splen- 
dens, most s|>eeies of Castilleia or Painted ^'^l>< also in the 
white hood of Calla and KicUardia ^tliiopica (callni Calla Lilvt. 
and in tbo four white leaves which subtend the flower-head of 
Comus Qorida, and of the low herluceous Cornel, C. C'anadcn- 
sis. (Fig. 294.) Such leaves, beuig in proximity to flowers, and 
all others which arc within a flower-cluster or are borne bj 
flower-stalks, TOcei\c the 8|>ccial name of Uhacts. More UBually 
bracts are not |>ctaluid. but dilfei'cut in size or sha|K fi\>m onKvJ 
nary leaves, either by alinipt change or gradual transition. Nfl41 
uncommonly they are reduced to scales or mere rudiments w^ 
vestiges of leaves, of no fiuictional importance. 

23D. Flower- Leaves. The tnor|)hulogy of leaves extends not 
only to '* the leaves of tlie blossom," more or less accounted aa 
such in common imrlance. but also to its {>eculiar and essential 
organs, the relation of which to leaves is more rccomlilc. Their 
niorphologj- needs to be treated 8e|(aralely. and to be precmleil 
by a study of the armngemcut of leaves and of blossoms. 

1 Tlic most snlisfactorj' InlfrpreUlion mny be rliRt iif Bnian imd Wyilltr, 
ni1iip[c<l by Eichlcr {BlullitinlLnicmniiiiP. i. .KM) : dial Ehv Huwer iif Cui-ur- 
bita and in pedunL'lc rejirMitil tin- sxillnry bmiii'U, tlic tendril liy il» liilc 
niiiwcn to one uf till' briiL-ik't* f that «r lliv riiliiT liik' U'inK iuppm«il). 
and the tupentunicniry lirHnch *pTinti> (mm ihe axil »f tlie teiiilril. '~' ~ 
inakn of III? tendril n *iiii]ili.' Icnf, iif wliiuli tlic br<iiiiJ>i-e nru ilie rib*, 
tlie lendril-iliyWiing are i-vidcnll)' ilevpliipeil hi tipinil nrik-r. nnil in vijpi 
growths occupy different litrifEliIi iin the tctidril-nxia. Thia fivon Nsui 
ricvt, timt the main tendril Is cauline. nnJ lla aivisions leaves. 




Sectiom I. Tub Distribution of Leaves os tiie Stem. 

281. PiiTLLOTAxr [or P/ii/llotaxii) is the atuOy of the distli- 

butiun of leaves ii|)oii the sU'in nml of tlio laws which govoiii it. 

Tlif goiieral cont-liision roaehol is, llmi luavcM 

aw ilistribuU-)! in n nianDcr to cL-onomizc siiac-c 

an<l have a good esqKisure to light, &c., ami 

Uuil Uiis Gcouomy on the whole t'eeiilta tVora 

the fomiatioi) of leaves in the buil over the 

wiileat intervals between the 

lpnvi'9 next below.' Leaves 

are arranged in a considei-- 

alile variety of ways, whieh 

all fall under two moles, llio ^ 
Irrtieilinle and the A/ter-^ 

naie (13), but whiih ^ 

also bo t«rnied the Ci/clical ^ 

Olid the ^iral. 

■232. Alternate leaves are 

those which stauil singly, 

one alter anotliLT: that is, 

with one Ivaf to each node 
or borne 

on one height of stem. Verticillnte leaves are 
those wilh two or more at the same height of 
stem, eii-eubrly cneoraiuissing it, ■'. e. fbrmiiig 
a Vfrtieil or Wiiarl. Vertieilble and whorleil 
are 8\-nuiiymutis terms to denote this arrange- 
ment. These two kinds of leaf-arrnngcmeul 
C commonly rankeil as tlii-ec. viz. alternate. 
op|>ositc, and whorleil. But tlic upiK^ite is 
only the siinplest ease of the whorled. being 

' Fof the moil (fimpn-iicnslvi' diivutsion of plij-UiHni)' in fonnretiim wilh 
ilrvp|n|»neDI, iinil in tIfw of thcao rt-lnliiiTia, tve Hofmi^iattr. Allgeniofne 
Murpliologip, t 11. anil Chkunccy Wrigiii, Mem. Amer. Aotdemy, ix. 380. 
r, OppotfU, as, Tcnidllalaoc wborlod Iwvw. 



that in which the mombcrs aro ivilucod to two. This case is 
so much coinmoner than whorla uf three ami of higher mimlxsrs 
that it touk from the Drst its special name of opposite, so that in 
descriptions the phrase " leaves verlieillate " implies more than 
tn-o leaves in the wliori. But it should be kept in mind that 
" leaves opiKisite " is tbe same as " leaves in whorls of two." 

233. The greater numlxir of pha>nogamouB plants (nil but the 
monocotjlefloMous chisa) begin witli veilieillate lenies, mostly 
of the simplest kiiitl (i. e. cotyledous op|iosite} : some eontintie 
veilieillate throughout ; some change in the firat leaves of the 
plumule or after tlie first pair into alternate, and agnin into 
vertieillate in or toward tlic blossom, in the interior of which the 
alternate aiTangcmcnt may be again resumc<l. As Nature {uisses 
readily fh)m the one mode to the other on the same axis, we 
may expect that the two may be eompiised under some commoa 
expiTssion. But they bn\'e not yet Ijcen combined, except by 
gratuitous or somewhat fowed liyixjtheses ; so that for tl» 
present they should be treated iu morphology as primarily dis- 
tiuct an'angements. ' 

234. VerttcUlato or Cjcllcal Arransement. Ilei'c the leaves 
occupy a succession of cii-eles, or form whorls around the stem, 
two, three, four, five, Sa., in oach whorl. Aecgrding to the i 
nuini)er, the leaves are opposiu, ttrnate, quaiernate, ijainate, and J 
so on. The cliaracteristic of tbe individual whorl is that tbe 1 
momlters stand as (br apart ft'om each other as their numberJ 
renders jxtssible, i. e. they divide the circle equally. Thus, wlieaf 
only two. or opposite, tUeii- midribs or axes of insertion have 
anguhir divei-gence (as it is termed) of 180°; when three, ofj 
120": when four, UO" ; wUen five, 72". 

23^. The cliarncterislic of the whorla in relation to each otherj 
is. that the members of successive whorls stand over or uudu 
tlio intei'\'als of the adjacent ones. In other wonls, i 
whorls nitemalt or decnteaie. This ccimoiiiizes space and light, 
or gives the liest distribution which the cyclical sjstem is cai>a- 
l)le of. And it is in accoixlance with the geneml conclusion of 
Hofiueister's investigation of the origin of phjliotaxic aiTange-J 
nenta in tlie nascent bud, viz. tliat new membei-s oiiginate Jiu 
over tJie widest intcr\als between their predecessors next l>cloff,fl 
Thus, in opposite leaves or whorls of two (Fig. 237). tlie sno*! 
cessive pairs dreussale or cross at right angles, and so foiir| 

' It U reailily tven llml wlii>rU iimy lie pruduccil by tlii' nun-dsvcluptnm 
the InliTniick'* belwii-n llit Ipbvph of a serine of two, three, flvu. 
RlliTfiBle (inler. The iliffltully U llmt thp nienilRirs of tlie next whorl d 
. follow tiu! ordiT thai tliey iliould upon tliil auppoiltioa. 



^^B iki 

night equitlistant vertical ranks are prmlutcd. lu lematc or 
■trimeroue wliorla llifit are Bix vertical ranks; in quatemate or 
tetratnerouB whorls, eigiit vertical ranks, and so on.' 

236. Tbc eases in wliicb suwessive o 
pairs of leaves do not decassate at right 
aiiglce, or tlic members of wliorls arc not 
exnilly 8U|k.ti»s«1 to intervals, but as it 
were wind s[)inill\' (as in Dipsacus, many 
Carj'0[)h_viIaceie,&e.), may some of tliem 
be explained by torsion of tlie stem, 
Buch as is verj' manifest in uumcroiL'^ in- 
stances : and others may be I'Esolved into «iu 

I Instances of alternate leaves simulating or passing into whorls 
) ty Uie nonilcvelopment of inlcmoilcs.' 

237. AlteniBte or Spiral Arrangement. Here the leaves are 
dL9tribnte<l singlj' at clitTerent heights of the stem, and at equal 
Intprvals as respects angiilai'divci^'nce. (Fig. 236.) This angu- 
lar divergence (i.e. the angular distance of any two successive 
leaves) dilfers in the various kinds of this system of ph3'Uotaxy, 
but is ulwa,v8 iat^c enough to place the leaves which immediately 

1 Tlit'M; veniuil rank* liAve, by some Germnii bolanists, been nnnied 
(Mimiidiia .- bat tliU tDehnical Gn-ek u nu clearer ond no Bhortt^r than the 
fqoivalcat EnglUI], which uuwcra every purpoie. 

UUunt Cnnmlcnae, saperliutn, &c,, with wliarU of variable number 

at Imvis and vague relation to each other (wliea of the lanie number loiiic- 

the mcmbeTs tuperpoiedl, and abore and below poising into tile elter- 

ite atrangcmenl nonnnl to the famiij, these wliorls are oviilcnlly formed 

allemale leiive« brouglit logetliiT by non-development of intemodc». 

may aUo be mentioned the tlot uncommon anomaly in Flreone«, 
notably tlio«e of Norway Sprnce, liie normal phyllolaxy of whicli is simply 
■piral, but In occaaional inatsnvea the cone is composed of puira of oppoeile 
tcaira, spirally amuiged, i.e. the pairs nut decussating at right angles, tliiM 
ling double tpimls. In the alinorma] spruw-conei, the fraelions usually 
'rved are -ff or ^t, or,ils expressed by Brann, (})V^ and ())^g. 

lodeof notation for the ordinary sueeesaion (i. e. the deeus«atinn| 
opposite leaves is H)i, the i meaning that the two leaves of Ihe pnir are 
If the drcumferenee of the circle apart, (he i denoting that each leaf of 
(Ucceeding pair diverges one fourth of the circumference from llie pre- 
ling. Braun finds case* in which pairs (and equally whorls) are super- 
g, certain species of Mescmbryanthemuin and Euphorbia) , these 
(Fxprased in this notation by Ihe formula ( iH, that is, the corresponding 
o( the succeeding pair diverge 180° from their predecessors, lie 
ftcogniiM also some cases of intcrmediBlc divergence; such as (^ij in Iho 
leRTC* of Mcrcurialis perennis. dliV"" certain stems of Linaria »ul- 
. Ill A excepltoiMlly in the leaves of Epilubium angustifnliuni and the 
lies of Norway Spruce, (1)^ exceptionally in Ihe scales of Norway 

See Ordnung del Schuppen an der Tannenzapfen, 3T0, &c. 
no. tW. annuid-plan diacram ofslx trfmeroos wliorla, sbowing UieIc i 



follow each other in the asccinliiig onler iiixrn different sides o 
tlu! axis : it also secures an arlvantagt>oii8 spacing of the lea^-ei 
uver the whole length of the axis. Their veitical distauoe 1^ 
catli other of course depends on the length wliicU the internod 
attain, which is a matter of growth and is veiy variable ; I 
tlii'lr angular distance is fixed in tlic kind or niiuiericiil plan 
tlic {Hirticular ph3'Ilolaxy, aiwl is uniform throngtiout. 

238. The leaves are said to be allemale, because they com 
one afV'r another, now on this side, then on that, as they s 
the ateni. The aiTangement is said to be *;)iVa/, booause if alin 
be drawn or a thifad extended from tlie base ov insertion of oat 
leaf to that of Ihv next higher, and so on, taking In all tlic leavet 
tt forms a helix, more or less loose or dose acK.'ording to tl 
development of tlie iutcmudofl. (See Fig. 242.) This imagiaM 
s[)iral line ascends continuously, without a break ; aud ou it tl 
Waves arc equably laid down.' 

239. Almost all the ordiuary instances of spiral phyllota 
belong to one series, having verj- simple arithmetical relatloni 
So that this may be taken aa the tyi>e, and the few others i 
garded as exceptions or sometimes as modifications of it. Tbf 
kinds are simply designated bj' the number of vertical ranks a 
leaves: they are technically named by prefixing the proi« 
Greek numeral to the word meaning row or rank. The a 
mi-iit uidlcd 

DUliehotu, or Tt^-rankrd, is the simplest and among the ooia 
uionest, occurring, as it does, in nil Grasses an<t many othi 
monocotyle<lunoMft plants, in Lindens, Elms, and manj' dioc 
tylodunous genera. Here the leaves are db]>ose<l alternately c 
exactly opixisite siih's of tlic stem (as in Fig. 1 ) i the f 
leaf l)eing the rnrihcsl possible fVom the first, as is the tliird f 
the second ; the thinl therefore over tlie Brat, ami the fourth ov«f 
the second, and so on. thus fonning two vertical ranks, 
angular divergence is here half the cireumference, or 180°; i 
Uu) phyllotnxy may lie represent**) bytlie fraction J, which dcs^ 
nates the angular diii'rgi'nec. while its denominator exprc 
the ninnlver of vertical ranks fonncd. 

TritlUhoui, or ThiT^-ranlud, is the next in the series, and { 

I lint when wo n<«rli ■ l<>iif which ttanih dirvctl^ nvrr a Intrtr luiil oldrT 
onr, WD «A> lliHt une tct ur i/un is naipU'lrd. knd tbftt IliU leaf is Uie flrat 
of II •iii'(>n'diiiK H't «r tpin. Frmn analO)Q' of such iin opm tfi'm tn the 
rliiwd cyvU- iif « *IiiitI of li«rpt, ii I* n»( untwuiil (ii ili-ritctiiitc the fanner 
llkowlif »« « ryft. Vvt it ialieltvTfwiili Eichlrr) to n-strict ti«l term, w "'^ 
l)ie Miijretlve ryrJiiW, In vertk'tllkle ('hj'Uataxjr. or lo whorl<,to which 4 
fOi^Wliy ani) «ljritwlu|{k«U]r bvtung*. 


Ices enmmou, though not rai'o in luonocotjlGdononx plants. Fig. 
2J(I illiisLrateB it in a Sinlge, and 241 is a diagiaiu in borizoiital 
MK^'tiuti, OS of a bud ; Iwth 
extt^nding to aix leaves or 
two lurnB of the spiral. The 
fhivtion } designates this 
arrangement. Tiic angtdar 
ilivergenec, or distance of 
the axis of the Urst leaf 
fWim the seeond, and bo nn, 
is one tUiitl of tlic cii-cuin- 
ferencc (or 120°) : consc- 
quentlytlie fourth teafcomea 
over the first, the fifth over 
the second, tho sixth over 
the thiixt, and so on; that 
is, the leaves fall into throe 
vertical ranks. Tlie spiral 
diaraeter liere begins to be 
manifest, *r becomes so by 
dmiving n line on either fig- 
ure from tliG axis or niidrib 
of tho first leaf to that of 
Uui seeond. and so on to the 
sixth, forming a beUx of 
two tnnis.' »*' **» 

Penlatfichous. or Five-ranked, sometimes termed the tjuincuneial 
umiigemeiit. This is the most common in alternate'leaved 
dicotyledonous plants. It is shown in Fig. 33C (on n branch 
of Ap|ilc-trw).and by diagrams, displaj-ing the spiral character, 
in Fig. 242, 243. The an^rular distance from the first to the 
s-^-ond leaf (passing tlie shorter way) is J of the cirt^umference, 
or H4°. Hut the spiral line makes two tnrna round the stem, 
on which six leaves arc laid down, with a ngubir divergence of §, 

> Tlw line is auppnwl to follow the nparcit way, and ilie divtrgcnt'e i« 
connlMl u \. this beinR tlic «lmploal and nioat coiircnienl. If fur any rtsson 
llie lonmr way i» pn'ffiTcd, tlien tlie angular divergcnei- would be enpreawtl 
liy the fraoilon j. 

FIO, W. Pl«»"fa<iuni, iriUithethiJ»tlilii«bi»»nrOl«lo«»M, oraBL-.leij.Orii-. 
(Cureit mjM»rvil,»!inwliigihfltlireo-rKnlieilanniigrniMit. 2«l. Dliigtaio of tliocrom- 

■ iflnJ 

. Tim lei 

rul ill I 

Tia.lVL JiUenmcrpMlilr 
lliieldlmni MTon-llna llw htem »mi |iui«iiR ii.i..uku .hv i 
Ow in4Uon of (he kavw frrnn I Ui D. ll li niiMk' ■ ilnltal 11ns itli»K II 
offioMt dita of ilie «em. anil tho of*™ B ami fl. wbkh fUl nn tlial 
MbMt. «S. AplaiwhiTlioiitiilpniJeellniioritH mme; Dwdoircrt Uii 
thtnlgODf ItioKn' ' --— - " 

tsrn; aitbelfxtb 

e illrertly boron, « wllhlii. I 

IM Uth iMf, wbloli oomiilaua 



and the sixth is the first to come over any one Iwlow ; i 
sevcDth comes over the secoml, the eighth over the third, &c I 
The leaves ore thus brought into fire vertical ranks ; but these I 

§u five leaves are laid down on two turns of thft 1 
" ^ • belix (the sixth beginning the second rGvoltfj 
4 ' tion) ; the angular (tiver^ence of the leaves il 
* , * order is {. or 144° : the angular distance off 
1 ' the vertical ranks. 72°, This is a verj' advai 
m tagcous distribution for ortlinarj' foliage < 

eretrt or ascending branches. Its formula is %, exprcssitig tbsl 
angular divergence, the denominator also indicating the number I 
of vertical ranks, the numer- 
ator indicating the number / 
of revolutions made in add- I 
ing one leaf to each rank, j 
Fig. '244 illustrates this a 
rangement on a cone ( 
American Larch, the scales 
of which ore homologous 
with leaves, tlic numliora 
in sight are atlixeil, and those of the vhole 
cone dis|ilaj-ed on a plane at the side. 

Ortvg/ichous, or Eiffht-ranked, a leas eommot 
arrangement, occurs in the IluUy. Aconite,] 
the radical leaves of I'lanla^ 
angnbr divergent* of 135*, or | of the cithifl 
curaferenee. and the leaves in eight ranks, f 
the ninth over the first and at the comi>leti<n'fl 
of the third revolution: it is therefore re)>re«f 
sented by the fraction J. 

240. The obvious relations of the fraction* J 
h. J. j. |, reprcscntiug the primary forms of I 
Hiiii-al phyllotasj'. are that the sum of any twol 
numerators is the numerator of the next suo>f 
ceeding fraction, aud the same is true of tM 
denominators : also the numerator is the b: 
as the denominator of the nex» 'jut one pr« 
cceding fraction. Following these indications,] 
the series may be extended to •^, ^, Jj, ji, Ac. Now thesel 

FIQ. 144. 

n LudIi lUirli ' 

iciiuiu), wUkr,l 

In Otlil iiumberail. tli* Uili <ivur the Aral. Ilia lOOi 
FIR 340. Cntiont Willie Pine fPiniuSlraUiul 
10 wouulurr ■tilnila idhtIibiI. 

S-15 ■rrangitnuit; Lhsle*T« 

li« etii. J!r. 

citlai uumlnrail flum bolla 


CA8C8 actunlly occur, and ordinarily only those.' The i 
^ are not uncommon in foliage. The rosetteB oi the Uonse- 
Ivek exhibit the -f^ or thirleen-ranted arrangement, as also does 
the cone of Rnna Strobus, the 14th leaf falling over tbe first. 
(Fig. 346.) The fj is perhaps little less common in foliage 
Dpon rci^ short intemodcs, as likewise are higher ranked 
nninhers ; nnd in many pine-cones and simitar strnctnres Jj 
and gl phyllotnxy may be readily made out. This aetnal series, 
i- If i' h ^^•' answers to and may be esijresacd by the con- 
tinuc<l fraction, i .j. i 

^ " 1, Ac* 


■e (li'tci'tcd. Clifv An> founil in lielnng to other 
Inw. »uL-!i ns ihe rare oiiu i>( \. i. j, ,»^. 
* "The uUiniHle vntuce of Ihcae continued fractions ex tcntleil infinitely 
sre romplenicnlg of each their eucceufvc appraxinmiinns are.nnil itre 
in effect the »mc fraction, namely, the irrXlonBl or incommeas urate inter- 
»al which i> »uppo»c(l to be the perfect form of lliu spiml arrangement. 
Thi« (Iiiei, in fact, poiseii in n higher degree than any ratiunAl fraction the 
property common to thoie nhlcli have been obBcrred In nature ; though 
prsclk-ally, or so far ai obccrvalinn can gn. this higher degree is a mere ^ 
reflnenieni of theory. For, ai we ihall find, the typleal irrational inter. 
•Hi ilLSen from that of the fraction j by almost exactly y i'in . » quantity 
mtteh le«» than can be obserred in the actual angles of leaf-arrangemenia." 
"On tills peculiar arithnellval property .... depcnda Ihe fceometrical one, 
of the gpirnl arrangement, which it reprcicnta ; namely, that such an arrange- 
ment would effect the moft thorough and rapid dislribution of the teavea 
around the stem, each new or higher leaf falling over Ihe angular tpaec be- 
tween the two older one* which are nearest in direetion, so as to subilividc it in 
■ho Mrne ratio in which Ihe tnl two, or any two (nccculve ones, divide the 
drcumferencc. But, acconling to such an arrangement, no leaf would ever 
fall exactly oTcr any other ; and. as I have iaid. we have no evidence, and 
coiild hare none, that this arrangement acluallyexists in nature. Torcalize 
dmply and purely the property of the most thorough distribution, (he most 
complete exposure of light and air around Ihe stem, and the most ample 
tlbow-room, or space for expansion in the bud, is to realize a property that 
exiita separately only in abstraction, like a line without breadth. Nevenhe- 
kM, practirally, and so far as observation can gn, we find that the fraetiona 
I and ]^i ^[. Ac., which are all indistUigaishable as measured values in the 
plant, do actually realize this property with all needful accuracy. Thus, 
I =1 0.020, ^ = 0.015, and ^j =■ 0.6111, and differ from J.- |ihe ultimate value 
to which the fractions of this series approximate, or what is supposed to be 
the type-form of ihem] by 0.007, 0.003, and 0.001 respectively ; or they all 
differ by inappreciable value* from the quantity which might therefore be 
made to stand for all of them. But. in putting 1' for all the values of the 
scries after the firet three, it sliould be with the understanding that it is not 
to emplnytfl in Its capacity as Ihe grand typo, or source of the distrlbntiva 
character which they have, — in its capai-'ily as an Irrational fraction. — but 
(imply ns being indialingulsliable practically from those rational ones." — 
CSamcrs »'ri^, I'a Jlrm. Amer. Acad. li. 387-300. 



I thi w 

241. The four lending grades of alternate Icaf- 
namely, those with angular divorgeDce of 

1 = 1S0= % = 144' 

I = 120° J = 135" 

are represented bj- rational fVactions. or have the angle 
divei^onee eom men bu rate with the cireumfereucc. The loai 
BhoulJ therefore be in strict vertical ranks, or, to use the lenu" 
proposed by Bravaia, rtrtiterial. But beyond lliis grade tlie 
angle of divci^ence I tccomes irrational to the eircumfcreiioc (inlhe 
1^, = 138" 27' 41.54 ', in JV = 137° 8' 34.29", in the dediiwl 
typical angle to which these higher forms more and more 
approximate, 137" 30' 28"), and so theoretically no leaf is 
esnclly superposed to any preceding one. The leaiTS thiw. 
distributed on an infinite cun'e are by Bravais said to 
curviwrial. But (as stated in accompanying note) the 
tion iVom verticality ia practically iuappreeiahle, and ev 
difference between ^ and J|, &c., is too slight and vaiiablitiir 
many cases for certain determination. Anj- and ail of the higher 
grades, and practically one as low as the jj, secures the utility oftlic 
' thcorftical angle, viz., that " by which the leaves would l>e lUs- 
ti-ibut*d most thoroughly aud rapidly around the stem, exjxiaeii 
most completely to light and air, and provided with the gn-atest 
freedom for symmetrical espansiou, together with a (•omjML't 
arrangement in the bud." Even in the simpler gnulcs of com- 
monest occurrence, each leaf (according to Wright) is bo placed 
over the B[)ace between older leaves nearest in direction to it 
always to fall near the middle of the space, until the 
complete<i, when the new leaf is placed over an old one.' 

242. It is to be noted that the distichous or \ variety 
the maximum divei-gence, viz. 180°, and that the tristichoi 
i gives the least, or 120"; thatof thcpentastichouaor | isneorli- 
the mean between the first two ; that of the |. nearly the mean 
between the two preceding, &c. The disadvantage of the two- 
ranked aiTaiigement is that the leaves arc soon supeiixiaed auii 
BO overshadow each other. Tliis is commonly oh\-iatetl by the 
length of the intemodcs, which is apt to be much greater in Uiis 
than ill the more complex an-angemcnts. tlicreftin; placing ihcPl 
vertically farther apart; or else, as in Ehns, Beeches, and the 

' Tliis correiponds Willi Iliitmi-islfr't general rule, diit " new UtcrnM 
tnemlipri have their origin nlmve the widest gap* tK-lween llw iTiwrtiom o* 
the nenrest alder memhe™." Yet tlie fuel thnl tlie eliarnL-ter nf (In- IriC^ 
(m-dngemtnt ia laid down at tlie beginning in llie buJ doe* tiol gu f ar in lliw 
wny nf tlie nieclianii-'nl I'xplanatlun wliieli Iii; Invukcs. 


IQw, the lirancliIeU take n liorizontal ixtsition oml the peti- 
oles a qiiailcr tvist, wh'idi gives full c^pusurc of tbc up|>ci' 
r™.« of nil tlio Icnvfs to the light. The J and jf, ivitli diiniii- 
iahwltlivt-fgenoe, increase tlic iiiimlwr of ranks; the f and all 
hejond. wilJn mean di^■l)rgen(lO of sui-cessive loaves, efl'ect a more 
tlturongh tlistribiition, but with less and less angular distance 
between tlve vertical ranks. 

242*. The hulix or primitive spiral njion which the leaves 
Miccessivelv ori^iunte ascemla, sometimes fi'uni lell to right, 
■ometinuw B-om right to left,* uommoiilj- without change on the 
umc axis, anil prc^vailingly uniform in the same s|>ecieB ; but 
octasionnlly lioth directions occur in tlie same individual. The 
Birliest leaves of a stem or branch, or the last, are often on a 
difTfrciit onlcr from the rest : or (as already stated) the spiral 
may change inlu tlie eydical, or vice nerta. 

243. The relation of the phyllotoxy of a branch to the leaf 
from the axil of which the branch springs is somewhat various. 
Hut in Dicotyloduus, the firet leaf or the first pair of the brimch is 
mostly transverse ; that is, the first leaves of the branch stand lo 
Uie right or left of the subtending leaf. In Monocotyledons, the 
first branch-leaf is usually parallel to and facing the subtending 
k-nf, as shown in Fig. 304. 

244. When the intemwles arc considerably lengthened, the 
normal superposition of leave-s is not rarely obscured by torsion 
of the Hsis : indeed, this maj- equally occur in short intemodes, 
eometinies irregularly or in op|>ositc directions, sometimes uni- 
formly ill one. Thus, in Pandanus utilis, or .Screw-Pine, of 
trtstictioiis arrangement, the three comiJact vertical ranks be- 
come strongly spiral liy a continuous torsion of tlie axis. The 
later leaves uf Baptisia i>erfoliata, which are normally distichous, 
become one-ranked by an alternate twist, right and left, of the 
ancceaaive intemo<)c9. 

24.1. When the intemodes are short, so that the leaves approx- 
imate or overlap, it is difHeult or inijjossiblo to trace the sue- 
w^sion of the leaves on the primitive spiral, but it is easy to 
see wlUch arc supcriwsed. The particular phyllotaxy may then 
lie dcli-nnined by counting the vertical ranks, which gives the 
denominator of the fVaction. But in compact arrangements 
Uiese vertical ranks arc commonly less niauifcst tlian certain 
oblique ranks, which are seen to wind roimd the axis in oppo- 
site directions, (See Fig. 245, 24G.) These are termed terond- 
ary $piralt, also by some parcutithiet. These oblique sjiiral 

* Tlul i», 0/ l!io oliicrvcr anil ns leen from withonl. See p. 61, (oot-DOIa 


ranks are a necessary' consequence of tbe re^ilar asecndin^ii 
arrangement oriinrtswilh equal intenals over tlie circumfcrcnt 
of tltu axis ; and, if tlie leaves are numl^ered consevutivety, th< 
numbers will neu>S8aril.v stand in a ritlimeti tail progression on 
oblique ranks, and have certain ohvioua relations with the 
mary spinil whioh originates them, as will be seen by projecting 
Ihem on a vertical plane. 

245*. Take, for esainple. the J arrangement, nhcre. as i 
diagram annexe<l to Fig. Hi, the primitive spiral, wrilteii 
plane surface, Bp[)cars in the numbers, 1, 2, 3. 4, 5, 6, and SO 
on : tl)o vertical ranks thus formed are necessarily the ntimben 
1-e-ll ; 4-y-H: 2-V-12; 5-10-15; and 3-8-13. But two 
parallel obliqne ranks are equallj' apparent, viz. l-S-A, whicbi 
if we coil the diagram, will be continued into 7-i)-l 1-13-15 ; onAl 
also the 2-4-6-fl-lO continues into 12-14, and so on. if the axiv' 
be prolonge<l. Here the circnrarerence in occupied by two secon- 
darj- left-hand series, and we notic-e that the common iliffcrent* 
in the sequence of numbers is two ; that is, the number of the 
parallel secondary' spirals is the same as the common dilference of 
the numbers on the leaves that com[>ose them. Again, tliere are 
other parallel secondar}' spiral ranks, three in number, which 
ascend to tlie right ; viz. 1-4-7, continued into 10-13 ; 3-6-9-12, 
continued Into 15; and 5-8-11-14. &c.; where again thecommoo 
dilfercncc, 3, accords with the number of such ranks. This fixed. 
relation enables us to lay down the jiroper numbers on the leaves*^ 
when they are too crowded for directly following their succes- 
sion, and thus to ascertain the order of the primarj- spiral scries 
by noticing what numlwrs come to lie sui>er])08('d in the verti- 
cal ranks. Thus, in the small cone of the American Larch 
(Fig. 244), which usnally completes onlj- three heights of leaves, 
tlic Iowc«t, highest, and a middle one make a vcrtiral row 
which faces theobson'er. Marking this first scale 1, and count- 
ing the parallel secondary spirals that wind to the left, we dnd 
that two occupy tlie whole circumference. From 1, we number 
on the scales of that spiral 3-5-7, and so on. adding the com- 
mon difference 2. at each step. Again, counting from the base 
the right-hand secondary spirals, we find three of them, and 
therefore proceed to number the lowest one by adding this com- 
mon difference, viz, 1—1—7-10; Uion, passing to the next, on 
which the No, 3 has already been fixed, we carry on that se- 
quence, 6-9, &c. : and on the third, where No, 5 is already 
fixed, wc continue the numbering, «-U. Ac. This gi\-os us in 
the vertical rank to which No. 1 belongs the sequence 1-6—1 
Bhowiug that the phyllotaxy is of the five-ranked, or J oixi 


It is f\irtlier noticeable that tlio sirmllcr number of parallel BGC* 
ondarj' spirals, 2, iigreoa with tlie niimerntor of Uii: fiattion in 
this the J arrangement ; and that this number, aildccl to tliat of 
the parallel secondary spirals whit-h wiml in the opijositc din«lion, 
viz. 3, gives the denominator of the fraction. This holds good 
throughout ; so that we have oulj- to count the numlwr of par- 
allel secondary spirals in the two direetiona, and assnme tbo 
smaller numlier as the numerator, and the sum of this and the 
larger numlier as the denominator, of the fraction which ex- 
presses llie angular divei^ence sought. For this, we must, how- 
ever, take the order of secondary* spirals ncHreat the vortical 
rank in each direction, when there arc more than two, as in all 
the higher fonns. But, in all, it is neeesearj' to count only tlio 
most manifest secondarj- spiral of each direction in order to 
lay down the proper number on the leaves or scaler, and so deter- 
mine the phyllotaxy.' In a rosette of the leaves of Ilouseleelc 
(Fig. 243) and a cone of Pinus Strobua (Fig- 246). the num- 
bers which can be seen at one view are apjiended, and in the 
latter the conspicuous secondary- spirals are indicated: one to 
led with a eoimnon difference of 5 ; and two to tlic right, of 
which the moat de|)ressed and prominent has the common dif- 
ference of 3, the other, nearest the \ertical, the common differ- 
ence 8. The 14th leaf is suiwrposed to the first, indicating the 
I*, arrangement. The same conclusion is derived from tUenum- 
Iter of the higher spirals, the smaller 5 for the numerator, and 
this added to 8 for the denominator. The mathematical diacus- 
aion of these relations, and of Uie whole subject of phyllotaxy, 
leads into interesting Gelds. But this sketch may sulllec for 
tmttinical uses. 

24G. ReUtlons of Wborls to Spirals. Vertieillate and alternate 
pbyllolaxy, or whorls and spirals, in all complete exemplifle^- 
lions. arc to bo consiileretl morphologically as distinct modes, 
not to lie practically horaologized into one. Nevertheless, transi- 
tions between the two, anil abrupt changes fiMm one to the other 
on the same axis arc not uncommon, the former especially in 
the foliage, the latt^'r in the blossom. If the spiral be assumed 
as the fundamental order, it is not difficult to form a clear con- 
ception as to how such changes come to pass. A single whorl 

' In applying lliii metliod tu the delenninatiun nf ilic plif llolsty of » 
tTine, iir »ay iupIi »B«f nililnge of Iorvm, the eiudpiit slionld 1» nnmrcl ilini, 
■lilinugli the conn of Pines anil I'm are all nommlly on tin- slipmalc plan 
jwhilF IhoM of CypfMM'* are on Ihc vprlkillate). jet in individual casei 
Icommnn In Xornay Spruce) Ilie rone is plainly made np of pair* of oppo- 
■ite Mala wliich arc tpiratly arranged. See note under 230. 






may most natural!}- be produced by the non-deTelopment of the 
intemodes between any two, three, ov more alternate leaves- 
Two proximate disticbously alternate leaves would tlms foi-m a 
pair ; the tbi-ee leaves belonging to one turn of the spiral in the 
tristidious (J) arrangement would comixtse a trimerous wborl ; 
the five leaves of the two turns in the pimtastiehoua ( J) arrange- 
ment, a 5-merous whorl, &e. \'eriB cations of this conception, by 
wliorls breaking up or reverting to spirals, are oeeasionallj' met 
with, and the successive overlapping in spiral order of the 
members of a trimerous or peutainerous whorl is very common. 
The few instances among pLrenogamous plants in which the 
loaves are op])osite and all in the same plane ' (tbat is, the suc- 
cessive pairs superposed) may be deduced from the distichous 
alt4>matc mode bcc-oming opposite without further change, by 
tlie simple suppression of alternate intemodes. The fVequent 
disjunction of tlic members of the pair in similar and analogous 
eases goes to confirm this view. But the characteristic of whorls 
ordinaiily is that proximate whorls alternate, that paire de- 
cussate. We cannot horaologize tliis with spiral phyllotasy : 
for in this lies the (\indamental diSerence between the two plans. 
Wo can explain it only by a reference to Hotaeister's law, which 
generally governs leaf-origination as to position, namely, that 
succeeding leaves appear directly above the intervals betweea J 
the nearest preceding (:i41, note) : this gives decussation ocl 
alt«mation of successive pairs or whorls,' m 

247. HnHtlhesIs ot the origin of both. Instead of regarding 
the spiral path on the stem wltich connects eucecasirc alternate 
leaves as a ])urely fomial representation, it may he conceived to 
be the tine along which the members in some original form t 
physically connected, in the manner of a leaf-like exi>anei(H 

1 Ab in Loranthus Europteus, &c, nccnrdinp: to Braun. Soe 236, note. 

* This rcnilcrs [he Tenlcillatc sn advantagpoua arrBngement, perhaps no * 
iMB BO tliMn tlic dJBlribution nhicli spiral pliyllolHxy oSecta. Both inUKt be 
conBideri'd to linve been dptermlncd by nnil for tlicir roipvctivi: utilities, and 
to h»re bcpn independi^nt determinationB. For " there it no eorlinuity or 
principk ot connFL-tion between ipirnl arrangements and whurU " (ChBUtiMty 
Wright) ; since, alUiougli individual wliorls are easily reducible to spiral^ ■ 
each succeuion is an atnoluie break ot that system. I 

As wborls ot four members often (as especially in ealyx, bracts, Ac.) niajr ■ 
and lometimes should be viewed as two approximate pair), so even the spind 
of Ave nicmtjeri, a« in a quineuneial calyx, h«s been toneeived to conBist of 
two wborls, one of two, the otlierof tlirec leaves, the second alternating with 
tlie first Rs nearly as possible. But this appears far-felchcd and of loose 
application. It is much clearer as well as simpler to reitard the alternate 
as the fundamental phyllotaxy. and tn deduce individual whorls from ipinil^ _ 
if need be, rather Iban to imagine spiral! as somehow evolved from whoritbl 


resembling a Bpiral stairway. Upon Uiis supposition, llie k'aves 
would lie tbc ivlies, or rather ttie a<UaDtageoii8 results, of the 
s^pacDtation of such a frond-like 
exi>ansiou, tlic segments separated 
through the development of tbe 
stiim in length and firmness, and 
modified in the various adaptations 
to the conditions of higher vege- 
table life; even as leaves themselves 
are modified into tendrils, bud- 
scnlcs, petals, or other usefullj- specialized structures. The tj-pc 
on this conception would be a frond, consisting of 
an elongating axis with a continuous leaf-blade on 
one side, and this taking a spirally twisted form. 
But tbe frond of Fuc-aceous Algee, Hcpaticie, and the 
like, is two-bladed. While a one-bladed fVond, or 
with one blade suppressed, might be the original of 
altematfl-lcavcd spirals, the two-bladed frond, simi- 
larly broken up, would give rise to the op|>osil« or 
other varieties of verticilhite arrangement.' 

2tS. Fascicled LeaTce need to he mentioned here, 
in order that they may be excluded from phyllotasy. 
They are simply a cluster or tuft of lea\ea, belonging 
' to more than one node, and left in a crowded con- 
dition because the intemodes do not lengthen. They 
may belong either to the alternate or the verticillat^; 
scries. In Barberry and in tlie Larch (Fig. 24T), 
they are evidently alternate; and they may be inferred 
to I>e so in Pines (Fig. 248), or even may l)e aeon to 
be so in the bud-scales which form tbe sheath sur- 
rounding the base of the 2, 3, or 5 foliage-leaves. 
In Junipers, the leaves of the fascicles are in the 
verticillalc ortler. 


' This ii the conception of the late Chauncey Wiight. Sec his etnbomte 
knil niiisi (u^grative emay in Mem. Amer. Acad. Arl» and Scicneea, ser.2, 
ix, 371), mainly reprinted in Philosophical IMacuBsiona (poathumoua), 2110-328, 
in which the whole subject of phyllotaxy ia aeutply diicuued, especially 
In ila TeUliun to queatiooa of origin and dcTcliiped utititlei. Bit conception 

PIG. M7. I 
ihon Knil (toi 

witti I 

m Rudcln of Imm. 1. 

FIG.N9. PIsceofftlTuicbor PltcIiPlnB.wilh Ihne ImTai 
III His »nl or B Uiln ncale (<ij vhlcfa uuiren to > lutfnr Ihv nnln rxU. Th^ b< 
■amuiiiSBil m the bMe tiy a ibort >hnttli. farmftl of the dellcmle ncaln of tbe axlUmrj 
bod, at *l>lcb tbe thnw Inm tie Ibc dereloiieil ItdlagB. 

I Se. 


Section II. Disposrnon of Leaves in toe Btro. 



249. Venuitloa and £§tlVKtlon are terms in general use, under 
wliieb the disimsitiun uf leaves id the bud is trcutecl. Thi; lirst 
relates to onliDary leaves in this early uondition ; the seL-ond, to 
the parts of a flower-bud ; not, however, as respects insfrtirm, 
or position on the axis, which is phyllot&sy (231), hut as to 
M SD ui the ways in which tbey 

are coiled, folded, oier- 
lappod, &c.. either ;>erM 
or inter $e. Preffoliatian 
and PrafloTolion are 
etymologically better 
temis, auhstituted by 

250. The <le8criptive 
terms whieli relate to 
individual leaves or 
paits, whether of foli- 
age or blossom, mostly range themselves under the heads of 
plications or of enrolling, and are such as the following, the 
sectional diagrams of which are copied from the original figures 

would make the two plnn) pqiially prinionllil. But the freeOom with ' 
whioh these actual])' Interthnnge on the lame Kxii greatly favon the leu 
hypothetical view that whorli maj be condensed ipiraU. Tlili assumpi 
onl}' the well-known fact thai inlcmndei maj be conipk-tely non-develojied. 
1 Better formed and more exprcesiTC term*: but the Linnean one* ara 
most inDM>.and, though fanciful, are not nii>leading. In En gliih description, 
it la ai conrenieni and equally tene to My lliat the paria are imbricate, val- 
TBie, &c., "in the bud." Lbinteu*, in tlie Philoiophia Bolanica, deneribed 
Iheie dlBpuiiliuni of leave* in the bud under the term f'olialio, — not a liappy 
name, — but did not treat of them in the flonerbud. Later, in Termini 
Bolanici (Amcen. Acad. vi. 1782, reprinted by Gi«eke in 1781), he inircv 
duced the word* Venalio and jEsliiittio in thuir now current botanical sense, 
to deaipiate. not the time of leafing and of Howering (spring and cummer 
condition), but the diaposilinn of the parts in the leaf-bud and flciwerbud 
(at least of the petatsi ai retpecti foldings, coiling, &o., of single parti, and 
modes of overlapping or otherwiie nf conti)ntous parts- The terminology 
U regards single leaves, Unncus fixed nearly as it now remains. That of 
leaves or their homologuea in connection, and aa renpecls the flower-bud, was 
very imperfectly devetoped tmtll its importance (and much of its lerraK 
nologyj was indicated by Robert Brown, in his memoir on ProleacetD, 180H ^ 
in Ihe Prodromus a year later, and in otlier poblicalioni, 
~ ' ' t Greek r 

folding, &c., of single pans. 
FKl 2Wt-1Si. Llniuean rllngn 

CitdnaU or OtcIiib]. 

IS of seellmu of leaves In tlie bi 
I, ConvoluU. va. Retoluts. % 

211). CDDdOP 


in the Pliilosophia Botunica of LinnteuB. Tlicy were appliecl 
oaly to folingo, but tbey arc cquallj' applicuble to flural pails. 
Leav«H. and all liomologous or similar oi'gnas, if not simply 
plane, will bo either bent or foklcd or else more or less rulleil up 
io tbe bud. Tbe first three of tlic following tenus relate to tlie 
funuer, tlie remaining terms to the latter. Tliey are as to tlie 
mode of packing 

Pfieate or Plaited (Fig. 250), when folded on the sei'cral ribs, 
iu the manner of n closed fau, aa in Maple and Currant. This 
ooeura only in certain palmately veined leaves. 

Cotu/apiieate (Fig. 249), when folded lengthwise, or doubled 
up flat on the midrib, as in Magnolia ; a vcr}~ common mode. 
The upjMir faee of tbe leaf is always within. 

Rrelinnte or Jnjlexed, when the upijer part is Ijent on the 
lower, or the blade on the i>etiole, as in the Tulip-tree (the blade 
of wliicb is also condu plicate). 

Coneolute (Fig. 251), when rolled up fi'om one margin, i.e. 
ono margin within the coil, the other without, as in Apricot 
■nd Clierry. 

heiihite (Fig. 253), both margius rolled toward the midrib 
on tbe upi^er face, as the leaves of WattT Lilj', Violet, &e. ; 
aba the jietals of Steirouema and Tremandia. 

ReroltUe (Fig. 252), similarly rolled backwaixl from both 
mai^ina, as the leases of Azalea and Rosemary. 

Ctreinal or Circinatt (Fig, 254), when coiled (Vom tlie apex 
downward, as tlie leaves of Drosera and the fi-onds of all the 
Due Ferns. 

Corruffott or Crumpled, as the petals of a Poppj', applies 
lo the irregular crumpling of the otlicrwise idane corolla-loaves. 
This is a consequence of rapid growth in length and breadth 
la a confloed space. 

251. The Ptgxu (or folding, &c.) of an individual leaf, of 
wtiii'h the foregoing modifications are the principal, should be 
iliatinguisbud fVom the arrangement in the bud of the leaves of 
a cirtlc or spiral in respect to each other. Tlic interest of llie 
latter centres in the flower-bud, i.e. in aestivation. To this the 
following exposition Is devoted, although sometimes applicable 
to leaf-buds also.' 

252. Th« disposition of parts in [estivation, in respect to 
each other, is the result partly of their relative insertion, that is 

' In the Rocceeding pBragrs|)1is. it licuoiiiti nci:eMary lo pn-iuppoae bo 
inoL-lt knowlislice if tlie flower ki is implied in llie free use of snch terms ai 
cslri uii] vnrolla. Bcpals nr ealyx-lcivcs, kiul petals or t'orolla-teaves. See, 
if Deed be, Clmpler VI. SwU I. 




their plijUotaxj', ami partly of the way in wliit-h llioy tomport 
wlicD theii' inni'giiis niuct lu gi'uwtU. Those k'aves wIiIlIi are 
within, ui' of lii^her inscrtiun on tlie axis, will uhnost ueeesaarily 
be enclosed or over!ai>i)e<I : tliose wliit-h ai* ini.'inlK:ra strictly 
of the same wliorl or cjelc may fail tu come into conta(.-t, or 
may meet witliout overla|ii>tng at the contiguous inai-gins or 
a|»e-\ ; yet they may bo overlapixnl, since they may liavc grown 
nnccinally or some a little earlior than their fellows. Conse- 
quently, no jierfectly clear line i^nlie drawn in the Hower1>etween 
cycles and spirals except by their mode of succession. More- 
over, tcsttvation strictly so called ahoulil be concerned otily 
with the disposition among themselves of Uie several meui)>crs 
of one whorl, or of one complete spiral. So the alternation of 
contiguous whorls, as of the tlii'ee imicr with the thi-ee outer 
flower-leaves of a LLy or a Tnlip (the allenialive ii^stivation of 
DeCandoilc) . h a matter of i»hyllotaxy, not of lestivation. 
hitter is properly concerned only with the relations of each 
leaves to each other.' 

2J3. The proper (estivations may be classifietl into those in 
which the paits do not overlap, and those in which they do. Of 

the first, tiiere are two kinds, the opm (tut. 

apcrta) and the valvate, both characterized and 

namc-d by Brown.' Of the second, there is 

s leading kind, the imbrieale (adopted by 

'J Brown tVom Linniens) , with snbordinute ntodi- 

flcations/ Accordingly, tlie lestivatioa ia> 

said to be 

*■ 2o4, Optn or faddfrminate (atl. aperta), 

when the parts do not comu into contact in the bnd. so as to 

"» of _._ 


■ Till? esme appIlM to the two seta uf aepali snil of pctali in Barlwrt?, 
Mi'nispcrnium, and uf Ibe pelnls in I'oppy, &c. (3o!>). 

* Linnsus. indeed, liai, " jEiiivario valToia, si pi^sU le exptnsurn iii»' 
gluiiHc gnuiilnU ponumur," — the n«me,butnol llw tiling: llie glumcB 
gnuaea arc not valvate in llie botanival tense. So the Irmi as lu lli proper 
UM> may be Miil to otiginale witli R. Bniwn, 

* For a brief diacusaiun of " .^tivation ami its T?miinotugy, 
Jour. Scl. icr. 3, x. 330, 18T6. 

A» to names, It is perliaps more eorrect to my of llie irMivall 
iiHlriratirt, eoiinjiiliat, rn/iWnr, &e. {irtt. I'mMenli'ra, nmmlnlli'a, tvlnirit, &«,), 
liut of llie leaves or pleeei, tlial Qwy are imMfnlr, roniWiiic, mli-air, &k., in 
Bstivation : but such pr«uit!on of form will seldom he atlen<li»l tu In botan- 
kat detcripliona. 

Ll Itl^H 



I ■ or V 

' tinn 

r those within. The must famihar ciise is that of the pi-tals 
r Mignonette ami tlie whole genus Keeetln. 

> iM. t'a/calew IWfu/ariwhcD themai^iiismcctsqum'elj'hitliQ 
Btl, witlioiit any o\erlapping, like the valves of a tleliiecent eai»- 
mlc. Familiar examples ait: atfbnletl liy the ealyx of the Linden 
(Fig. 2J.i) ; also that of the Mallow, Rhamiuis, FiuUsia, and the 
whole of the several iiatiirul oixlei-8 to which tliesc lieloug. A 
modifiuntiun uf tliis, caiiBiil l)y somo iniiuplieation or involution 
of the eflges of Uie initiviilual leaves, occurs in most s|iecies of 
Clt-'inulis ; in Clematis Virgiiiiaiia, they |«=**^ ^'nl 

tncn.'lj- project within {yalvate-iiidupli- /=* "^ /^p S\ 
cate); ill Clematis Vitieelta, they are \ \ "^/-k&g/ 

eonspieiiously involute {vaivale-ini-olule), \,^J'^^ ^^ 
or valvnlu with mai^ius involute. Some- ub „ 

llines (aa iu tlie calj-x of cei-taiii Malvaceit) the joined eilgca 
yevt outwardly (or ai-e valvate with ret hi plicate margins), hut 
ily slightly so. 

250. Imiricate ov fmbricative is the general uamc for ivstiva- 
tion (or vernation) witli Dvei']ai>i)ing. The name is tuken littm 
tlie overlapping of tiles or shingles on a roof, so as to l>i-cak 
y»nta or eover eriges. It was flret apidied. ly Linmeiis, to 
■r scales on a stem, when thickly set and incunilH;nt in suc- 
ranks or heights, the iip|>er iini-tly covered l)y those next 
The involucre of nn Aster or of tlie common SunQower 
typical ilhielrntion ; as also the leaves of a Camel ha- flower, 
sepals as well as Uic petals ; and the sepals or outer leaves 

P a Flax or a Geraniiim-fiowcr iiiron.1 a simiilcr but similar 
Mtance. althoiigli. IVom the pails being nearly of the same size 
tal at the same height, the overlapping is lateral instead of 
n-iously (Vom hclow. Fig. 258, 2.*)9. and the outer part of 
''260. also the inner leafi- circle of '2.>5, ilhistinte In diagram this 
true and simple iinbricalive lestivution of a definite numlier of 



parts.' It is characteristic of it that some parts (one or more) 
are wholly csterior or covering in the bu<l, and others (one at 
least) interior or covered, at least the margins. Imbricative 
teetivation, it will be seen, naturally attends alternate or spiral 
pbyllotaxy (248, and see Fig. 242, 243) ; and if it be mala- 
taincd that theae sets of three, five, &c., in the bloasom are not 
depressed spirals, but whorls or cjcles (as may commonly be' 
the case ui the coroUa, but ha^ll.^' in the calyx), it is not less 
true that the parts are apt to comiwrt themselves in the cxaot 
manner of a depressed spiral. The kinds of regular imbricatioQ- 
of alternate leaves, &c., may be specified by the terms or fra©« 
tions expressive of the particular grade of phyllotaxy (J, i, |, 
3, &c.). But some of them have received special names, which 
may be employed, as subordinate to the general denomination of 
imbricate. The most imiwrtant of these are the 

Equitani, where leaves override, the older successively astride 
the next younger. The tj-pical instance b that of aneipUal or 
two- ranked (J) conduplicate leaves, suceesaivcly clasping, at least 
next the base, as in Ins, Fig. 217. In what Linnmus termed 
eguitanl-triqttetrouM (well seen in Fig. 240, 241), the leaves are 
three-ranked (being of the ^ order), and each imperfectly 

Quiacuncial [estivation {as in the outer part of Fig. 260) 
simply the imbricate lestivation of five leaves (g), in whioh^ 
necessarily the Rrsl and second are external, the fourth and fil 
internal, and the third with one margin external, where it ovi 
Ues the fifth, and the other internal, where it is covered 
the first. 

Alternative [estivation, as already stated (2^2), comes Trom 
verticillate or cyclic phjUotaxy. and the alternation of successive 
whorls. When two such whorls, say of three leaves each (as in 
Fig. 258), are so condensed or combined as to form apparently 
one set or circle of six members (as in the flower-leaves of most 
Liliaceie), three members alternate with and are covered by the 
other three, and this sort of imbricate (estivation is produced. 
More properly, the two seriea are to be considered separately, 
Where the parts are four (as in Fig. 395), the normal imbrica- 
tion is decussate, two exterior and two interior. This is some- 

' All till- examplra rpferrcd lo iVBult from ultemateor epEral ph;Iloux7, 
Iho former of higher scries, the latter of the } (Fig. 26H, 250), luid of the J 
(Kig, 280) order, Insiend of separating (with DeCanclolle nnci othen) the 
i arrangement as different in kind from the imbrinate (under the name of 
qiuneuntialB!slltBtion|,wesliouldTOunlit asa typical case. Otliervise the 
i arrangemeiit might equally claim a generic diidnction, alio tliu i, Jbc 





times A clear case of binarj- instead of quaternary, 1. 1. to be 
founted as two paira of op^xisitc leaves ; jet it may be a single 
whorl of four, ootmitliatanduig the imbrication. Or those four 
Leuvcs may even, in some eaaes, be regarfed as a iH)rtion of a 
f^pressed s[iiral, say of the \ order with one piece omitted, and 
the others adjusted so as to till the space. 

2a7. There are various deviations from normally imbricative 
activation, especially wliero the members are five, occurring 
some in regular but more in irregular Sowers, which need not be 
referred to here. One, for which no specific name is requisite, 
ia ft case merely of excessive overlapping in the regular way ; 
namely, where each piece completely and concentrically encloses 
the next interior, as shown in Fig. 259, representing three i>ctal3 
of Magnolia Umbrella. This the French botanists have called 
eonroluie n^stivntion, because the individual leaves arc involute) 
in a manner approaching the convolute vernation of Linnaeus. 
Another is the Vexiliar, as In the Pea tribe (Fig. 30G), where 
members which should be external have somehow developed as 
inlemul. both in calyx and corolla. A third (which has received 
the usually quite meaningless mime of Cochleetr., spoon-like, 
and is also that to which most French botanists singularly re- 
etritrt the name of imbricative) is a state exactly intermediate 
between the quincuncially imbricate and the convolute or 

uO Q 

contorted. In it. one leaf is wholly outside, one wholly inside, 
anil three with one margin inside and the other outside. It occurs 
nndcr two modifications, >-iz. with the innermost leaf remote from 
the outmost (Fig. 261), and with it next to the outermost as in 
Fig. 2G2. In view of the intermediate character, we had 
applied to this tbe somewhat awkward name of Convolulfimfrri- 
caU.' To bring Fig. 261 back to the quincuncially imbricate 

' It would noI be >ini«B. tlierpfure. tn name on? of these inodei, viz. that 
of Rg. 261, Suldmlnieale, «nrl tlie olher. Fig. 202, Suhroacaialf. George 

iljuvnt ailgs of tha fnunU. 
lis ItaT brnving a murgtn IhtMi 

no. Ml. QalncondiLl Imbriuate mwllflsd tnwanl 
nconil iBof deTel<^nff InBldf lnftt«a>l of odMiLB of the 

Tin. 2U2. CoDTDtuU mmlLflaa uwunl InibrloM by e 
toftcul oronbdda In neighbor. 

jl In thi 


form, we have only to reverao a single overlapping on the left- 
baud side of the figure. To restore Fig. i6i to the convolute, 
we have only to reverse a single overlapping at the lower right- 
hand Bide. Changes like these, or the reverse, are not rare id 
several specicB. particulftrly in the corolla. The normal form | 
and the deviation ollcn occur in different flowers on the same 
individual^ thus indicating an eosj' passage between the imbricate I 
estivation in the proper sense and the 

258. CoHvoluJe, otherwise called Obvolute or Contorted, at \ 
Twined, Fig. 263, and inner circle of Fig. 260. Here each leaf 
succcBsivelj' overlaps a preceding and is overlapped by a followii^ 
one, all ha\-ing a slight and equal obUquity of position, so that ^ 
all alike have an exterior and an interior (or a covering and a I 
covered) margin, and all appear to bo as it were ixjUed up to- ] 
getlier. Tliis is strikingly so when the parts are I 
broad and much ovcrlapi>ed, as in Fig. 204. Browa 1 
included this among the forms of imbricate ffi8ti\-*- j 
tion, andsodoesEichler, particularly di^inguisl ling I 
it, however, under the name here pivfcrred. The 1 
m occasional transitions would justify such classiGca* I 

tion. But in most eases it is so uniform, and in the corolla so I 
completely characteristic of whole families (such as Matvacefe, 
Onagracete.Apocjniaceje, Gentianaccffi, I'olemoniaceie, &c.),and 
is 80 distinct in its nature, that it may well take rank among 
the primarj- kinds of (estivation. As to its nature, it is evident 
that while the imbricate mode (at least the ternary, quinary, 
&c.) indicates or imitates spiral phyllotaxy (some members be- 
ing within or with higher insertion than others), the convolute 
and the valvatc (having all the members of the series on the 
same plane) answer to verticillate phyllotaxy, or to whorla 
instead of depressed spirals.' The name which this mode of 

Henslow, In Tnuit. Linn. Soo. •er. 2, i. 178, propo»f« tu call tlie loniicr Imll- 
imbritste ; the latter (following the faulty Freiicli ex»nipli') is hU imbrk'ate 

The lubimbricaif mode has two TBrietic8. dislinpiishod by Eitliler (in 
BmHiendlagrammc) as atceniiiie, wlicn the lawor or aotcrior (■'. e. the piecei 
next the lablending braet or Ipaf) are BUCcessiTely enlerior (as In Fig. 261), 
and dtiaiuivt, wlien Ihc covering ii from the upper lide, i'. i. from the aide 
ziexl the axis. 

' Still, na those membera of a quincunx which nonnally should be wlioUy ■ 
external do lometimes become iniemal dnriug their development in the bad(fl 
■imilar channes may be conceived to chan^ a quincnncial Into a com 
dispoelliou; but, to effect this, three out uf (he Arc ovcrlappingg would biTftfl 
to be reversed. 

FtQ. 304. CoDTolnte (alio callad contorted) KUiTaUgn of a cuniUa. 


lestivatioQ ought to bear is not yet well setttud, but that of ci 
vohtle. here preferred, will probably prevail.' 

2o9, In recapitulation, these principal forms of the aestivation 
of floral circles may be cksaifled in a synopsis. Thoy are : I. 
those not closed ^ op«i or inifc(ei7nina(e.- II. closed; and these 
I, with the mai^iia not overlapping ^ vatrate ; 2, with margins 
overlapping ; a. one or more with l)oth margins covered ^ imbri- 
eatt ; A, idi with one margin covered, the other uncovered = 

2ti0. Plicate or Plaited, when applied to the flower-bud as a 
vholc, is in a somewhat dilfereut cal^ur}'. The term is ha-a 
uaed for the plaiting 
of a tube or cup, 
coniposeil of a cirele 
of leaves combined ' 
into one body. It 
19 well marked in 

thp corolla of Convolvulus and of Datura, and 
in most of the order to which these belong. In 
Campaimla, these plaits are all outwardly sa- 
lient and straight (Fig. 2C5) ; in the corolla of 
most Gentians, the plaits are internal and straight. 
In Convolvulus and Datura (Fig. 266-268), 
the narrow plaits overlap one another in & con- 
volute way, when ihey are said to l>e Siipercolute. 
Id the common Morning Glory and some other t^ 

species of I^ximtca, these plaits arc besides spirally twisted or 

> Sec article mlltlecl"j&tiTalion and iiaTomiinrilog}'." above referred to. 
TUe carlietc name U Obmlide, gireo by Linnwiu to the kind of Temaliun in 
which two leaves (coaduplicatc ones in Iiis diigraiu) are put togetln'rao 
that one half of each ii exterior, the other interior. That \t juit the mode 
in question reduced tu a tingle pair of leave*, aa it ia in tlie calyx of a Poppj. 
Mirbel la the only bolsnist wlio liaa applied the term to awUvaijon, and to a 
inrcle of more than iwu lea«c8. and it has never been adopted in botanical 
dvacriptioiu. It lias (he diHadvantagi; that (he prefix ob to botanical tcrma 
meani ohvereely or inversely. Conlmttd (cantoria), in English Twitted, li in 
rarly and is (he commoneit use. and it ia aomedmes expressive. The objection 
to it la. that contortion or (wiating of the flower-bud often conspicuouaty oc- 
eiiti wliere there is no overlapping of edges (as in many Bpeciesiif Iponicea)i 
thai really no twisting accompanies the overlapping in a majority of case* 
of Ihia »s(iva(ion: and lliat wlien there ia s twisting it is not rarely in the 
direction contrary to the overlapping; so (hat the contortion needs to be 


Flo. an. 
I nparVDlats. 

an. upper put or n 

and»d cordla at Datoia; the plalta vonvolate M 


oontort^rt in the opposite direction ; that is, the plaits overlap 
to tlie right and are twisted to the left.' 

261. DlrecUoo or Overlapping, &g. This is to be noteil in the 
temarj', quinary, or other Ibnna of spirallj- disposed iinbri cation, 
also in convolute and twisted or contorted leetivation. It 
may be eitlier to the right {dextror$e) or to the left (siniiirorst). 
The application of this term depends upon the assumed |)Dsitioa 
of the obsener, whether outside or inside. We alwajs supix>ae 
him to stand outside, in front of the object : so when the over- 
lapping is fVum right to left of the observer thus placed, as in 
Fig. 26G, it is sinistrorse ; when fVom his letl to right, as in 
Fig. 267, 268, dextrorse.' The direction is generally- constant, 
but in many cases only prevalent, in the same plant or the same 
Bi>ecies, or even the same genus: sometimes it is uniform or 
nearly so throughout a whole natural order. 

tcparatEty cxpreiiL'd. Tn diMpribe Ihe eeativatioTi in mch cases u dexlmnatt 
eoaloiiafl vnatroriumlarta (or in similar English wunlaliWhen ilic ovi-rlapping 
li to the light Hnd liie twisting to the left, ia at least awkward and cunibroui. 
Coniiilult ii a fliling name, of occasional early appli<Alion to this lesliTation 
{as hj Jussieu to the petals of MalvsvUciu), but wlthoni definition in thia 
Mnse ; it has for many year* Iscfii ateadily adopted by the prvseni writer, 
ia employed by Eichler in Germany, and has recently been adopted by 
G. Hetalo" and olliers in Great Britain. It has, however, the disadranlage 
ol hnving been used by Linnvus to express tbe coiling of single leaves, and 
in ■ manner not wholly uongruous, but still with one edge outside and the 
other inside. 

' In our phraseology, deitrorsely conrolute and iinistronely contorted; 
in llieciuTcnt phraseology above relcTTcd to, dextrorsely contorted or twisted J 
and sinistrorsely twisted! I 

* The reasons for adopting this view {in opposition to the authority of ' 
Unnmus and DcCandolle} are ^ven in note on p. 61. 




262. Inflorescence, a teitn vrhkh would literally denote the 
tirrw of Bower-l<earing. waa apjilied by Linnieus to the mode, that 
ia. to the disposition of blossoms on the axis aud as respects 
th«ir arrangement with if^ainS to each other. Antiiotaxy, a 
name formed on the analogy of phylJotaxj', and denoting Bower- 
arrangement, is a better term. The auliject really belongs to 
ramitication (83, 14-16), and is also concerned tt-ith foliation 
snd vrith phyllotaxy. It is most advantageously treated apart, 
immediately preceding the study of the blossom itself. 

263. Id and near the blossom, 
both axis and foliage very commonly 
undergo modificntioD, either abrnpt or 
gmdual, giving rise in the former to 
Pedanclet and PedictU, in the latter to 
Braett and ^aelUtt. 

iM. A Bract (in Latin Bractea) ia a 
leaf belonging to or subtending a 
flower-cltistcr, or subtending a flower, 
and differing from the ordinary leaves 
in somG respect, usually in shape and 
wze, not rarely in texture and color.' 
They ore commonly, but not always, 
reduced or as if depauperate leaves, of 
little or no account as foliage, hut some- 
IJines of use for protection, sometimes 
rivalling the highly coloreil Ho ner- leaves 
fbr ehow, more often insignificant or 
minute uid functionlcsa, sometimes obsolete (as in Crucifene) . or 

* Btb£I* of the flrtt order are lomctimFi called ^uro/ lences iFeliaJJoralin), 
or at leul these nre not well dielliiKQiKhcd from bncti. But Itic term flnral 
IciTM ia deieriplively more properly and uaually applied 10 learn bcloir 
the bnicla or proper ori^n o( the flower-clUBlers, yet near them, and un- 
like the proper cauline leavm. It ii a vagiie Icrm. and in in tome danger of 
being confounded (as it never should be) with another vaguo term, tiz. 
flower-lea Tea, or the leaf-tike orgnns of the flower ilieU. 




Aigacioua. Each flower Is subtenilwl hy (grows from the axQ 
of) a bract in Fig. 277-280, &v. A duster of flowers is sub- 
teodcd by a conspicuous and colored bract in Fig. 269, 270. 271 ; 
by a circle of colored braels, imitating white petals, in Fig. 294. 
HrKTRE is the name given to such an enclosing bract, or 
r more leaves succcsBlvely enclosing a flower-cluster. 

iNVOLrciiE is the name given to a circle or spiral collection of 
bracts around a flower-cluster, as in Cornel (Fig. 294, also in Fig. 
280 and 286), or around a single flower, as in HepatJca 
Mallow, A compound inQorescence may have both a genei 
and a partial involucre, one for tho general flower-cluster, otiiei*' 
subtending the partial clusters. The name of involucre ia then 
reserved for the general one : that of 

Ikvolucel ia applied to the partial, secondary, or ultimata 

BRACTLET9 (Lat. Braeleola, diminutive of bract) are bracts 
a secondary or ultimate order. For esomple, in tlie slender 
flower-cluster, Fig. 277, fi is a bi-nct, subtending each individual 
flower-stalk : b' is a bractlel, or bract of sccondarj- order, liome 
on that partial flower-stalk itself. The French naturally translate 
the Latin braeleola into bracfeole (pi. bracleolet) : ill English, 
bractlel is an idiomatic and better diminiitive. 

I'alets (Lat. Palea), also called Chajf. arc diminutive 

VH. PuMeotUfOow-atm 

;li8h, ^^m 




I oltim 

chafT'like bracts or bractkts on the axis (or receptacle) and 
among llie flowers of a dense inflorescence, aucli na a licad of 
Composite (275, Fig. 2ST, 28S) ; and llie name ia also given 
to an inner series of ttie 

Glches of Grasses. These are peculiar chaffy bracts or bract- 
U'ts wliich characterize the inflorescence of Grasses and Sedges. 
■JG'i. PedoiMlD ia the general name of a flower-stalk, that ia, 
of an axis or stem, irhich instead of foliage, or at least ordi- 
nary foliage, supports a 
llowcr-clusteror a single 
flower. In Fig, 276, 
eacli peduncle (rising 
ftiHii tlie axil of an ordi- 
narj- leaf, and therefore 
answering to a branch) 
bears a solitarj- flower. In Fig, 277, the jwduncle bears a scries 
nf flowers, or a flower-eluater. In this instance, each Bowel 
borne on a flower-stalk of its own, tliat is, upon a 
Pkpicel. This is the name given to distinguish 
a partial flower-stalk, or, more strictly, the stalk 
of each individual flower of an inflorescence. (Fig. 
277-284.) In less simple flower-clusters, with 
ramiiication of two, three, or more grades, general 
peduncle, partial peduncles, and pedicels have to Iw ' 
distinguished : the term pedicel is reserved for the 
oltimat« ramiflcatioQ. 

BcAFX is the name given to a peduncle i 

the ground, as that of most Frimulns. of 
iMratheon, ticpatiea, and the so-called acaiilcs- 
Otai or sicmleas Violets. •' 

RiiACiiis (backbone) is a name given to the axis i 
of inflorescence; that is, the continuation of the 
stem or peduncle through a somewhat elongated 
flower-eluBter, as in a spike of Birch or of Plan- 
tain. Fig. 1K9, 2!in. When this axis ia short, i 
a head (Fig. 285-288), it is usually called the 
Receptacle, a word also used for the axis or cauline- 
part of a flower. The context should show when receptacle of 
inflorescence, and when receptacle of the flower itself, is meant. 
Both belong to axis or stem. 



nuDiiTDlsiia, wllh ulUorj omf-flow 
>1 peduncle Ip). |>cdlceli (p'), brkcts (ft). 




2G6. Position of Flowers or fiDsters. Flower-buds accord 
with leaf-biuls in origin, position, and atnicture, to tbis extent at 
least, that the parts of Ijoth aro leaves or homolt^uos of leaves, 
crowdeti iti whorls or s|)irals uijon a short portion of stem or 
asia ; and as leaf-buds are either terminal or asillnrj- (15, 73) 
so also are flower-buds ; as a leaf-bml may give rise to a simple 
or a compound growth, i. e. maj' branch again and again, or not 
branch at all, so flowcr-ljcaring branches, or the flower-bearing 
extremity of a Bt«m or branch, mfl3- bear a single flower, or a 
more or less com]mund cluster. Thus, in Fig. 276, an axillarj- 
[leduncle, or naked branch, bears at ajjex a solitarj' flower; in 
Fig. 277, a i>eduncle bears a loose cluster of flowers, each of 
which springs from the axil of a small bract; in Fig. 265, 
a terminal i>eduncle bears at summit a dense flower-cluster. 
Flowers are either solitaiy or in elnstera. When solitary, they 
are naturally without bracts, being subtende<l instead (as in Fig. 
276) by ordinarj- foliage. 

267. The elevation either of a solitary flower or a cluster on a 
peduncle, or of individual flowers of a cluster on pedicels, is only 
incidental. The flowers may be stalkless, i. e. teuiU. 

268. The Kinds of Inflorescence which have received distinctive 
names are various, but are all retlucible to two types, which, 
generally well marked, may sometimes pass into each other, and 
which are not rarely combined in the same comijound inflores- 
cence,' The two types difllcr in basis aa do nxillur)' from ter- 
minal buds ; in the one the flowers are axillary or lateral, in the 
other terminal in respect to the axis from whieli each flower or 
its pedicel arises. But inasmuch as everj" flower, whatever its 
position, is terminal to its own stalk or axis, it is Iwtler to dis- 
tinguish the two tyiics in other terms, and to name them the 

261). Indefinite and Deflnlte, or. in equivalent and similar t«rms, 
the Indelerminate and Dttenninate^ Each maj- be either simple 
or compound. It is tVom the simple that the definilions are to 
be drawn. In tlie former type, the rhachis or main axis of the 
inflorescence is not tei-minated by a flower, but lateral axes, or 
pedicels, are. In tlie latter, both the main or primarj- and the 
lateral or secondary axes or stalks are so terminated. An inde- 
terminate flower-cluster may go on to develop internode after 

' Inflorescence, ni hu been well insUtpd on by Giiillaud (in Bull. Soc. 
Bot. Frame, iv 2B|, ia a mo<le. not a. thing. The ihinga iomelimes but in- 
appropriately Ml called Me liower*lu»t«rB, for which, if a RpneTRl ieclinie«l 
name is needed, Ihat of .^ni*fniin, In English Anlhemy. saggeated hy Guillaud, 
ia ai tiEOod na sny. 

■ Alio named by Eichler (Bliilhendiagramme, 33, following Guillaud, I. c.) 
the Cj/mon and the Balri/ott type- 


ioternode of axis, and one or more leaves (bracts) at each node, 

tiien a flower in the axil of each bruL-t, until its strengtli or 

ilnlity ia exhausted. Or it may stop sliort with verj- few 

but the ujipennost and youngest one will not really ter- 


tlie rhaehis (t. e. come from a terminal bud), lliough it 
ly apix^ar to do so, (Fig. 272, 277-279, &c.) Tlie lower 
er-bnda are evidently the oldest, and accoi-dingly the firat to 
id ; and the expansion will proceed regularly from below 
ward : wherefore this typo of inflorescence has Iwcn called the 
AtPtnding or Acropetal : likewise the Centripelalt be pause, when 
the flowers are brought to the same level or near it (as in Fig. 
;79, 280) by a lengthening of the lower pedioela, witli or with- 
out relative shortening of the rhachis, the evolution 
is seen to proceeil fi-om eircumferencc to centre, 
Tliere is thus no lack of names ; but, inasmuch as 
the following tyiw; Is commonly refeirerl to under the 
general name of CSfmoie, to this has recently been 
given the counterpart name of Bolryoie. (271.) 

270. A determinate flower-cluster (as seen in its gradual 
development which is not rarely presented) has the last inteniode 



nifl«nmi of Imlennl 

e. Inile 

ermlute, eoWrlpewJ 

or botryoM In- 


ix: Wt 

H««Mnoj 3TB, C 


WO. L- 







li82, ■ Bollt»rx 

eriuiiml Hows 

; SM. «oia with 


a 3.a 

cyroor 2W. » 



wwl, OT a pair 




b«Ue Hie c« 

tnl or liriniuT 



of itaaxia teitninntol by a flower (Fig. 281-284), wbich answers 
a terminal Intd. If more dowers appear, bo as lo eouiitoae a 
cluster, they spring (Vom the axils, preferably from the highest 
axils, and are later. The order of evolution is shown in the tigures 
by the size of the flower-buila or degree of expansion of the 
blossoms. Fig. 281 best shows why a determinate or definite in- 
florescence is sometimes said to be DeKtnding ; Fig. 283 shows 
why it is called Centrifugal., the central flower first expanding ; 
Fig. 284 exhibits the lateral or eii'cnmferential partial clusters 
later than the central blossom, and Ihi'ir lateral flowers later 
than their central. 

271 . Varieties of Indett^rmlnatA or BotrfoM Inflorescence. The 
names of most of these have been fixed fioni the time of Linneeiis, 
bnt defined without reference to the order of evolution of the 
flowers. They arc tlic Raceme, Corymh, and Umbel, witli flowere 
raised on [wdicets ; tlio .'^ike and Head, witli sessile flowers ; 
also some modilleations of these, notably the Amenl and the 
Spadlx. The raceme may be taken as the tj^pe. Bnlryi is 
equivalent to racemitt, &c. ; and, as the Kypn includes diversity 
of forms to which the name racemose would seem inagiplii.'able, 
the term balryote {botrytitehen of Kichler) is beat chosen as the 
general name of it, and is a good counterpart to eymose for the 
other Iilic. 

272. A BuMie (illustrated in Fig. 272, 277, and by diagi 
in Fig. 278) is a simple flower-chister, in which the flowenij' 
on their own lateral or axillary" pedicels and of somewhat equal 
length, are an-anged along a relatively more or less elongated 
rhachia or axis of inflorescence. The common Barbcny, Cur- 
rant, Clioke-Cherry and Black Chcrr;-, and Lily of the Valley 
arc familiar examples. 

273. A Corymb (Fig. 275, 279) is a shorter and li 
boti-yosecluater, which differs froma raceme only in the relatively 
shorter rhaehis and longer lower pcilicels ; the cluster thus be- 
coming flat-to])|)et] or cftnves. The centripetal character is thus 
made apparent. Tlic greater number of the corymbs of Linnicus 
and succeeding botanists are e^vmes, the central flower flret ex- 
panding. And the tcim corymbose or corymb-like is still much 
used in descriptive lH>tan3' for a ramification which is mainly of 
tlie c3:mo8c type, ami where in strictness the tcim cj-mosc should 
l>e employeil. 

274. An I'mbcl (Fig. 280). as in Asclepias. 4c.. dilfers from 
a corymb only in the extreme abbreviation of the rhaehis or axis 
of inflorescence, and the general equality of the pedicels v 
thus all appear to originate fW>m tlie aj>ex of the peduncle, 

the ^^ 



alley ^H 



BO reMmble the rays of no umhroliti ; nlience the namo, and 
whence also the ]>e(licels or partial peduncles of au umbel are 
temictl its Rayt. The bracta, brought by the non-development 
of iulemodes IdIo a depressed spiral or apparent (or sonietimea 
Tvai) whorl, become an involucre. (2G4.) An umbel or any 
siiullar cluster when seseile (without a common peduncle), and 
the parts crowdetl, is aometimes called a FasctcU (or the pedicels 
saul to be fatacUd) ; but this term has l»een differently defined. 
(2K0.) It 19 better not to use it for any sijecial kind of infloies- 
fcnce, bnt simply in the sense of n bundle of whatever sort 
Tliis will acconl with the sense in which it is applied to an 
aggregation of leaves. (248.) 

275. A Head or Capitutum (Fig. 285) is a globular cluster of 
sessile flowera, like those of Red Clover, Hutton-hush, and 
Plane-tree. The pedieela need not be absolutely wanting, bnt 
only very short. An umbel 
*rilh pedicels much abbrevi- 
ated thus passes into a head, 
as in Ertnginm, &c. And I 
a bead witJi rhachis elongated 
jmsses into a spike. The 
short rhaehis of a head very 
eommonly takes tlie name of 
Ttreptacle. (2r,h.) The whole 
jaay Ite subtended by eon- 
spioiions bracts forming an 
Involnorc (264) as In Fig. 
286, or may lie destitute of 
any, as in Fig. 285. On ac- 
count of the compactness 
end mutual pressure imder 
growth, the brneta among 
Uie flowers of such heads (normally one subtending each bloa- 
eom) arc apt to l)c nidimentarj', reduced to little scales, or 
abortive, or completely wanting. In the latter case, the recep- 
tacle is said to lie nahil (nude), i.e. naked of liracts: wlicn 
Uiey are present, it is paleate or cAijfy. A pecnliar sort of heod, 
not imdcscning a special name (though this is not necessary 
in descriptive tetany), is the 

Aktiiodil'm, the so-calie<l Compoimd Flower of the earlier 
bolanista, which gives the name to tlic \ ast order of Compositae, 

The name monnB "resembling a flower." AlthougU it has ■ 
the chanictera of a true head, the resemblance to a flower i 

remarkably sinking the l^^ulucrc imitating a calyx, and Uie 
strap- sliupcd (htfulate) cmullns of the several flowers imitating 
the petals of a smglc blossom In sumc (such as Dandelion 
and the Cicborj-, Fig. 286) , all 
the flowers of the head bear 
T these petal-like corollas ; in 
more (such as Aster, Sun- 
flower, and Coreopsis, 
2^7), only an outer circle 

ers docs so ; the remaid^ 
dcr, smaller and filling the 
centre (or disk), may l)y the 
casual obsen-er be taken for 
stamens and pistils and ftirther the deception. The rhachis 
or receptacle of a head of this kind is commonly depressed, 
Iwaring the flowers on wliat then becomes the upper surface, 
which adds to the imitation * 

SvcojJiLM This name gi\on to the Fig-fhiit, should be here 
referred t« as it is a sort of inflorescence, of the general nature 
of a head but with rece|)tacle external an<l flowers 



1 The reiTptac \c at an iniMi im hai boen termed CUnanihiam or Phtr^ 
anlAiuai ,- and lie fnvolucrt b Pen/jhoraBlhiaj* or Pendiniiat. The head 
likenite been named a ttphalatihium 

no. 286. Flowering branch ot Clchory, wilb two Iiea<1« of UgalsU flowen, 

FIG. 2ST. VarUal*«cUimQfBlieBiloraoireraofaCot»i»ii. 

276. A Spike is a cluster of scssilo (or apparently or nearly 
Beesile) lateral flowere on an elongated axis. It may be tlc- 
flncd by comparison, as a bead witli the rhacliis lengthened 
(indeed a young head oflen beeomes a spike when older), and 
equally as a raceme with tlie i>edicel8 
all much shortened or wanting. A 
Mullein and a FlantAin 
(Plantogo. Fig. 2'JQ) are familiar ex- 
amples. Two modiUcations of the 
spike (or sometimes of the head) gen- 
erally bear distinct names, although 
not distinguishable by exact and con- 
stant characters, viz. ; — 

Spacix, a spike or head with a 
fleshy or thickenwi rhachis. The 
terra ia almost restricted to tlic Arum 
family and Palms, and to c 
which tlie inflorescence is accompanied 
by the peculiar bract or bracts called 
a spathe (Fig. 209-271). Ent the 
two do not always go togeUier : in 
Acorua and Orontium there is pro[5crIy 
no spathe to the epadix ; while in the 
Iria family the bracts are said to form °° ™ 

a spathe, and there is no spadix. In Palms, the principal reason 
for naming the inflorescence a spadix is its inclusion in a 
siiatbe before anthesis. 

FtO. 2% A allniif Fit. !*T, more enlarged, vith one InbnUr perftKl flower |a) lift 
(Undlng on Ilie twcpIiutD. uirl lalilanitNl by Itslinut nr ehmlt {&): ilto one llgnlala 
■odnauirml njr-Soiror ami putoT uioUier (c, c): In it. d, Ibc bnsU or I ~ " 

na. 380. CktUn or White Blrcb. Z9a Toong (pike of PUnUfo m^loi. 


Ahekt or Catkis. This ia merely that kind of spike with 
scaly bracts borne by the Birch (Kig. 289), Poplar, Willow, nnd, 
as to one sort of flowers, by the Oak, Walnut, and Hickory, 
which are accordingly called amtntaceoug iren. Catkins usually 
foil olTiD one piece, after flowering or fruitiiig. All true catkins 
are unisexual. 

277. Any of these forms of simple inflorescence may be com- 
pounded. Kacemea may themselves bedisposcd in racemes, spikes 
in spikes (as in Triticum), heads 
be aggregated in beads, umbels in 
imibels, corjTubs may be eorj-m- 
bosely compound, &c. ; forming 
compoujid raeemet, spikes, umMg, 
and tlie like, the terminology of 
which is cosy. The most usual 
case of truly homomorpbous c 
"^ pounding is that of umbels ; 

inflorescence of much the larger pait of Umbelliferffi being is 
compound umbels, as in Fig. 200". There is then the general 
umbel, the rays of which become peduncles tff 
the partial umbels, and the rays of the latter 
arp pedicels. Umhella and Umbellula desig- 
nate in Latin termiuolt^y the general and its 
partial umbels. Umbelteiu (coined by the late 
Dr. Darlington) may well replace the latter 
y^ as the English diminutive. But umljels are 

(^ \ fi sometimes racemosely arranged, as in Aralia 
■i '" spinosa, heads may be arranged in spikes, 
and so on. 

278. A Panicle, of the simple and not 
sort (as illustrated in Fig. 291), is prodi 
when a raceme becomes irregularly compound 
by some (usually the lower) of its pe<licel8 
developing into [wdimcles carrying several 
flowers, or more than one, or branching again 
and again in the same order. But in com- 
jjound clusters generally the secondary and 
tertiary ramiflcations are apt to differ in type 
as well as in particular mode, giving 
hetcromor|)hou8 or TOixe<l inflorescence. (288.] 
As Liniiieus deflned the term, and as it has generally been 
ployetl in botanical descriptions, the panicle is a general 



FIG. XBB^ Comiioiuirl lu 

«lufCamaf. S9I. A dmple psulcle. 


for any loose nnd divei'sely branched cluster, with pedicellaM 

flowers. It is therefore dillicult to i-esti'i(;t it in pructicu to the ^ 

indctenninntc type, 

2~d. Varieties or Det«rinliiate or Cfmose laflorcsceDce. The 

plan of tills tyi>e hns been aufflLienlly oxplaiiicd. (270.) Ita 
I flimiilcst cunilition is that of a solitary lerniinal Itower, iiedtincu- 
I Utc or pedicellate (as in Fig. 2H^), or sessile. The production 
I of more dowers necessitates new axes frota beneath, from the 

ucila of adjacent leaves or liracts. These, being later, render 
evolution centrifhgal. The simplest tlower-elustcr (unless 

we call the solitary flower of Fig. 282 a one-dowered cluster) is 
[ that of Fig. 283, where a secondary floral axis or [leiluncle has 
i developed from the axil of each leaf of the uppermost pair, or 

where with alternate leaves there ia a single up[)ermosl leaf, and 
I then only one such peduncle, and thus is produced a three- (or 

two-) flowered eymuse cluster. The flower of the primary axis 

is marked by its bractless |)e<luncle (therefore a iwdicel) ; the 

btoral and secondary jiedunclcs are known (commonly or nor- 
I mally) by their bracts or bract ; the i>orlion below the bracts 
I is proiier |>edunclc; that above, of single intemode, {ledicel. 
I Bracts, like other leaves, have |x>tcntial buds in their axils ; these 
I in an inflorescence give the tlilnl order of ramificalion, each 
I branch tip]HHl with its flower ; and so on. 

280, The Cyme is the general name of this kind of flower-cluster 
I in its various forms. One of tliese very simple e,i-mes, by itself or 
I fts a part of a lai-gcr cj-mc, may be called a Cjfmule. The regul 

cyme usually accompanies opposite or other grades of verticillato 
I leaves, but is not rare in the alternate arrangement. It is 
I readiest understood in an opixisite-leaved plant with regular 
^ <^MMite ramification, as in an Arenaria, Fig. 292. By its con- 

atltution, a cyme proceeds from simple to compound. It mat- 



tevB little wlietlier its deiclopmont is progreesive. the flowers of | 

the ultimate ramiflcBtione expanding aftei' tlieeoi licr liavc matui-ed I 

fhtit, and witli suhtcnding tn'acta conspicuous ur folioccous ; or 1 
whether, as in Elder and Hydrangea (Fig. 293, and in Fig. 

273), the bracts are ininntc and caducous or abortive, and the 1 
ramilication complete with all the flower-buds well formed before 

the oldest expand, so that the whole is in blossom almost at the I 

same time. But a cjTne may be pro|wrl_v said lo be comimund ] 
wheu the primary axis in it is a petlunele instead of a iwdicel, 

and snpports a cluster (cj-me or ej-mule) instead of a solitary 1 
central flower at the main divisions.* One form of the reguhiT 1 
cyme, on account of its comi>actncss, is named the 

Gloherule. This is merely a cymoso inflorescence, of any J 
sort, which is condensed into the form of a. head, or approach- I 
ing it. Of tills kind is tlie so-cflllwl liead of Comus floriria, and 1 
of the herbaceous C. Canadensis (Fig. 294), which shows the I 

' The dicholomom or twn-branphed ryme la 
timci nurk^ l>y iiipprMtion of inlornodce ; as, fur exuiiplp, whero thBL] 
branche* arc apptircntly in fnuFB. in an umbel llforni way ; but these ai 
•eU of Iwo, with the iiilemodo between llie pairs extremely abort ; or where^ 1 
W in Elder, the branehi^a nr rays are five, in thii cue condsllnic of the st 
two pain and a ventrnl one, whicb is a mnny-tlawcred eonlinualion of tha I 
primary axis. Or 0-rnyed cymes, &c., may be f'^undeil upon altemato leave* I 
with sbortened intemodei, the rays or peduncles axillary to them Ihal J 
brought into an apparent whorl. 

Bravais distmguished vymes as malllpanid, with three or more lateral'] 
axes ; Upanat, with tiro ; and aniparoai, wiili only one (eytnc multipare, I 
Upare, unlpare). To these Eichler xive* the siibslBntlvc m 
nf Phiodmiiam, DirAoiium, and ilonoduitiaiit. Only the latter needs illualr^ 1 
Hon : the olhers being as it were compound* of this. 

FIG. USX. Cuio[>oaiul crnB of Bydranguj with aoiM ncutrsl iiud ci 
filial flginn, 




ipoBition best, ou close osamination. A conclenscil l)ut less 
'tapilnte cyme, or cluster of cymes, was t-allcd l>y Rcpjwr anil 
DoCfliiclolle a Fascicle ; ami tliia terminology has Iwoii mucU 
adoplwi. It ia pro|)erly ciiougb 
ikl to be a fasdck, wliieL, as 
by Linn^us aud others, 
,ns a buiuUe, or close collection 
parts, whether leaves, i>ediui- 
or flowers ; but a Tasciele is 
necessarily a cyme ("274 ) , nor is 
ire need of a siweial Biil»atantivo 
iianie for a compact cyme, wliicli 
may cither be simply so called or 
it may (mas into the glomerulc. 

28 1 . Botrjoidal forms of Cjmom 
Type, or False Batwmes, Ac. The 
regular cjine seldom continues 
with all its ramifications. In 
Fig, 292, after the second forking, 
one of the two laU'ral podunclca -: 

mostly fails to apjiear, and in some »i " 

parts one of the bracts also ; and nitimately the hiteral peduncle 
present is bractless, like the central, therefore equally incapable 
of further ramification, l<eing reduced to a pedicel of a single inter- 
node. This suppression some- 
times begins at the first fork- 
ing or at the very base ; and, 
when followed throughout, it 
luces a bi parous ordichoto- 
)U8 cyme to one half, and, 
verts this half (wlien the 
straightens) intotlicsem- 
ice of a raceme if the 
iwers are iwdicelled, or of a 
:c when tliey are sessile. 

a diagram of such an inflorescence as that of Fig. 292, 
Eth one lateral branch uniformly suppressed at each division, Uie 
inting members indicated by short dotted lines. Cases exem- 
' 'ing this occur in portions of the inflorescence of si 

c of our 

^ Via. IM. Pl«nt of Corno» 

xmtinuM Into a pediinclu. and tennliiaU 

itllM flflwen laken rrom tlic ^amernle. enlanted, 
'Tia. too. UnlpBrmucyniflDrarnipoiIlairalHniame.wltli opposite 
•Via. m. Form of lb* nine, wltb bImtuIs IwfM <tt bneU. 

•ra bonrliig B cluitit of le»v« 
liyagl..ii.eruloorvei7 w"*! 
.lucre of tour bnuU. WS OM 


smalltT llj-perifums. nml notaMy in H. Saixillira, in which tin 1 
leuves arc nil rctluMil to bracts. It is nut always easy to shoir 1 
wrbythbisiiotalruoracciue. But the other bract of tlie pair, upon I 
that supposition, is uiinccountably empty : the successive augular J 
divei^enmofcadijoiiitof the axis of inflorescence in the younger 1 
port, which commonly runs into a coil, finds explanation in Ute view | 
tlial each portion is the lateral branch fhiiu the axil of tlie sulitcnd- J 
ing Ivat : and occasionally tlic other axil jtroduees a similar one^ 
thus revealing the cymose character. When the bract from tlie I 
axil of which the missing branch shouki come disapiK-arBaUo, i 
sometimes it does, and uniformly on the same side, a stale of 1 
tilings like that of the up|x-r part of Fig. 2'J7 occurs. The same 
figure may sen-e for the arrangement corresiwnding to Uiat of 
Fig. 21)6, only with alternate leaves. But tlicn, close as the imi- 
tation of a raceme here is, the |>OBition of each flower in respect 
to the bract sttpplica a criterion. While in a true raceme the 
flower stands in t^ie axil of its bract, here it stands on the oppo- I 
site side of the aicis, or at least is quite away from the axil. 

262. Srmpodial forms. The explanation is that the axis of J 
inflorescence in such cases, continitons as it a|>pcars to lie, ia I 
not a simple one, is not a tnomipode, but a tympode (110, llf 
Dotes), i.e. consists of a series of seemingly supeiposod iuteP^ 1 
nodes which belong to successive generations of axes : each axis f 
bears a pair of leaves (Fig. 29ti) or a single leaf (Fig. 297), I 
is continoed beyond into a peduncle (or pedicel in tlieM I 
instances), and is terminated by a flower. From the oxUl 
promptly springs a new axis or branch, vigorous enough soon I 
to throw the ocljaccnt jjedicel and flower to one side ; tbii i 
bears its leaf or pair of leaves, and is terminated like its prede- 
oesaor with a flower ; and so on indefinitely. The fact that the 
alternate leaves or bracts are thrown more or less strictly to one 
side and the Bowers to the other, in Fig. 297, shows Uiftt these 
leaves do nut belong to one and the same axis ; for attci'nate 
leaves are never one-ranked or disjxised preponderaLingly along 
one side of an axis, as in this dii^om, and as is seeu in the 
inflorescence of a Ilouselcek, &c. 

283. A further ditHcnlty in llio morphology of clusters of this I 
class comes from the early a(>ortion or complete snpiiression of f 
bracts. Tills is not unknown in Itotryose inflorescence, occurring J 
in the racemes of almost all Crueifera; : it is very common in the J 
cymose of all varieties, and e8{>ecuilly in the uniparons ones ii 
question, which characterize or aliound in Borraginacca>, Hydro- ■ 
phyllaceffi, and other natunil orders. In some genera or species, T 
the bracts are present, or at least the lower ones; in others,! 


absent; in some, either occaaionnlly present or wanting in the 
BaniB species or iDdiviJiial. It ia only by analogy, tbcrefore, 
fliid by a compaiison or allicci plants, that the nature of eotne of 
tbese flower-clusters can Iks made out. With tlie botanists of a 
preceding generation, these one-sided clustere were all described 
as racemes or spikes. Botanists still lind it convenient to con- 
tinue the use of these names for them in botanical desci-iptiooa, 
adding, however, as occasion requires, the qualifieation tlial tticy 
arc /u/m raceme* or ipiket, or cymoge raeemn, and tlie like ; or 
elsei by reversing tlie phrase, with stricter correctness they call 
tlicm racemifomt or tpieiform cymet, &c. 

284. Commonly these false racemes or spikes (or botrj'oidal 
cymes, if wc so name them) are circinate or inrolled from tlio 
aiiex when young, in the manner of a crosier, straightening as 
they come into blossom or fruiting. Likening them to a scorpion 
when coiled, the earlier botanists designated this as icorpiotd. 
As the coil is a helix, it has also been named helieoid.^ The 
flowers ai* then thrown, more or less strictly, to the outer sida 
of tlie coiled rbacbis, where there is room for them \ and so these 
blse nuiemcs or spikes are secund or unilateral. The particular 
antbotaxy and phjilotaxy of the various sympodial and botryoi- 
dal forms of cjinoae inflorescence become rather dilflcult ; aud 
the sorts which have been elaborately classified into species 
(ami have no little mor]>bolugical interest) ore connected by 
Bueh transitions, and are baaed on such nice or sometimes theo- 
retical particulars, that tlie termmology based on them is seldom 
conveniently applicable to descriptive botany, at least as to sub- 
stantive names. 

285. One of the latest ami simplest classificationa of cjmea is 
that of Eichler in liis Blatbendiagrammc.' 

' Srm-pimd aiitl HeUcoid hare been Carefully distinpilahcd by I»wr 
(DorplioIoKlBti. on ati'ount of some diffprcnw in the mode of evolullon «nd 
amtngcineiit of the floiren along one side of the rli»chi». by which they 
b^catiw two-rankcO in M'orpioid, one-ranked in heliiwid. But pru'tlcslly 
tbe two kinda of eluslen arc not always readily dlw;rimini)teil ; anil in gen- 
tnX lenninology a aingle name, with suliordinale qualifying Ivmis, it luffl- 
clent. SLvrpioid ie the older and commoner one, therefore tli» moat proper 
10 be lued in tlie generic tense. 
■ CTHosa TiFE (olatsifled without reference to bracts, which arc so oflen 

wanting) ; divided inio 
a. LatentI txes three or more: Pi^iociubil'm, the muUiparwM tymt at 

jB. Lateml axe« two : Dicn*<TrM, the bipanui cginr of Bravais. 
y. Lateral axiaone: MuMociiAgiL'M, the uniparoit cj/iae ot BravaU. 

The latter, or the (wrreiponding diitBioiii of the preceding sorts, may be 
divided ai follows: 




286. Stindry complications and obscunties are occasionally 
encountered in anlhotaxy or pliyllolasy, wliioh cannot here Iw 

ilie relatively main ax 
gencrntioTia alwnys fslling i 

wlike] or UosTitrx 

1. Latentl axet 

iiJc of the reUiiv 

[ringlet or curt], tlie inii'^wiroiu htlicoid egme of Brav&is. 

2. Lateral axe* falling allemntelj- oa opposite sidci of the relatively main 

axis : WicKEL or Cixcimkus [m curl), the miparoui icorjiiiAd ei/me of 

• • Lateral a>:e« medial [in the same plane] relative to tiie main axis. 
S. Lalcrai axes in succcesive fteneratiung always on tlie baclc side of Ihc 

axis from whieh it springs: FACirEL, RillPiDirM |fan]. 
4 Lateral axes in lucecealve gcneraCiona always on liie upper side of tlie 
axis from which it spiingi ; Sichel, Dbepahiitu [sickle]. 
The subjoined simple diagrams from Eichler (Fig, 2D8-303) iltuHlrate 
these foniu. The ramiScalioji U given without the tiracts, which theoreti- 
cally or actually aiiblcnci Ihc axes of each generation. The student may add 
tbem, and ao marc readily apprehend the eharaetcrs. 

Eichler recognizes the forms with median | an tcro- posterior) position of 
s in Monocotyledons only. 
It is natural to diitieliouit pliyl- 
lotaxy, and it accords with 
the general rule that, in mono- 
cotyteilonous plants, llie flnt 
leaf of the branch, or tlic com- 
monly solitary hractlel of tlie 
' peduncle, stands over against 
) and facing tlie bract or leaf 
from the axil of which said 


Fia. Me, IHiigrain of U 

axoii nombenid In SDCi-eHtioi 

Fid. 3Dff. iDin^cmm uf tl 


rroni Isft to riglit. 
FIO. 304. IMagriun showing the poritii 
HoMGOlyledons: a Is the prliuacy, a' 

explained, except through full details : sucli as flowoi-s stoDding 
by tUe side of a leaf, or a small leaf hy the side of a hiiger one, 

IT oblique posilion of secuniUry axet or peduncles, hb in 
Eichler'a first two spo<^ies, brings tlic flowers of the false raceme or spike 
out ot line of the iijnipoilia] axis and hraela, neither in the axile, aa in true 
nceme«, tior oppoaite Ihem, m in the litiipidium and DrcpAnlum, but on one 
liile of this plane or tlie other. Thin la moat common in Dicotyledoni {in 
Dnwers. Sedom, Sempervivum. and Hyost-yamua, in Borraginnces nnd 
Ilydrophyllaene, Ac.), anil la not rare in Monoixitj-lcdoni. eipedally with 
triaticlioui phyilotaxy. aa in Tradeaenntia. In Ihe Botlryx, Fig. SMM, the 
brai;tlet is anterior or falls on tlie same side as tlie bract, or, in other terms, 
the successive bracts are all on one tlile, the inner side, of the helix ; and the 
Drrpanium (Fig. 301) is like it: this is the helicoid cyme of BrsTais, &c., 
ami its flowers are commonly one-ranked. In the Cincinnuaortruetcarploid 
cj-me (Fig. Sf)8). and equally in the Ithipidimn {Fig. 300), the bracts fall 
atiemalely on opposite or diflerent sides of the aympndial rhacliis, because 
the single bract [I/) of each succeseive secondary axia {a') stands next the 
axis (i) and over against llic bract ({>) of Ihe gencmliun preceding. The 
flowers in these generally fall into two pamllel ranks (conspicuously go 
when crowded) on the upper aide of llie rhachls. on wliich, in the cincinnut 
or true scorpioid cluster, they are usually sessile or nearly so (or spleale), 
■s is well si-en in Heliotropes, and in very many Burraginaceoua and Hydro- 
pliyllacenns ipecles. in Houaeleek, Tradeacantla e 
through iiirii'ifmiity, that is, the phyllolaxy of 
each successive axia of Ihe sympmlc (with iis 
onebract.orbyaupprMsion wiitiouiii) changes 
direction, from tight to left and from left In 
right allematEly. Fig. 30d is a plan of Ibis 
two-ranked unilateral arrangement. When not 
loo crowded, both Cincinnus and Bbipidiuni 
are apt to have a zigzag rhaehla. 

Tliese two last-tcKn tinned kinds are so gen- 
erally alike in character, aa are equally the 
Bosiryx and tlie Drepanitun. that the four spe- 
cies may as well be reduced lo two. Aa these 
severally include the acorpioid and the hclicoid 
nniparous eymei of modem anthoiaxy, these 
lemis may be retained to designate them. Or, 
If other terms in use be preferred lo icorpioid 
and Miriiiil, the form with two-rankeil flowers _g 

Diay be denomJnaied CindniuJ, that with single- au* 

ranked Bmirgcfioidal. But in neither type is the rhacliis always coiled 
up, although connnnnly more or lest to in the undeveloped si 

While these forma generally imitate racemes or spikes, it will be noted 
that Fig. 300 apecialiy imitatea a eorymb in form and in seeming acropetal 
or centripetal evolution. And when, as in this figure, the braels are all 
absent, no obvious external difference n 

FIG. ! 

Groand pisn (rnnn Elchlei 

I BO Die others lt> 
bcjond. Ttie figure 1 alBinl lo eacb Aowtt Inillcates Ibe 


a pedicel or jietlundc nbove and o 

tof c 

1 witli t 


r connection i 
li should 

267. Mixed InflorMcence is not uncommon. This name is 
given tocluBtersor ramifications in which Uie twotjpcs are con- ] 
joined. Being lieteromoriihous, they are almost necessarily com* 
pound, tlie two tj-pes belonging to ditterent orders of ramifl cation.' ' 
But under it may be included cases of comparatively slnipld \ 
inflorescence, at least in the beginning, some of which nearly j 
ftiae the twotj~pea into one. In tlie Teasel (Dipsacus), anappar- I 
ently simple head or short spike comes first into flower at the 1 
middle, (Vom which the flowering proceeds regularly to the base. 
Had it begun at the top, it would answer to Fig. 281, which, i 
blossoming from above downward by simple uniflorous lateral I 
axes along a monoi>odinl primary axis, is a simple racemifons' I 
cjme, while it may also be called a reversed or de/errninale raceme^ i 
Something of this sort may Ik: seen in certain speeies of Cam- j 
panula, with virgat« inflorescence, the terminal blossom earliest, 
the others following irregularly, or partly downwani and partly I 
upward. In C. rapnnciiloides, when rather depauperate and j 
the inflorescence simple, the evolution is that of a true raceme, 
except tliat a flower at length terminates tlic axis and develops i 
earlier tlinn tiie up|ier half of the raceme. In Liatris spicatK 
and its near relatives, the heads, on the \'irgate general axis, 
comt; into flower in an almost regular descending order, or are 
reveruly tpieale. If in Fig. 281 the lower pedicels were prolonged 
to the level of the upper, a simple corjTnbiform cyme would be 
seen, with simple ceutril\igal evolution, that is, regularly n'ora 
the centre to the margin ; this is the counterpart of tiie rhipidium 
or ran-shai»d cj-me, of Fig, 300, in which the evolution of the 
blossoms is as regularly centri|}etal. The explanation of the I 
paradox is not far to seek. 

' Thi' position of n pedicel at Ihc side of ■ broct in fnlse r 
pl«ine<l in the foregoing mile. It may occur in true mcenioBe 
by Ihe reducilnn of leasilc secondary racemes down to nn umbel at two ^ 
flowera, trtmsTcrse to tlic bract (as in many (pcciea of Detmodium), and I 
thui Kcmlngly lateral to It, or to a Bingle flower on the right or left of it. 1 
The coalescence of a pedicel lo tlic axli fur a eonsiilerabi? height above Ih* J 
■ubtending bract in a simple inflorctcence, or above tlie Usl leaf in a 1 
tympodial one [amnalaemcf. of Scbimper). is common. So likewise brairti 1 
or leaves may be for a good diiCaDcc adnatc lo aympodial ilioatF, whethtv J 
peduncles or leafy flowerless branches. This (nnmed rtctiutitenm by ] 
Schlmper) is of most frequent occurrence in Solanacete (In Datura, Alropa, | 
most species of Solsnum, &c.), and Is the explanation of their so^alled j 
geminate leares. where a larire leaf (really belonging lower down) has a 1 
■rnnll leaf by the aide of it. See Wydler in Itot. Zvit. ii. S88, &c., SendUin I 
In Fl. Bras. x. 183, and Eicbter, BlUtliend. i. 100. 


288. Componnd mixctl infloresoence ia verj- various and com- 
mon ; but the combinations liave hardly called for s|>ccial temiB, 
being usually disposed of by a separate mention of the general 
and of the partial anthotaxy, or that of the main axis of inflo- 
rescence and that of its ensuing ramification.' In Compositie, 
for instance, the flowers are always in true heads, of centripetal 
evohition. The heads terminate main stems as well as lateral 
branches, so that they are centrifugally or cjTuosely disposed. 
Tile reverse occurs in all Labiatie and most Scrophulariacec, 
where the flowers, when chislered, arc in cymes, but these cymes 
are from axils, and develop in centriix;tal order. It is this 
arrangement which mainly characterizes the 

THTKsrs. A compound inflorescence of more or less elongated 
•hape, with the primarj' ramiflcation centri|)ctnl or botrj'ose, the 
Veeondar}' or the ultimate centrifugal or cymose. To the deflni- 
tion is generally added, that the middle primarj" branches are 
longer than the upper and lower, rendering the whole cluster 
narrower at top and bottom, and sometimes that it is compact ; 
but these particulars belong only to typical examples, such aa 
the inflorescence of Lilac and Ilursechestnut. In the former, the 
ttiyrsus is usually com|iound. A loose thjTsus is a 

Mixed Panici.s. It is seldom ttiat a repeatedly branching 
inflorescence of the paniculate mode is of one tj-pe in all its 
successive ramifications. Either the primarily centripi-tal will 
become centrifiigal in the ultimate divisions, or the primarily 
eentriAigal will by suppression soon run into false Iwtrj'ose 
forms, into ap]>arent racemose or spicate subdivisions. So that 
tbe name Panicle in terminology' is generally applied to all such 
mixed compound inflorescence, as well as to the homogeneously 
botrj-ose. (278.) 

Verticillaster is o name given to a pair of opijositc and 
sessile or somewhat sessile e3*mes of a thyrsns or thjTsiform 
inflorescence, which, when full, seem to make a kind of verticil or 
whorl around the stem, as in vorj- many Labiatie. The name 
was originally given to coeh one of the pair of cjkines ; but it is 
better and more commonly used to denote tlie whole gloroerule 
or false whorl produced by the seeming confluence of the two 
dusters into one which surrounds the stem. 



' Guillaud (in hi* memoir on Inflorescence, pnlilishod in Bull. Soc. Bot. 
I Trance, It.) proposes to designate m Ci/mo-Botri/ti the mined inflorescence 
1 compMed of cymes developed in botryosc order, i.f. the thynus; and 
Batty-Cfintii, the revene case of racemes, &c.. cymoscly agfcregated. For I 
"le fornier, the old name thyrsus scrtcs opproprialely and well. 


280. The Kelations of Brad, Bractlet, and Flonor should here J 
bo iioticc'd, altlifnigh Hit- suliject in jiait ix-loiiga ratliei' to tha | 
section on Floral S^yranietrj-, (315.) 

290. Anterior and Posterior, otherwise called Inferior and I 
Superior, and therefore Li/iner and Cpper,^ are primary" it'latiom I 
or position of an axiUarj' flower with resiject to subtending bract 1 
and thf axis to which the bract pertains. The flower is plaeect 1 
between the two. The portion of the flower which faces the ] 
subtending bract ia the anterior, liliewise called inferior or lowrr. I 

The opiKtsite iwrtion wliieh faces the axis ot I 
(J inflorescence ia the potlerior, or luperiot 

upper. The right and left sides are ItUerai. 1 
(Fig. 304, 30G.) These rclatio 
a|)i>car in a solitary flower teiininating « I 
simple stem ; but when such an axis produce! I 
nxillarj* branches with a terminal flower, the | 
relation of this flower to the preceding axis | 
and its leaf is manifest. Just as in indetermi- 
nate inflorescence. 

291. Median and TronsTerse. Tlie position of parts which lie I 
in antero-iwsterior line, or between bract and axis, is median, \ 
Thus, in Fig. 304 and 305, the [>art^ are all in the median plane i 
in Fig, 306, the bractlets, 4', 6', are /a/era/ or coZ/o/era/, or (being I 
in the opposite plane) transverse. 

292. Position of Bractlets. The nile has already been laid J 
down (285) that the first loaf of an alternate- leaved secondary ( 
axis is in Monoctyledons usually median and imstcrior, that ia, 
farthest away fVom the subtending leaf (as in Tig. 304, 303) ] 1 
in Dicotyledons, lateral or transverse. When these secondaiy | 
axes are one-IIowered peduncles or iH'dieels, the leaf or leavct 
(if anj) they bear are bractleU* Commonly there is only tliis I 

I Ger 


■ (a), bra 

' Not (with propriety, nllhoiigh the terms Imve been to uwd) erlm'er or 
oudr for llic aiilcrlor, and intttim- at inner tor tin- posterior poiilioti. TlieM 
terms ahnuld be reserved for tlie relatire poEltinn on the axis of aucL-easivo 
Circles or purts of circles, spirals. &c. Covering or overlapping parts are 
exterior or outer in reaped to those orcrlapptd. 

' Latin Rrartrat'r: not that they are small bracts, bat bracts ot an ulrt- 
mntc axil. In axiiiary inHorescence, the dislinclion between bratilict and 
braei is obrioos; in case ot a solitary terminal flower, there is no ttrotind at 
difference: in terminal or cymose Inflorescence, the difference ia arhitraiy ; 
but we may restrict the term bmcllct to the last bract or pair. 

Genrian botanists mogily distinguish between bracts, as a leaf subtending 
flower or cluster, and bractlets, by terming the former a Deck-btiia, and the 

u If, n 

HKlioD) or papllton 

t* raUlloD to J 




posterior one to a Bimplo axis in Monocotyledons, nnd two 
transverse ones in Dicotjledons, t. r. one to the right and the 
other to the lefl of the subtending bract. Fig. 30fi, fr i'. When 
the latter form a pair, tliey are |»erhaps always truly transverse ; 
vhen alternate, they stand more or less on the opposite aides nnd 
transvcree. When more than one in Monocotyledons, they may 
become either median or transverse, or even intermediate. The 
relation of bracllets or bract, that is, of the last leaves of inflo- 
rescence, to the firat of the blossom, might be consideretl cither 
under Pliyllotaxy or under Floral Symmetry. In general, it 
may be noted that successive inenilwrs stand over the widest 
iiitenals ; ' in other words, that the first leaf of tiie flower is as 
far away as may be (h)m the highest bractlet. For instance, 
when there is a single anil jxisteHor bractlet, as is common in 
Monocotyledons, the firet leaf of the flower is anterior, the 
next two right and left at 120". AVhon there is a single and 
lateral bractlet and live loaves in the first circle of the flower 
(which occurs only in Dicotyledons), tlie flist leaf of this circle 
is either exactly on the opiwsitc side fiiim the bract, or at a 
divergence of two fifths, the latter raUlng into the continuous 
spirnl. When with a pair of bractlets, right and left, the first 
flower-leaf is at J divei^ence from one (the upiwu-most) of them 
when the circle Is of three, or at § when of five members, or near 
it ; but with many exceptions." 

A tabular view of tlie kinds of inflorescence and their termi- 
acAogy, sen-ing as a key, may aid the student.* 

laller, b^lng llic Icstm nhith the new axis flr»t bean, VarlJSUer, which la 
*l»i> (Ik- name thry npply to primonljal leaves in germination. 

' In accordance wilh llofmciiter's law ; but (ai Gichler remarks) not to 
be exptain^ on ha mechanical principle uf production in lliis place Irtauit 
at the greater mnm: for (lie position of the first ineriibcr of an axillary 
flower is mostly the same ai reganla the subtending bract when the bntlleta 
arc wanting. 

• Wlicn bractlet* are wanting, the lenvei of tbe first floral circle if two 
Me light and left ; if three, two lateral.posterior and one anterior ; when 
five, the odd one commonlj' in the tnedian tine, dlher anterior or posterior. 

f INFLORESCENCE i< either Pubk, all at one 

combinf d. The Ti-pn »rc : 
I. Main axit not amited and lenninated br i 
tiilt, Arr<pfl"l nr Aiermli*;/, Cnlriptlal, 
n. Haiti and lateral axes arreattd and letminsted by a flowi 
D'JimUt, Dactmdins, Ccnlri/iigal, orCmuBE. 

typg, or Mixed, at the two types 

■ flower, ttutelermiimli, Indr^- 





L BimpU, viih UUnl axti nnbrmachcd uid trnninUtd by a (ingle Bomr, tni 
Flnwere i>n pcdkeli, 

Of MHiwwIul rqtial Irneth im ■ «nn|«ratinl}' elonemlHl axin, Rafkiie. 

Th« luwer ono limgir than the upper, and main axn short, ■ Cuktmb. 

Of naiiy tqiul letif^h on an nnileveloppd main txa, . . L'mdeu 

Floiwrt KHilc on ■ very «hon main axia, Head. 

Flowri> W'ile lo a compantiTdy dongiud main axil, . . . Sdke. 

AOeslivfirikeor hndia a Spadik. 

A tcalv-bracMt ipilie ii an AxkirT or 

9. Ctnfoiaul, wilb lateral «xei brinclied once or mDie, bearing cluilen iiutead of 
linKle fl-wen. 
Irregularly racemowly or corymbofcly compoonil, . . P.ijtiCL.B. ^^^ 

Homugencoudy and rvgularly cumpuund, ai ^^^H 

Itacemei in a raceme, Cohfoitxd RacbMK^^^H 

Curynibt corj-mbcwe CunruuicD Coktkk^^^H 

Umbel* In an umlwl . CuMrat'XD Uhbei. ^^^H 

8|>ikH apicate, CuttrocSD Sniis. ^^^H 

llsinngenMutly nimponnil, [he secondary nimilication ^^^| 

uaIU* ihe primary, ai lltaili mxnwu, i'atlKlt qtiked, ^^^M 

UfOtt patileltd. Sec ^^H 


L BImpIt, with lerminal axis of each graenilion one.flowertd. ^^^^H 

MimaffiJUil. tha axli of each geoenitluii eridenlly K- ^^^^| 

aolndlnuibrancha Tri^s Ctxk. 

Tlwwmura Ibin two Pkioekadtm or Multipaiiucs Ctmk. 

Thw* only two, . . . AVtniAin, iJiriattMotu or ItiFAuocs Ctne. 
Sfrnpudinl, Iha appaiDnily tiinple axis continued by 
a •uccnalan ol new axes itandlng end to end, 
i/ma0*ad»m, Ftilm Jtactme or SjiOu, Bulrjwe or Ukipakoub ClfM*. ■ 
thiwurt oiwrankod on ono ildo ut rliachii. Hruouiii UxiPAROira Crw 
Kuwan ■■O'TanllEd on one aide uf rbachia, SconnuiD UnfABUt's Ctm 
i- Cmfiaw), Willi brmlnal axe* for one ur more earlier 
gMlnfariiini b«arln|[ a cyme initead of a ainjile 
ri.iwvr Various «orts of CoMFOcMi Ctmb. 


|. JommmImm tfainfj, villi unbranched ani>-flnwered lateral 

aaurlllllj. ."rba. . . . Partly beversed Sfckes on RacemM.^ 
V (Jmh/wnW, uI tarhiut nimililnallana, of which ihem are 
iimiin l"r lli> t>ibj<iiti«l ; — 
I'tliiiaty iiillon>u-i'iii« liotryoao, with axh elongating; 

„,, |a,y ifiniiM, ThTRSI-'b. 

Pair III III' h ri|r|ai«1lii lymH aeemlngly confluent round 

tll» main Rlill, VERTirTLtABTRfl. 

l'a<ilKla<tllliMiii»'»(tli>raaiiflcatlonacyniDK, ■ . . MlXKU Pa.mcle. 





Section I- Its Natcre, Farts, a»d METAMORPirt. 

293, Flower-biips are homol<^oiis with (morphologioally an- 
swering to) Icaf-bmis, and they occupy the same posiliouB. (266.) 
A Flower is a simple axis or a terminal portion of one, in a 
pbtenogamouB plant, with its leaves develoi>cd in special fonns, 
and subservient to sexnal reproduction instead of vegetation. 

294. In passing from vt^elation to reproduction, it is not 
always easy to determine exactly where tbc flower begins. The 
same axis nliich bears a flower or floral oi^ans at summit bears 
vegetative leaves or foliage below. Or when it does not, as 
when an axillarj- flower-stalk or pedicel is broctless, the change 
to actual organs of reproduction is seldom abrupt. Usually 
there arc floral envelopes, within and under the protection of 
which in the bud the essential organs of the flower are formed. 
Some or all of these [irotecting jtaits, in verj' many flowers, are 
either obviona leaves or BulHcieutly foliaceous to suggest their 
leafy nature : and even when the texture ia delicate, and other 
colors take the place of the sober green of vegetation, they are 
still popularly said to be the leaves of the blossom. These pro- 
tectiug and often showy parts, though not themselves directly 
Bubsen'ient to reproduction, have always been accounted as 
parts of the flower,' Between the lowest or outennost of these 
and the bractlets and bracts there are various and sometimes 
complete gradations. The axis itself occasionally undergoes 
changes in such a way as to render the determination of the 
actual beginning of the flower somewhat arbitrary-. Moreover, 
the flower itself is extremely various in different plants, in some 
consisting of a great nimiber of pieces, in others of few or only 
one ; in some the constituent pieces are separate, in others 
combined. Tlie flower is best understood, therefore, by taking 
eome particular specimen or class of flowers as a representative 

' Indfcil, the colored lieBvee, or cnTelopes in whatever forni, euentiall^ 
were Ihi' flower in most of llie anle-Liima^nn licflnition!! (that ot Ludwlg 
excepted), SB they aie tliU nuinly m in popular apprvbeiuion. 


5 both complete and I 


or pattern, and esj)ecialty some one which 
moqthologically simple. 

29j. Huch a flower consists of two kinds of organs, viz. the 
Protecting Oi^ans, leaves of the blossom, or floral envelopes, 
which, when of two sets, are Caltx and Corolla ; and the 
EssentialRcproductiveOi^na, which co-operate in the production 
of seed, the Stamess and Pistils. 

29G. Floral EnTelopcs, Perianth, or Perlgone, the floral leaves 
or coverings. The former is a proper English designation of 
these parts, taken collectively. But in descriptive botany, 
whei-e a single word is prcferahle, sometimes the name perianth 
(Lat, periant/iirtm) . sometimes that ot peri pom (or ptrxgonium) , 
is used. Pcrianthium,^ a Linna^an terra, has been objected to, 
because it etj-mologically denotes something around the flower; 
but it seems not inappropriate for the envelopes which surround 
„, the essential partof theflower. Perigoniumy 

a lat«r term, has the advantage of meaning 
something around the reproductive organs, 
which is precisely what it is. Neither name 
is much used, except where the perianth or 
perigone is simple or in one set (when it is 
almost always calyx), or where it is of two 
' circles having the gen- 
eral appearance of one 
and needing descrip- 
tive treatment as such, 
n the petaloideoua 
Monocotyledons. It is 
also used where the 
as m 510 au m morphology is ambigu- 

ous. Generally, the floral envelo])e8 are treated distinctively aa 
calyx and corolla, one or the other of which (mostly the corolla) 
may be wanting. 

297. The Calji is the outer set of floral enveloi)ca. That ia 
its only definition. Commonly it is more herbaceous or foliaceoua 
than ijie corolla, and more iwrsistcnt, yet sometimes, as in the 
Poppy family, it is the more deciduous of the two. Not rarely it 

1 Linoieue (and about the gam? time Ludwig) uicd it in the seiwc of a 
proper calyx, yet with sonio TaKuenen. Mirbcl and Brown eBlabliBlied it 
In the wnre of the collective floral coTering. DeCandoUe revired Elirhart'a 

Fta SOT. ThacampletsaawBTofBCrutnlK. 308. Dljigram or l(a cm«B-e«ilon In 
tlm tiDd. abawlni Uie lelatlye pmltlon of tin parts Tlio live |>lvi'i>« of tbe utDrloi 
drcle an lecfJoni r>f tbe Kpala; tbo next, of tlie petal)'; the third, of tbe MameiM 
Ihrnugb Ibdr antben; the Innenoogi, of tbe Are pigUla. 

FIG. 309 A Hpal; 310, a petal; 311, aitanien; and 312, k platU ttam Uio flower 
tepmentcd in Fit- 30T. 



165 - 

is aa liighly colorod. A nnme being wanted for the individual 
leaves which make up ihe calyx, anaU^ous to that for curolla- 
leaves, DeCandoUe adopted Neclter's cuiaage of the woitl »epal. 
Calyx-leaves arc Sepals, 

298, The CoroUa ia the inner set of floral envelopes, usually (but 
not alwaj*s) of delicate texture and other than grveu color, fonn- 
iug therefore the most showy part of the blossom, lu aeverul 
leaves are the Petals.' 

299, The floral enveloiios are for the protection of the organs 
within, in the buil or aometimcs afterward. Also, some of them, 
by their bright colors, their fragrance, and their sacchariue or 
Other secretiona, serve for allurement of insects to the Ijlossom, to 
mutual ailvButage. (504.) This f\imishes a reason for ueutral 
flowers, those devoid of essential organs, which sometimes 
occur along with less conspicuous perfect oues. "The leaves of 
the flower" are therefore indirectly subservient to reproduction. 

300. The essential organs, being commonly plural 
in Dumlier, sometimes need a collective name. Where- 
fore, the aggregate stamens of a flower have been 
called tlie Andhiecium ; the pistils, the Gtsiecium.* 

301. The Stamens' are the mole or fertilizing 
oi^ans of a flower. A complete stamen (Fig. 311, 
313) consists of Filament (/). the stalk or support, 
and Aktiier {a), a double sac or body of two cells, 
side by side, filled with a powdery substance, Polles, which is 
at length disehai^ed. usually through a slit or cleft of each cell. 

well -formed name of ptriganium, and fn the lenic hi'n> givc-n. But later (io 
tile OrKSnographie) hr propowd Co reairii:t it In taws in wliich l\\e part ia 
of anitiiguous nature, u in MuDocoIy ledniu. The carliur doHnllion it no 
doubt tbe proper one : bat the occailon* for luing the term in tincriplire 
botany arc mainly where the nature may *ecm to be smblguoiu or cun. 
fuaed, or whore, from lite union or eloae limilarity of outer and inner cireles, 
it \a nioal conrenient lo treat the parts as forming one urgvi. 

' FabiuB Columna. at the etoic of llie lixCeenlh century, appeara to liavo 
inlrodiieed lhi» tenn. or. as Toumeforl detUres, " primus onmium 
sciara Petal! vocem propric usurpuvlt, ut folia floruin a foliis proprie dii^tis 

* The male household and the female bouarhold retpocllvely. ler 
Iroduccdby Rtpper (LinnKa, L 437), inihe fonnot unf/rmvuMSnilyyRu 
but Ihc diphthong in the taller should also be a. The onhn^aphy 
anc^nici*NM and ij^mrrunH (early adopted by Bentham, in Labiatarujn Gen. 
Spec) is conformable lo the Linntean Monaxia. iMatia. tc. 

* The name <fram the Greelc and Latin uanie of the warp of the andent 
upright loom, and thenec used in the aente of thrcnds) wan applied, down 
to Toumefort and later, to the fllsmenlij; and the anther* wen; termed 

302. The PWUb, < 
seed-bearing organs, 


e or more to tbo flower, nre the female or 
A con]])lel« pislH ia clistiniruMlied into , 
tliree parts : tlie Ovarv (Lat. 
Orarium, Kig. 3H, a, shown in veiti- 
cal section, an<! Fig. 315 by Liniiieuji 
named Germeu}, the hollow ix>rtiott j 
at the base which contains thft i 
Ovules, or liofliea destined to be- 
come seeds ; tUo Stitle (b), or colum- 
nar prolongation of the ajjex of th« I 
ovary ; and the Stigma (c), a portion 
of the stylo denuded of epidermis, 
sere puiiil or a Hnmll knob at Iba 
BiK\ of the slylo, but often forming a single or 
double line running down a part of its inner face, 
anil assuming a great diversity of appearance in 
ditfi rent plants. The ovary and the stigma arc the 
t.89ential parts. The stjle (as also the filament of a 
stamen) may be altogether wanting. 

of the Burfai 
sometimes a 

ojiiivi It cnmc m time to be uecd SB now for the nhule orgsn ; but Lud- 
wig (Iniit Rig Vcg ), in 1742, appareutly flrat bo defined it, and intruduced 
the tcnn Anther for tlie Apex of Ray, or Tlitea of Grew. 

■ FnUowIng LinnN?uB, thie term is licre lnx\y lued in the plural, and for 
each »nia\ aeiwrate member of llie gyiKccium, eacli organ whifh lia» an 
orary, iligma, and enmmonlf a style. Toumofort, who appears to have 
Introduced the word, employed It in (he lenie of gynuH-'inm. Many aulhon 
define it thnii, and then praetitally eliminsle from botany tliis. one uf the 
oldt'it o( its terms, and one by no mean* laperfluona. The typical pitlillum 
of Toamefort 1) that of the Crown Imperial (InM. 1. 00, & tnb. t) nod the 
name is from the likenei* to a pPBlle in a mortar. Ab it soon became im- 
posiilile to apply the rame nnme to the pistil uf a FritilLaria or of a Plum, 
the i-iiutcr of Bueh organs in Caltha, and the capitate ulualer and receptacle 
of such organi in a Ranuneulua or Anemone, LinniEiia, and Ludwig befora 
lllni, look Ihc idea uf Toumefort'* name, and used it accordingly. . 

" PMUtum ett p«ri interior ct media Boris, que ex ovario el atylo com- l 
ponltur. . . . Oiiaritim est para piatilli inferior, qun tuluri frucliu delinea- * 
lionem siflil. . . . Sti/lat est para plstilU ex ovario centra producta. . . . 
Summitas styli vel ejuB partiutn Stiguui dicitur." Ludwig, Inst Reg. Veg. 
41-43, 1T42, Without menlioning the plural, the pl«til a thus dvSned in a 
way which neccsiitateB its use. Unnviu (in I'hil. Boi.) tlntdeflneB Stamen 
and I'btiUuni in the singular number, enumerating the tliree parts of Ihc 
latter, and afterwarda (p. 67) declares that "PiBlilla difftrunt quoad 

A i>l<tll or Cnumln, like tt 

e stamens, finally the 
r, terminate or Bcem to 


303. Th« ToniB. or Receptacle o( the flower, also named 
THAiAiira,' is the axis wliidi bears all tho otiier parts, that 
upon nhich they are all t • 

(mediately or immediately) ^ 
inserted. These are all ha-\ 
molt^ous nith leaves. This ^ 
b extremity of stem, or 
floral axis, out of which the 
ort^ans deseribed grow, 
Bucccssiou, like leaves on 
the stem; the calyx from 
tiie very base, the petals 
next Ritliin or above the calyx, then t 
pistils, which, whether several or only oi 
terminate the axis. (Fig. 316.) 

3(14. MetamorpIiMhi. If dower-buds are homologous with 
lenf-buds, and the parts of the flower therefore answer to leaves 
mo<lified to special fhnctions (203), then tJie kind of flower here 
employed in explaining and naming tliese parts is a proper 
pattern blossom. For the organs are all separate pieces, 
arranged on the receptacle as leaves are on the stem, the outer- 
most manifestly leaf-like, the next equally ao in shape, though 
not in color, the stamens indeed have no such outward resem- 
blancG, but the ripe pistils open down the inner angle and 
flatten out into a leaf-like form. The adopted theory supposes 
that stamens and pistils, aa well as sepals and petals, are homolo- 

noiDFruni," etc., and so eliewhrrc, tie«i<les founding hit tirili?ra on the num- 
ber of piaUla. Among even French auihora, Mirbel (1S15) writei. "Le 
DomUre des pUtils n'fst pu Is inOnic dans toulce lea e«pice«," £c. Moquin- 
Tkndun freely Tcfera to pistils in the plural, and Aug, SL IliiBin.- tnkp* 
wholly' Ihe view li?re adopted, disiinguUliing the lulitar; piitil Into Bitnple 
Mid mmpouad. I>eC>ndotle, in Thi^orie felemeDtalre, third edition, write*, 
" Chaquo carpel e*l un petit lout, on piidl enlier, compo*^ d'un uvalrc, il'uii 
•lyle, et d'un gtigmate." Of English autliora, no other need be cited than 
Bobvrt Brown. The terms in queition, Ibvn. are : — 

fjynacium, the female lyMem of a Hower. taken aii a whole. 

Pitlil. each tcparate member of the gynticium ; thia cilber simple or 

Orari/. the OTuliferoui portion of a pistil. Subgtilultng a part for the 
whole, tliii term is often uhhI wlien the whole pistil it mcnnt. 

C'lir^, or Carjad, or CaqioiJiiiill, each piitil-teaf ; whether distinct ai in 
sliupiv or apocarpous pistils, or in combination of two or more to form a com- 
ponnd or syncarpous piatil. 

1 By Toumefort. and adopted by LndwiR. Tlrcr/Hafidum Ji^it, Unn 
Thona, Salisbury. Tonu {tine proper fonn). DeCandolli'. 

LOieni tl. plitU. 


gotls with lenvea ; that the sepab are comparatively little, the 
petals more, ami the I'eproductive orgaoemuch modified from the 
type, that is from the leaf of vegetation. This is simplj' what 
is meant by the proposition that all these orgaus are transformed 
or metamorphosed leaves. What would have been leaves, if 
the development had gone on as a vegetative branch, have In 
the blossom develoiictl in other forms, adapted to other func- 
tions. Linneeus eicpressecl this idea, along with other more 
speculative conccptioos, dimly apprehended, by the phrase Vege- 
table MetamoriJhosia. Not long afterwards, this fecund idea 
of a common type, the leaf, of which the parts of the flower, 
&c., were regardeil as modiflcations, was more clearly and dilTer- 
ently develoi>ed by a. philosophical physiologist, Caspar Frederio 
WoW. Thirty years later, it was again and wholly indepcnd- 
cntly developed by Gcethe, in a long-neglected but now well- 
known essay, on the Metamorphosis of Plants. Twenty-three 
years afterwartls, similar ideas were again independently pro- 
ponndc<.I by DeCiindolle, from a different theoretical point of 
view i and finally the investigation of phyllotaxy has completed 
the evidence of the moqjhological unity of foUaceous and floral 

' The contribadon of t-iniueuB is an p. 301 of Ihe Pliilnaoplua Botaalca, 
1761 ; and nil that i* pertinent t* in the following propueitions : — 

PlumuUm leminis MBplus terminat nut flo> nut gi-mma. 

Prindpium florum et follorum Idem est. 

Priociplum gcminsnini et (olioram idem c«t. 

GemniB consUt foliuruin ruilimcniii. 

Pcrianthiuni ait ex i^onniitia foliurum rudimentie. 

Hii diucrlntion, Prolep»i» Plintsnim, in Anicen, Acad. vi. (1700), added 
nothing but obauure apecula lions to the farmer comparatively elcor 

KuBpar Friedrich Wolff's contribution ia in liis Tliooria Gpnerationia, 
main]}' concrmiug anlmali, published in 1759, and an enlarged and amended 
edition in 1771. He first clearly conceives the plant as formed of two ele- 
nienll, stem and leaf, but develops only the morphology of the latter, and 
under the hypothesis that leaves of vegetation become bud.icales or floral 
organs, as the case may be, through degcnerescence or dimioutiun of vege- 
tative force, wliicli is TL-newed in the bud or in the seed. 

Johann Wolfgang Gtilhe'i Verauch die Metamorphose der Pflanzen z 
erklSren was published in 1790. in 80 pages. For the translations and ' 
reproductions, see Prtl»l, Tliesaurus. To the French translation by Sor 
with German text accompanying (Stuttgart, 1B31), and also to that of Ch. ' 
Martens ((Ear. HUL Nat. de Gwthe, Paris, 1837), are joined the autlior's inter- 
estingnotesandanecdotesoftaterpcriods.doiralu 1831. The degcnerest-'Cnca J 
by diminution of vegelativt force with renewals by neneration, propounded ^ 
by Wolff, in Gocllie's essay takes the form of successive expansion and c 
traclEun of organs. 

A. P. DeCsndolle's Thc'oric £lcmentaire dc Botaalquc appeared in 181% 


805. It will be understood that metamorpAotis, as applied to 
leaves aoil the like, is a figurative cxpresstou, addiug uotliing to 
our knowledge nor to clearness of esprossion, but rather liable 
to mislead. The substance of the doctrino is uttrVy of type. Its 
proof and its value lie in the satisfactory explanation of the facts, 
all of which it co-ordinates readily into a consistent and simple 
■ystem. As applied to the flower, two kinds of evidence may 
be adiiucetl, one from the norniul, the other IVom leratologicat 
conditions of blossoma. The principal evidence of the first elaaa 
is tliat stipplicd by 

SOfi. Poaltioa and Transitions, As illustrated in the preced- 
ing chapter, the flower occupies the place of an ordinary bnd or 
leaf-bud. Also the parts of the Hower are arranged on the 
recei)taclc as leaves arc arranged on the stem, i. «. they conform 
to phyUotaxj', as welt in passing from leaves and bracts to the 
perianth, as in the position of the floral organs iu res|>cct to cacli 
other. This is partly shown in the preceding cha]>tcrB, and 
is to be further illustrated. Sepals, i^etals, stamens, and 
pistils are either in whorls or in spirals, and have nothing 
in their arrangements as to position wtuch is not paralleled in 
the foliage. 

307. The evidence ftom transitions has to be gathered tVom a 
g^at variety of plants. Very commonly the change is abrupt 
fh)m foliage to bracts, from brat.'tB to caljTt-leaves. from these to 
CoroUa- leaves, and from these to stamens. Itut instances abound 
in which every one of the intervals is bridged by transitions or 

• second edition 1810; & third (rerlscd by Alphoiiac DcCandolli). in 1844, 
b poslhumoiu. The Ornmoognipliie WgiJtale. in which the morpholoK}' of 
the culler Work ii developed, appeared in 1837. Tlie teailing Idea <> that 
of qrnimetiy, of orgkni lymmetricallj dlipoaed around an aii» (tlie 
bomatoKT of foDar and floral organs not at first apprehended), but this 
•jinmetrj disguised or deranged more or leas by luiloni liolderinga) of 
bomng^neoa* or heleroBeneoo* parts, by invgularities or loequalitici of 
gntwlh. by abortians, &c. 

The reason why the organs In question have a nonnat symmetrica] diS' 
poiilion on the vegetative and floral axes was not reaeheil by DeCandolle, 
nor «n* it perceived that the arranftement of leaies and of floral organs was 
idenlical. All this was (he uonlribulion of phyllalaiiy, — a subject which 
WM approached by Bonnet (an associate of DeCandolle 's father), and flrst 
invMiigaied by the late Karl Schimpcr and Alexander Braun, beginning 
aboal the year 1820. 

It is inlerrsling to know thai WoUTi work was wholly unknown to 
Gatbe in 1700, and that both Wolffs and Gwthe's were unknown to DeCao- 
dolle until after the publication of the second edition of the tatter's Thvorie 
Elenienlairo. in 1810. When the Organoipaphie appeared, the essay of Ooethv 
had come to light ; and contemporary conlribulions to floral morphology by 
Pelll'Thouars, H. Brown, Dunal, and Rsper, were addiug their influence. 




1:4^ stjo^irsa. 

intermediate forms. The gradual transition from ordinary foli- 
age to bracts and bracllcts is exceedingly common. In color 
and texture it is not rare to 
■ meet with bracts wliicb v-ie 
f with, or indeed surpB§B. pet- 
f bIs themselves in delicacy and 
^ brightncBB ; and iu eueh caaea 
they assume a principal olltce 
of flower-leaves, that of mid- 
epicuous show for attraction. 
1^ Scarlet Sage, Painted-Ciip 
? (Castilleia), and the Poiu- 
? settis, with other Euphorbias 
• of the conservatories, are ex- 
amples of this. In the flowers 
of Barberry, it is by a nearly 
arbitrary selection that bractlcts are distinguished from sepals ; 
In Calycanthus, in many kinds of CactUB, and in Nelumbium, 
the some is tru6 
as to bractlcts, se- 
pals, and ])etals ; in 
Water-Lily (>'>TU- 
pha'o. Fig. 318), 
there is a gradual 
transition from the 
sepals through tha 
'I petals to stamens ; 
' in Lilies and most 
lily-like flowers, se- 
pals are as brightly 
colored as petals, 
and commonly more 
or less combined 
with them. When 
the pcriatilh-lijives are of only one act, it is not at all by color oe 
texture that this perianth can be assigned to calyx or to corolla. 
Normal transitions from a stamen to a pistil could not, in the 
nature of the case, lie expected. 

308. Tcrat«loKlcal Transitions and Changes. Teratology is 
the study of monstrosities. These in the vegetable kingdom 

no. SIT. CMTtUR-flawnr (Uimlllaiik aajAUm), with biactlel*, npiJs. ud peUli 
FIG. 318. SerlngiUlbltlng tntuidoDfromaetialB toaUiuendnNyinplueBalunU. 





often elucidate the nature of oi^ans.' The commoneet or these 
changes belong to what was termed hy tiipthe relroffrade meta- 
morphotit; that 19, to r«'erf ion fVom a higher to a lower fonn, as(tf 
an organ proper to the sumniit or centre of the floral axis into one 
which belongs lower down.' The most familiar of all such cusea 
Is that of the so-i-alled double jioioer, better named in Latin ^ylw 
plenug. In this, the essential organs, or a part of them, are 
changed into colored flowor-leaves or petals. Must flowers are 
subjeet to this ehange under long cultivation (witness "double" 
roses, camellias, and butt«rcui)s) , at least those with numerous 
stamens. It occasionally 
occura in a state of nature. 
The stamens diminish as 
the supernumerary petals 
increase in number; and 
the various bodies that may 
be often observed, inter- 
mediate between perfect J 
stamens (if any remain) and\ 
the outer row of petals, — 
from im|>erfect petals, with 
a small lamina tajxiring into 
a slender stalk, to those 
which bear a small distoiled 
lamina on one side aud a 
half-formod anther on the 
other, — plainly reveal the 
nature of llie transformation 
that has tal«en place. Camed a step farther, the pistils likewise 
disappear, to l>e replaced by a rosette of [letals, as in fully d 

* The lirAdlng trenliicB arc Moquin-T&ndon'i T^ratulogic Vcgc'tale, Farii, 
IMI, nnil Miuters. Vegetable Teratolojiy. London, publiilicd for the Itaj 
Society, ISBt. An earlier publication ileserves particulnr mention. Tit lb« 
Dieila De Anthulyii Prudromui, liy Dr. George Engelmann, Frankfort on 
tlw Main. 1832. 

' To Iheie nbrnrmal chan(ip>, the term mrtamarphnsii it obrbualy more 
applicable : for here what evfdpntlj' should be itamcn«, pUliU. (U., on the 
tMIimoDy of poiltion and (he whole economy of the bloi«am, actaatly ap- 
pear in the fonn of some other organ ; yet even here the vhan)^ i* only fai 
the aiiia Jimiolimu ; the (irtnn waM not flnt foimed a* a itsmeD, and tlien 
trangfonncd into a pct&l or leaf. 

no. 3 

imnn W1ilt« CI 

■r revMtlnB to 

I Imty hruiib : i 

DiugliK uT [La pUUI-ImX bouiug In 

buttereops. ' In thew the green hue of the centre of the rosette 
inclicati's a tendency to rttiograde a step Tarther into sepals, or 
into a cluster of green leaves. This takes place in certain bios- 
soma of the Strawberrj', the Rose, &c. Such production of 
'■ green roses." and the like, has been appropriately called 
eh/oroiit. or by blasters, cA/oronMy, from the change to green. 
809. A monstrosity of the blossom of White Clover, long ago 
figured by Turiiin (Fig- 319), is such a case of foUaceous rever- 
es jji sion, in which even the ovules are impUcated. 
ITie imperTect leaves which take<hc place of 
the latter may be compared with the leafy 
tufts which form along the mai^ns of a leaf 
of Urjophylluni, by which the plant is often 
propagalixl. (Hg. 322.) 

310. The reversion of a simple pistil di- 
rectly to a leaf is seen in the Double-flowering 
Cberrj- of cultivation (Fig. 320, 321 ) , usually 
passing moreover, by proUflcation of the re- 
ceptacle, into a leafy branch. 

11. The reversion of pistils to stamens is 
^ rarer, but has been observed in a good number 
~ of instances. In Chives, in the Horseradish, 

in Gentians and Hyacinths, and in some Willows. In the 
lotter, tlie op[K>site transformation, of stamens to carpeU. is 
verj' common, and curious grades between the two arc met with 
almost evety spring. So also iu the common Houseleek, and 
in perennial Larkspurs. Certain apple-trees are known, both 
in the United States and Europe, in which, while the iwtals are 
changed into the appearance of minute green sepals, the outer 
stamens are converted into cargicls. these BU|>emumcrary and 
in the fruit supcqjosed to tJie five normal carpels.' In Poppies, 
many of tlie innermost stamens are occasionally transformed 
into as many small and stalked simple pistils, surrounding the 
base of the large compound one. 

> It niiut not be (.'ODfltideil that the lupemumerarj petals in all snch cases 
are reverted ilamcns, or stamcnsaiKlpiiiils. Some are insTsncra of abiinnnal 
plcioUXf, I.e. of Ihe produclion of one or more additional ranks of petali 
(better deserving the name of doable Jloictr], with or nithouC 
SMential orfians to fluwer-leaves. 

* These trees ore popularly supposed to bear fruit withont lilo 
tlie reverted green petals being lo iticonspicuous that tlie Bowi 

FIO.itM.Ml, arMnleavesfroinlhePBntreofalilrmiinmnfDnnblo-flowBrii _ 
one nilll fitinwing, by Its punl&l lnvi>]nUnn am) lis atfle-Uko flpox. Ibnt It t> a reveneil 
oarpe'i tbo utlier n amall but wcll-rarTdoil Uaf. 

FIQ. xa. Leaf or leaflet of Bryopbjrtl am, derolaploe plautleu along tlie marElns. 




312, Another lino of terntological evidence is ftirnishcd by 
prolijiealiott. The partB of the flower are, by the doctrine, 
homologous with leaves, and no leaf ever terminates an axis. 

Norraallj. in fact, the 
axis is never prolonged 
beyond the flower, but 
abnormally it may be. 
It may resume vegeta- 
tive growth as a termi- 
nal growing btid. cither 
from between the pistils 
' after the whole flower is 
furmcd, or at an earlier 
pcriud, nsurjting the 
eentrul jiart of the 
flower. Thus, when a 
*" rose is borne on a pe- 

duncle rising from the centre of a rose, wliicJi is 
not verj- unusual, or a leafy stem from the top 
of A pear (Fig. 323), the flower was probably 
complete before the monstrous growth set in. In 
Fig. 824, the reversion to foliaecous growth took 
effect after the stamens but before the pistibf '^ 
wen; fonncd. In rose-buds out of rt»eB, the terminal proliferoua 
shoot takes at onec the form of a peduncle ; in the ishoot fVom 
the pear, that of a leafy slera. 

313. Again, axiUanp' buds are normally formed in the axil of 
leaves. No such branching is known in a normal flower. But 
in rare monstrosities a bud (mostly a 
8ower-bud) makes ita ap|>earance in the 
axil of a petal or of a stamen ; and it 
may be clearly inferred that the organ 
(not itself axillary) fhim the axil of 
which a bud develops is a leaf or its 
homologne. Fig. 325 exhibits a clear 
case of (he kind, a flower in the axil 
of each petal of Celastnis scaiidens. Flowers, or pedunculate 
clnstcrs of flowers, from the axil of petals of garden Pinks are 
sometimes seen. A long-pedunculate flower from the axil of a 


Tin. K3. A miinntrnaii pr»T. |> 

frnin Unilkr'a Thmrrnt R'irtlrull 
Mkl bivrlng ■ whnrl nTgrMii !<■ 

dungaUd Juil ibovc 

1 1 producing oUmc 



stamen of a species of Water-Lily (Nj-mpbiea Lotus) is figiircii 
and described by Dr, MastcrB.' 

314. lo tbe application of niontbological ideas to tbe c-lueida- 
tion of tbe flower, notLing sbould be assumed in regard to it 
wliicU has uot its proper counterpart and exemplar in ibe leavea 
and axis of vi^getatiou. 

Section II. Floral Stiimetkt. 

315. Tbe parts of a flower are sjTnmctrically arranged aronnd 
ita axis." Even wben tbis symmetry is incomplete or imperfect, it 
is etiU almost always discernible ; and tbe particular numerical 
plan of tbe blossom may be observed or ascertained in some of 
the organs. 

316. Adopting the doctrine that the parts of the flower are 
homologous with leaves, the sjTumetry is a consequence of the 
phyllotaxy. It is sjTnmctry around an axis, not tbe bilateral 
symmetrj' which prevails in the animal kingdom. For parts of 
a flower disposed in a continuous 8|}iral (which mostly occurs 
when they are numerous), tbe arrangement is that of some order 
of tliis kind of phyllotaxy, which distributes the parts equably 

^ into superposed ranks. (337.) The much commoner case of 

' Tbe fuUett enumeration ftnd <ll«cuMion of the very Tarious kind* ot 
■bnonnsl itructurei nn<l dcvialloni in plants ii [o be toutiil in tlio Tcratolugj 
of Dr. Masters, above n>fcrrc<I to. Mnnf technical terms arc here brougbt 
into use, which need not be here mentioned, except the following, nhlch relate 
directly to Uoral metamorphosia. 

Phgllodg (called Fhi/llotaorphg by Morrni, FrondtKena by Engelmann) It 
the condition wherdn true leaves are ■ubstltutcd for some otiicr organs; 
I. e., where other organs arc metnmorpliosed into green leaves. There ii 
phyllody of pistils, ovules, filaments, anther, petals, sepals, &c 

Scpalodi/, wliere other organs assume the appearance of green sepals. 

Prtaiadif, where they assume tlie appearance of petals, as Dormally In 
nnckneya and Calyeophyllum, in which one ealyi-lobe enlarges and becomea 
petal-like, and abnormally in Primroses where all the calyx-lobes imitate 
lobes of the corolla {this hnaberai termed Cali/canlhtmy) ; also of the stamcm 
of common " double Sowers." 

Staminodg, where other organs develop into stamens. Cases of this oi 
■Becting pistils arc referred lo above : rarely sepals and jwlais are an affected. 

Putillod^. where other organs develop into pislila, whicii most rarely 
happens except with (he stoinens, as above mentioned, 

<■ It is stated that Conva de Serra (who published botanical and oilier 
papers in London, Paris, and Pliiladeiphia during the first Iweniy years of 
the century, but who Itnew (armoro than he published) was the first botanirt 
to inaift on the symmetry of the flower. It was first made prominent by Da 
CandoUe, in the Tln^orie feWmentaire, and elaborated in detail by A. St. 
Hilaire in Ms Morphologic Vdgdtale- 



equal ntmiber of parts in a cjcle, anij the cycles alternating 
with each other, is simply thnt of verticillate phyliotaxy. (234.) 
In either case, the members of the successive circles (or of 
closed spirals as the case may be) will be equal In number ; that 
IB, the flower will be immerout. 

317. A Syminetrlcsl Flower is one in which the members of afl 
the cycles (whorls or seeming whorls) are of the same number.* 
In nature, the symmetry is of all degrees : it is most commonly 
complete and perfect as to the floral envelopes when it is not 
so as respects the essential organs. The general nile is that 
the successive cycles alternate, as is tlie nature of true whorls. 
Bat the snperposition of successive ports is not incompatible 
with Bjinmetrj- of the blossom, although it is a departure fh>m 
the onlinary condition, assumed by botanists as tlie t^iie. An 
uomeroui flower (meaning one with an equal number of mem> 
bers of all organs) is the same as symmetrical, if the rcfcifnce be 
to the numlxtr in the circles, rather than to the total number of 
organs of each kind. 

318. A Regular Flower is one which is symmetrical in respect 
lo the form of the members of each circle, whatever be their 
numlier; i.e., with the members of each circle all alike in shai>e. 

319. These two kinds of sjinmetry or regularity, with their 
oppoMtcs or departures from sjTnmetrj', need to be practically 
distinguished in suocuict language. For the terminology, it is 
best to retain the earlier use, generally well established in phjio- 
grapliy. a« aliove defined. 

820. A CwDiitlete Flower is one which comprises all four or- 
gans, viz. calyx, corolla, stamens, pistil. 

' This la Dot only Ihe definilion " generally appliixl in Kntjlish lenl-book*," 
but th&l intruJuriM] bj DcCandolle. adopted by S(, Ililiiire, and tollnined at 
leoit by tlie French bouniiU generally. The innovaiing Germaji (te0Di1ion, 
of a reeont dale, i« Ilial a BymnKldcnl flower U one " that can be vertically 
dl»ided into Iro halves each of which U an exact rellex image of the other." 
Bui nich have immediately to be diatingulahed into " flower) which can be 
dirlded in this niBTiner by only one plane," which Sachi lertna "nrnpli/ 
tgnatttrieid or Msnotjininirfrtni/," and thcwe wliicb cui be symmetrically 
diridcd by two or more plane*, " rftBiUj ii/tHmrtricai or yalstiimmftrical" 
aa tJie caie may be. Now both Iheie fomie ha<re a more eipreiaiTc and 
older terminology, adopted by Eichl«r, viz. : — 

Zg^morphout, for flnwcra, or other Rtruuture*. which can lie biaectcd in 
me plane, anil only one, Into limilar haWea {median tggonarjiluiiu, when 
tiili la a median or antero-poalerior plane, ai it moil commonly la; Iram. 
tvrac ijit;t>MDi7iA«u. when Ihe plane of aeclion ii transTerw or at right 
■ngin to the median, aa in Dlcentra) ; 

AetiuomorpSoiu fur Aowert, &c., which can be bitected in two or more 
platKa Into limilar halvci. 




176 THE FLDWEB. ■ 

821. Ifnmerical ^onnil-ptaii. Many flowers are numerically I 
indctinite in some or most ol' their kinds of members, as Raiiiin- I 
cuius, Mognotia, and the Rose for stamens and pistils, Nvm- I 
phtea for all but perhaps the Bi>pals, maaj CactAceie for all but I 
the pistil, and Calycantlms for all four compouents. But more I 
commouir each flower is constructed upon a definite numerical 1 
ground-plan ; and the number is usually low. Seldom, if ever, 1 
is it reduced Ui unity in a henn aphrodite blossom (even Hii>- ] 
puris, with a single stamen and a single pistil, is not an un- I 
equivocal case), and probably never in a complete one. But there I 
arc such extremt- ly simplified floners among those of a single sex. ] 
In Monocotyledons, the almost universal number is three, some- I 
times two ; in ordinary Dicotyledons, five prevails j four and two i 
are not uncommon ; three is occasional ; and higher numbers are -1 
not wanting, as twelve or more in Ilouseleeks. I 

322. To designate the particular plan, such familiar terms of 1 
Latin derivation as binorg, ternary, quafemarg, quiuary, tenary, I 
&c., are sometimes employed, denoting that the parts of the ] 
flower are in twos, threes, fours, fives, or sixes. More technical I 
and precise terms, equivalent to these, are composed of the Greek I 
numerals prefised to the word meaning parts or members, as 1 

MonotneroM, for the case of a flower of one member of each ; ' 
Dimerous, of two. or OH the plan of two members of each ; 
Trimerout, of three, or on the plan of three members ; 
Trtramerout, of four, or 'jn the quaternary plan ; , 

Pentameroui, of Ave, or on the quinary plan ; j 

ffexameroui,^ of six, or on the plan of six members to each I 
circle. But, in Monocotyledons, so-called hexamerons blossoms 1 
are really trimcrous, the sixes being doulile sets of three. I 

323. Pattern Flowers. These should be si/mmeln'cal, regular, j 
complete in all the parts and without ex- ' 
cess or complication of these, and with- 
out any of the cohesions or adhesions 
which may obscure the tJ^)e, or render it 
li'ss expressive of the idea that a flower 
consists of a series of circles or spiral! | 
of modified leaves crowded on a short | 

■" "' axis. Wherefore tlie illustration Fig. 307, 

with its diagram Fig, 308. may serve as a pattern pentaraeroua I 
or quinarj' flower; and Fig. 320, witli its dingi-am. Fig. 327, 

- ' Tlic*e ni»y hv aliiiMly writlen l-mcroui, 2-Tnuroui, .^merous. »nd lO oi 
to lO-tncroua (droimtrwt), IS-meroos {dmlrtiamiroui), Sc 

Ft* 3». rarla nt ■ urmniMrlral Irlrnimtu flower ITIIIbk maKon): a. calj^i J 
A, conillit; e. (Unirwi d, [ridlti. SSI. DIagniin of Uw HiW). 


as a pattern trimorous or ternary- flower; these being simplj 
isonterous, and of ooe circle of ea(;li kind. And the whole 
relation of the parts, viewed oa 
modified leaves on the commoa 
axis, may be exhibited in such a 
d iogmm of a pattern isost^monous 
5-merons flower aa that displajcd 
in Fig. 328. 

324. Dtplostemonous Tfpe> The 
foregoing patterns are selected 
utK>n the idea of the greatest 
simplicity consistent with com- 
pleteness. But extended obsenation leads to 
the concluaion tliat the typical flower in nature 
has two Bcriea of stamens, as it has two series ia 
the perianth; that is, 
' stamens as 
petals and sepals taken 
together.' As the 
petals alternate w 
the sepals, so the first 
series of stamens al- 
ternates witli the pet- 
als, the second series "^ 
of stamens altfimates with the lli'st, and the pistils or carpets 
when of the same number alternate with these. Thus the outer 
series of stamens and the caqwls normally stand before (are 

> Thi* view of the i^rnimetrj of the Doner wa* tint taken by Drown 
(Oha. PL Oudne.T. In Dunham and CUppcrlon Trav. 1826. npriDtet) in Rajr 
Sac. ed. of Cnlioried Worki, i. 303). It u [rue tint Brawn declares (he 
■ame ot the piilila ; but that i* not made out. The criilenoc of thji doctrine 
it to be gathered from a Urge and varied induction ; from the general pret- 
ence i)f the two teti o( itani<?nt, and no mote, in petaloideoui Monocntyle- 
don» ; the unaltered position of the carpels (before the lepals) when the 
inner >et of itatnrns is wnniinK. as in the Iris Family : the very common 
appearance in haplostemonous dower* among the Dicotyledons of veatiirei 
of a second scries.orofbodiea which may be so interpreted. Tlie andtwclum 
or the t>Iosfom is said to be 

iKHlrmmnnt or HaptoiUmaumt when the Stamens are of one series, equal 
Id nnmber to that of the ground.plan ot the bloiwim ; 

DipIi>$timoamt, when thcr« are two series, or douhlc this nnmber. 

trlth tho idtnpta st«ra tci 

' the relalLTC sttuatkin of the put*. Oiia or < 
Lamen. aiHliT. aplKMI.itJHKhoim, fnlkrniL 



BepaU, and tlie stamens of the inner se 
ak ; as in tbe diagram, Fig. 331 .' 

325. Flowcra which completely 
exemphfy their tj-pe or Bjmmetry 
_ are rare, but most exhibit it more 

or less. Each natural order or 
group exhibits ite own paiticutar j 
floral type, or modification of the ' 
common type." Some of tbese 
mo<Ufications do not at all affect 
the symmetry or obscure the plan 
of the flower, except by combiua- 
tions which render tlie phylline 
character of the flora! envelojies and carpels 
less apparent, such combinations being of 
rare occurrence in foliage. Others gravely 
interfere with floral s_\-nimetry, Bometimee to '1 
I such degree that the true plan of the blossom ' 
is to be aeeertained only through extended 
comparisons with the flowers of other plants 
of the same order or trilic, or of related 
orderB, The symmetry of Ibe blossom finds its explanation in 
the laws which govern the arrangement of leaves on the axis j i 
that 18, in phytlolaxy. The deviations ttom ajinmetry and from 
tj"pical simplicity have to be explained, and in the first instance ] 

t rpfercnce and the avoidance of cirpumlocotian, some 
writers term the ilnmcne irliich are before the pclats epipeialoiu. tlioM' lH.'fora 
the sepala tjaaejuJoui ; but, at iliis prefix moans upon, it 19 better lo reslric* 
thrne term* to caiea of adnatioii uf slomens lo these respective parts of tbe 
perlaath, and to dittingulali aa 

AiUiptialiiut, those Btamcas wlilch Itsnd before petals, nlielher adnate at 
free, and 

Aniifpalout, Ihoie which stand before ecpala. — Thou terms we find have 
already btcn employed in thia way by l>r. A. Dickson (in Secniann, Jour. 
Bot. iv. 275}, with the addition of a thini, rit. 

Paroptlaloia, for BtHmcns which stand nt each aide of a petal, yet not 
neccsaarily before a sepal, as in many Roancc^. 

* These particular typea, with their modifications, are set forth In tlw 
rfnmcfws or dislinf^ishing marks of lire orders, trilies, genera, Ac. The 
beat generally available illostrations of urdiniil types arc in Le Maout and 
Decaisne's iSvito' G^nifral de Botanique. and in [looker's English edition 
and revision, entitled A General System of Botany, Descriptive and Anaiyti- 
□al, London, 1673. The best morphological preacntaCian ig in Eichler'a 
filuthendiagrammc, &c. (Flower Diagrams, Constructed and Illustrated), 
Leipzig, 18T5. 


tlQ.asa. OpaonlfloiierofTrllliuuici 

. 331. Diagram of the as 




to be classified. To have inor|thological vnlui?, such ejcplanntiou 
gbouki be basccl upon just analt^cs in ttie foliage and other 
organs of vogotation. Whatever is true of leaves and of the 
vegetating aicis as to position of parts, mode of origin and 
growth, division, connection, and the like, may well be true of 
homologous organs in the flower. 

SecnoN III. Various Modifications op the Flower. 


SSfJ. In the morphological Btudy of flowers, these modiflca- 
tions arc vicwctl as deviations fVom ti^pe. Their interpretatioa 
fomis no small part of the botanist's work. They may be classed 
under tlie follovting heads : — 

1. Union of members of the same circle: Coalescence. 

2. Union of contiguous parts of different circles : Adnation. 

3. InequaUty in size, shape, or union of members of the same 
circle: iKREGLLAitm. 

4. Non-Bp|>earaoce of some parts which are supposed in the 
tj"pe : Adoution or Scppkession. 

5. Non-alternation of the members of contiguous circles: 
AsTEPOsiTioN or Slperposition, 

6. Increased number of oigBns, either of whole circles or 
parts of circles : AroHENTATioN or Multiplication. 

7. Outgrowths, mostly from the anterior or sometimes pos- 
terior face of organs : Enation. 

8. Unusual development of the torus or flower-asis. 

9. To which may be appended morphological modifications, 
Borae referable to these heads and some not so, which are in 
special relation to the act of fertilization. These are six-cially 
considered in Section IV. 

327. These deviations fVom assumed patt«m are seldom single ; 
possibly all may coexist in the same blossom. Several of them 
occur e^-cn in that one of the orders, the Crassulacew, which 
most oimously exhibits the normal tji)e throughout. 

S28, Thus. Sodum (Fig. 329), with two cirtrlea of stamens, 
being token as the true type (324), Crassula (Fig. 307) wants 
the circle of stamens tiefore the petals ; Tilliea (Fig. 326) is the 
same, but with the members sjTmnetrically re<luced ftx)m five to 
three ; Bhodiola loses all the stamens by abortion in one half 
the individuals and the pistils in the other, sterile nidiments 
testifying to the abortion; Triactina has lost two of its five 
carpels, and the three remaiuing coalesce into one body up to the 


middle; Pcnthonim (Fig. 335, 336) has its Ave carpela coaleB^ 
cent almost to the top, and usually loaes its petals by abortion I 
in GrammanthoB and Cotyledon (Fig, 332-334), the sepals are 
coakscent into a cup and the petals into a deeper one, out of 

which the stamens appear to arise, these being adnate to tha 
corolla. Symmetrical increase in the number of members of 
each cinle is no proper deviation from type, at least in this 
family (in which flowers on the same plant sometimes lary from 
5-meroQS to 4-merous and 6-merous) ; and in .Sem|>etTivuni (to 
which Houseleck belongs) these members arc always more than 
five and aometimea as many as twen^ iu each circle. 

3 2. Keoelab Union or 


S29. CoalmceDco, or the cohesion by the contiguous margins 
of parts ofUie same circle or constituent set of organs, 
quont that few flowers are completely fhee from it. The last 
preceding figures show it in the gjnrecium and corolla. Fig. 
471— i76 further illustrate it in the corolla, and in various degrees 
up to entire union ; and Fig. 483-488 illustrate it in the andns- 
cium. The technical terms which coalescence calls for, and 
which arc needfVil in botanical description, may be found under 
Uic account of the particular oi^an, and in the Glossai^-. Such 
growing together of contiguous members in the blossom is strictly 
paralleled by connate-perfoliatc leaves of ordinary foliage (212, 
Fig. 215), where it more commonly occurs in upper leaves, and 
in bracts, which are still nearer the flower, 

330. It should now be hardly iiccessarj' to explain that the 
terms coaleseence, coheiion, union, and the corresponding phrases 


FIO. 331. Flowflr i 
PeDiboTDm, unltod. I 

till of ^H 



in the next paragrnph, do not mean that the parts were once eep** 
nteaad hare silicic uititoii. TImt is true only ur certain cases. Ttw 
imion ia mostly congenital, equally bo in the disks of foliage of 
the Honeysuckle (Fig. 215) and in the corolla of a Convolvulus. 
The lobes which answer to the tips of the constituent leaves of 
the cup or tube are UHually first to appear in the forming bud, 
the undi\-ided basal portion comes to view later. It might be 
more correct to say that the several leaves concerned have not 
isolate*! themselves as they grew. Accordingly, Dr. Master* 
would substitute for coalescence and adnatc the t«rm inseparatt. 
But the common language of morphology needs no change, as it 
consistently proceeds on the idea, and the prevalent fact, that 
leaves are separate things, and that the tube, cup, or " inscpo- 
ratu " base of a calyx or corolla, consists of a certain number of 
these. It is no contradiction to this view that they developed 
' In union.' 


33 1 . A^atlon is the most appropriate term to denote the organic 

nnd congenital cohesion or consolidation of different circles, the 

1 U it ymra icriomly proposed to chuifcc tliG langruagc of descriptiva ^^^ 
botany In thii roganl, cuiuliteucy would require it) total fecotutruction, wltk ^^| 
the abolition of all lUcU lermi ai deft, partrd, Ac. ; tor the dructurca la ^^M 
qacttion arc no more ciefl than they are united. While theie conrcnient ^^| 
and lonfC'famillarlenua are continued in u)e (a> thcjgarelywillbel.althouicb 
quite contnrj to literal fact, it cannot be amias to continue tho«c, such aa 
roKsalr, adnott, foalaernt, ic, which imply aiiJ (uggwl the fundomenlal fact 
b) the itructure of phenogamoui and the higher cryptogamouj plant*, vii. 
that leave) are normally unconnected organa. 

Whether fuiion or acparation ia the more complex condition, and therefore 
indicative of higher rank, ii a que«UoQ of a different order. It ii arfpied 
that the fuiion or lack of teparation ia an arrc«t of development, and there- 
fore an indication of low rank or leaa perfection than the contrary. But a 
phyloKenetic view of the whole caae may rercrte thi« conclusion aa reipecta 
th« blouoin. The mune of deTeloproent from thallu* and frond to diatinci 
foliage on an axii, from little to full d)fferent[ation, i« clearly s ri«e in 
rank, ai alao ia the differentiation of foliage bio ordinary leavea, petals, 
•lanienj, and pistil*. But there is as moch differentiation bi the dower 
of a Convolvulus as of a Kaouncnlui, and more in that of a Salvia, a 
Lobelia, and an Orctiia. In all auch Sower*, the combination, the irregu- 
larity, and the diveniflcation in many cases of the members of tiieaame cirde, 
all Indicate complexily. greater specialization, and therefore higher rank. 
Tlic production of leaves distinct from the axis is one step In the ascending 
■cale : mcb spedaliutioiu and combinations of Itiesu as occur in dowers are 
higher steps; and the most specialized, complrx. and therefore hif^eit In ^h 
rank are comptele, corollifernus, irregular Sowcra, witli a definite number of |^H 
members, and these combined in view of the adaptations by which the ends ^^| 
I of ferliUiation and fructification arc botl sutMerred. ^^| 

apparent g 

on or out of another, — as 
IB stamcDs out of the corolla, or 
oil of them out of the pistil. Thia disguises the real origin 
of the floral organs from the receptacle or axis, in successive 
series, one within or alrave the other. Oi^ans in this condition 
are also and rightly said to be Connalt (born united) ; but, as 
this term is equally applicable to the coalescence of members of 
tlie same circle, the word AdnaU is preferable, aa ap|)ljing to 
the present case only. Adnation is heterogeneous organic co- 
hesion or adhesion ; coa- 
lescence is homt^eneous 
cohesion or union. 

332. Adnation occurs in 
J very varions degrees, and 
affects either some or all the 
oi^ans of the flon-er. Its 
consi lie ration introduces into 
terminology several peculiar 
terms, which maj' here be 
defined in advance. Three 
of them, introducetl and 
prominently employed by 
Jussieu, depend upon the 
degree of adnation, or the 
absence of it, viz. : — 

Jfifpotfi/nout (literally be- 
neath pistil) , applied to parts 
which are inierled (i, e. are 
borne) on the receptacle of 
the flower, as in Fig. 33A. 
This is the absence of 
adnation, or the condition 
which correspomis witli the 
unmodified type. 

Ptrigynous (around the 
pistil) implies an adnation 
** which carries up the inser- 

tion of parts (which always means api>arent origin or place of 
attachment) to some distance above or away from the recep- 

FIQ. 336. Vertical ■ccKan nf ■ flnwer of the Cammun Plu, sliiisliie the nDrmftl or 


01 sitnaUan to the cmlyi, 

F1Q,338. Slrniln 

le luwur half of Uie oimij. 

huiry. lo «liDw the pccigynoiu Inicitlana 
E PunUno, ahgwlng wa adnation of iB J 



tacle, so i-DinniOQly placing tliia insertion aroitnd instead of 

beneath the pistil ; nhenco the name. The perigjny ma_v be, 

as the figures show, mcrelj 

the sdaation of petals and 

stainens to lalyi, the calyx 

remaining bypogynons, as in / 

Fig. 837 ; or else the ndna- f 

tion of the calyx, involving 

tlic other organs, to the lower 

part of the ovary, as in Fig. 

938, or up to the summit of 

the ovary, while the i>etal8 *" 

and stamens are adnata still f\irther to the calyx, as ii 

The latter {Misses into what is called 

Epigynout (on the pialil), where the adnation is complete to 
the very top of tlie ovary, and none beyond it, as in Fig. 340, 
841 . Yet here the parts so termed are not really on the ovary, 
except where an ciiigynous disk (494) actually sunnounta it. 

a Fig. 339. 

333. Adnation brings some other terms into use in l>otamcal 
descriptions, especially those of superior and inferior. In tlita 
connection, these words (in Latin taking the form of tuperut and 
it^ferut) denote the position in report to each other of ovary and 
floral envelopes. — not the morphological, but the apparent posi- 
tion or place of origin. Thus, in Fig. 336 and in 337, the calyx 
is inferior, or in other words the ovary tuperior. Here real and 
apparent origin agree, this being the normal condition, which 
is otherwise expressed by saying that the i>art« arc free, i. e. free 
from all adnation ofone to tiie other. But, in Fig. 339-341, the 

rta. asO, similar Hcrlcin of a flnwcr oT HBniborn, ihawlne anniileM aduallon la 
tb* tBiDnilt of Ihe nrarv an J of Ihe nthar parti dcj-nna. 

riG.MO. Vertical xcUon of a Cnuibprrr-Hoirar. Bn<l Ml, of flinwcr of Anklla 
VodlCftani. witb an-called e|il|rjnona Inurtlon oti:^iyK, curulla, anrt vtjuqmaj thccalxi 
of Um IMUr eonidetBly coDBuUdalnl wiUi the •luAuc (if tlia orar]', oi lu limb 


ovarj- ia said to be inferior anti the calyx tuperior, the calyx 
and other parts, in consequence of the adnatioo of its lower part, 
Becmiog to lisc fWim the siimniit of the ovarj". 

334. Adnation of floral envelopes to pistil rarely extends 
beyond the ovaiy ; yet, in species of Iris having a tube to 
the perianth, this tube is commonlj' adnate for most of its length 
to the s^le. But when the calyx has its tube or portion with 
united sepals prolonged, the petals and the stamens are usually 
adnate more or less to it, i. e. are iiuerted on the calyx. And, 
when the petals are united and prolonged into a tube, the sta- 
mens, being within the corolla, are commonly aduat« to or 
inserted upon this. 

835. No one doubts that the view is a true one which repre- 
sents the pcriauth-tube as adnat* to the style in Iris, petals and 
stamens as adnate to calyx in the Cheny (Fig. 337), stamens 
as ndnate to base of corolla in Fig. 334, and a long way farther 
in Phlox, &c. That the calyx is similarly adnate to the ovary 
is nearly demonstrable in certain cases. 

336. But, OS the lower portion of a pear is undoubtedly recep- 
tacle, or rather the enlarged extremity of the flower-stalk, as in a 
rose at least a portion of the hip is receptacle, as the tube of the 
flower in a Cereus or other Cactacea has all the external char- 
acters and development of a branch, so it is most probable that 
in many cases the supposed caiyx-tube adnate to an inferior 
ovary is partly or wholly a hollowed receptacle (in the manner 
of a Fig-fhiit) ; that is, a cup-shajieil or goblet-shaped develop- 
ment of the base of the fioral axis. This would bring the case 
under S 7. (32G, 435.) 

§ 4. In It EG r LABI TV OF 

337, Irre^Dlarlty, or incqualiti,' in form or in union of mem- 
bers of a circle, is extremely common, either with or without 
numerical symmetrj". One or two examples may suffice. 

338. Irregnlar flowers with s'iTnmetrical perfection, except in 
the gj-ncecium, are well seen in the Pea Family, to which belongs 
the kind of corolla called Papilionaceous, from some imagined 
resemblance to a butterfly. (Fig. 342-344.) This flower 
£-merons throughout, has the fVill complement of stamens ( 1 0, or 
two sets), but the gj-nrocium reduced to a single simple pistil. 
The striking irregularity is in the coroUa, the petals of which 
bear distinguish iug names ; the posterior and larger one. exter- 
nal in the bud, ia the Vexilluh or Standard (Fig. 344, a) 





the two lakiml next and under the BtaodBrd, Ai.x. or Wntoa (J) ; 
tLi; two anterior, covered by the wings and partly cohcriDg to 


form n prow-shaped body (e), the Carika or Keel. The calyx 
is slightly irregidar by unequal union, the two upper sepak 
unitiHl higher than the 
Other three. The sta- 
mens are much more 
coaleseont,but with an 
irregularity, nineeom- 
biued by the lower part 
or their filaments, and 
one (the (wsterior) 
separate. (Fig. 3-16.) 

339. The plan and »" "" 

floral siTnmetrj- in the Locust- blossom and 
its relatives are little obseured by the irregu- 
larities and the coalescence, hardly more bo 
than in the plainer flower of its relative, *" 
Baptisia (Fig. 347, 348), in which the petals arc somewhat 
alike, and the t«n stamens are distinct or unconnected. Only 
the colyx is more irregular, by the union of the two posterior 
sepals ahnost to the tip. (Fig. 348.) 

PIQ.Sia. DUgmn Drfloveraf llieI«riiW,Rablnl> PHDilKaeU: n. ailsof InSonB- 
omm; ft. bmct: tLrrt circle offi. CAlyi: Hve reuftlnJiiff pleca. fornlla; iicxtmntt 
10 In nambiir; In tbc contn aiiingliiiilniiils p(irll1. SO Prnnl ituw of LocoK-fli 
IbowlnKonlj thontrolLa. Ml. Thli comlU dlaiitnyol. 

FIO, 345. ADilRBdum of Iha Lwtut, nhia ■luoeni RwlaKnnt. on* dbtlucL 
SunsnriiLiiiHna.aIl tea aiunennmalHimitlMlnw lata acliunl nibs. 

~'" — Calfi uid corull* of BapUilB aiutimUi. M8. Saoa with pMali lUlen. 
Uitinn lunuiif and tip of Uw HtU. 



840. But in a LiipiDc-blossoin, of equally near relationship, 
a casual olaen-cr might fiiil to recognize the very same type, 
although disguised only by cohesions. For while the two pos- 
terior sepals are united to the tip on oue side of tlie blossom, the 
a« three others are similarly unitt;d into 

one body on the anterior side, giving 
the api)earance of two sepals instead 
of five : in the corolla, the two keeU 
petals ore more strictly united into a 
slender scjthe- shaped or sickle-shajHrd 
body ; so that the petals might with 
the unwary pass for four: in the 
andrtecium, the coalcBCencG includes all 
ten staiueus (Fig. 340), nliich is aa 
approach to regulaiity. 
^^^^^^ 341, Tlie 5-merous BjTumctry of the 

I ^ — -^ Violet- blossom ia complete until the 

gjna'cium is reached (l)nt with only 
oue circle of stamens) ; the main irregu- 
larity of the pcriantli is in the anterior 
petal, with its nectariferious sac at Itase 
(Fig, 349-351) ; the two stamens near- 
ac curious appendages, which the other 
lhii« do uol |Kisses9 ; the gyuwciuin is com|K>sed of three car- 
9 I>els coalcseent into one compound ovary in a 

r hereafter ex|)lained. In Antirrhinum 
and Linaria (Fig, 480, 41^1), there is a similar 
\ irregularity accompanji-ing coalescence of the 
) |)etals, the anterior one being extended at base 
into a nectariferous sac or hollow spur.* The 
flower of a Lobelia (Fig. 488) has the samfl 
numerical plan and symmetry as that of Viola 
(except that the gynceeium is dimerous) ; but 
the members are adnate below and coalescent above, and the 
corolla is irrcgidar through unequal coalescence of the five petals, 
and the absence of coalescence down one side. 

' P&LoniA i* n nnmc given by Linnxus lo >n occuioaat monugiroBily of 
tlicic floncra (imitated in sumlryothcra), in which tliebaicof cTery petal, or 
answeriog part of tlic corolla, it prolonged dowuwanJ inio a mc or spur. 
The *ic i>, marphologlcally consiilercil. adepaiiurc from normal regttlarit}' : 
in Ibe immiter, jymmetrical rtgularily i» re«orvd by the deTeiopment of four 

est this send into the ( 

FIQ.M". Flnwur 


liU wgllUt.. 

SSO. Ill »]«]* bihI peUlf rll 




ni. from ElcbJDi 

(l«li.i»(, ( 



9 siiWenillng leuf bclunp. |>bo»< 

.or i«.Wilor). 


S 5. DiSAPPEARA.vcE OR Obliteration of Parts. 

842. Abortion or SopprMHion are somewhat synonjinoufi termB 
to denote the oblitorulbn ov rallier non-appearance of oi^aoB 
which belong to the plan of the blosHoin. Abortion is applicti 
particularly and more pro|}er!y to partial ohliteratioo, as where 
a Btamcn is reduced to a naked Hinment, or to a mere rudiment 
or vesligt-', answering to a stamen and occupying the place of 
one, but inenpabte of performing its olHce ; suppreuion, to abso- 
lute non-appearance. Such vestiges or abortive oi^ans justiiy 
the use of these terms, the more so as all gradations are some- 
times met with between the perfect oi^an and the niuctionless 
rudiment which occupies its place. Sneh obi iterations, wlietbcr 
partial or coipplete, may affect either a whole circle of organs 
or merely some of its members. Itie former interferes with the 
completeness of a flower, and may obscure the normal order of 
its parts. The latttr directly interferes vfith the sj-mmetrj- of 
the blossom, and is commonly associated with irregularity. 

843. or parts of a Circle. Among papilionaivous Bowers 
(838), dilTcrent sjiecies of Erj-thrina have all the petals but o 
(the vexillum, Fig. 344, a) much reduced in 
size, in some concealed in the caly:i, and in 
every way to be ranked as abortive otgans. 
In Amorptui, of the same family, these four 
petals arc gone, leaving no trace, reducing 
tlie corolla to a single petal. (Fig. 352, 35j.) 
This one is evidently the vexiUum, both by 
position and shape ; and the 5-merous type, 
also the ijarticular t_\-|>e of the family, are still 
discemiljle in the tive notches of the calyx, 
the ten stamens, &c. In a related genns, 
I'arrj'ella, even this last petal is wanting, and 
the ondneeiuin is straight, all irregularis' thus 
disaplKariug through suppression. 

344. Delphinium or Larkspur and Aconite or Monkshood 
furnish good examples of flowers in which irregnlaritj- is accom- 
panied by more or less abortion. The calyx of the Larkspur 
((■"ig. 354-35G) is irregular by reason of llie dissimilarity of th« 
five sethils, one of which, the up|)ennost and loi^est, Is pro- 
loDged [xisteriorly into a long and hollow spur. Within these, 
and alternate with them as far as they go, are the petals, only 


four in number, and these of two shapea, the two upper ones 
having long apurs which are reoci\-cd into the spur of the upper 
sepal; the two lateral ones having a small but broad blade 

raised on a stalk-like claw ; and the place which the fifth and 
lower petal should occupy (marked iu the ground-plan, Fig. 366, 

FIQ. Xi. Flower of ■ Lukspar. 3NI. 
retail (Innir drcle) diiplB;r«I- 366. Grour 

FIO. aGT. Flowor of &n AconiU iir Moulubood. 3M. Tba Ovs ht«I> 
BmalL mnd CDiloiulj ■hft|ic<l petali dEipLLy«t; also tlio itamenH 4nd pLitllsl 
sea. araDnil-planartlHCBlriBDdcanlUB; tlie dotwd Unw, ai In I^. »«, 
tlio ■appnHBd paru. 

ipals iDDier circlo) and 
IP calFiatiil corolla. 

id Uio two 


by a short dotted line) is vaojint. this petal lieing suppressed, 
thereby rendering tlie blossom uiiBymmetrical, In Aconite 
(Fig. 357-^59), the plan of the blossom is the same, 
but the uppermoat and largest of the five dissimilar 
sepals forms a helmet-shaped or hood-like body; 
three of the petals are wanting altogether (their 
places are shown by the dotted lines in the ground- 
plan, Fig, 359) : and the two upper ones, which ex- 
tend under the hood, are so reduced in size and so 
anomalous iu shape that they would not be recog- 
nized as petals. One of these, enlarged, is exhibited 
in Fig. 360. Petals and other jiarta of this and of va- 
rious extraordinary forms were termed by Linmuus 
Nectaries, a somewhat misleading name, as they 
are no more devoted to the secretion of nectar than 
ordinary petals or other parts are. In these flowers, 
moreover, the stamens are much increased in number. *" 

345. Analogous abortion of some of the stamens, along with 
a particular irregularity of the perianth, especially of tlic corolla, 
characterizes a series of natural orders with coalesccnt petals.' 
These Sowers are all on the 5-merous plan (except that the 
gynn^cium is 2-merous), but with corolla, and not rarely the 
calj"x. irregular through unequal union iu what is called the hila- 
hiate or two-lipped manner. The greoter union is always median, 
or anterior and posterior, and two of the coalcscenl members form 
one lip, three the other. The two [xtsterior petals form the 
upper lip, the anterior and two lateral form the lower lip of the 
coroUa; in the calyx, when that is bilabiate, this is of course 
reversed. In some, as in Sage and Snapdragon, the bllabiation 
of the corolla is striking (Fig. 479-481), and readily comparable 
' tothetwojawsof ananimal; in others, the parts are almost regu- 
lar. The suppression referred to is, iu most of these cases, that 
of the posterior of the five stamens, as in Fig, 361, where it is 
complete. In Fentstemon (Fig. 362), a sterile filament r^u- 
larly occupies the place of the missing stamen. The position 
sufficiently indicates its nature. This is also revealed by the 
rare occurrence of an imperfect or of a perfect anther on this 


' The«c natunl onlen in which this occun. or tends to occi 
8cn>phulariRce>> [Saap^ragon, Pentilemon, Himolua, &c.). OrobanchaccB 
(Bcech.dropi), Lenlibnlacee (BlBdderwnn). GMiierai'vw (Gluxinia), Bifi- 
□ooiacea (Trompet Creeper, Caiolpa), Pcdaliacec (Martj^nia), Acanthacen, 
LabiatK (Salria, SUciifi), &c. 

A p«lal iDOCtatjIof an AmnlU. mncti siilus«il- 


filament. — a monatroaitj, indeed, but tho monstrosity is hers ] 
a return to nortnnl evminetry. The two stampna nearest the I 
suppressed or abortive one generally 
' share in the tendency to aboition, aa 
eliuwa by their lesser length or 
smaller anthers : in the flower of 
Catalpa, these two also are either im- 
perfect or reduced to mere veatiges 
(as in Fig. 363) : in very many other 
plants of these families, even these 
vestiges are not seen, and bo the five 
stamens are by abortion or complete 
suppression retluced to two. 

34(i. Suppression in the gyncBciam 
o a numl>er less than the numerical 
plan of the flower (as sliowu iu the 
perianth) is of more common occur- 
rence than the typical number, and 
the reduction is comparatively con- 
stant throughout the genua or order. 
A pajiitionaceons or other leguminous 
flower with more than one or with all ^ 
I five pistils is exceedingly rare, and 
' except in one pentacarpellaiy genua 
1 is u monstrosity. Suppression of 
' tho interior is more common than I 
of exterior organs. IrVant of room 
in the bud may partially explain 
347. Snppresslon of whole Circles. Such suppression or rather ' 
non -prod net ion in the actual blossom of whole series of organs 
which belong to the type, and indeed are sometimes present in 
that blossom's nearest relatives, is veiy common. It gives 
occasion to several descriptive terms, which may be here defined 
together. First, and in general, flowers are 

Jneomplett. in which any one or more of the four kinds of organs 
is wanting, whatever these may lie : 

ApetaUiu$, when the corolla or inner perianth is wanting ; 
Monochlamydeout, where the perianth is simple instead of 

FIO. Nl. Corolla of OerardlB I 
vUrh the flfth (hoolil amvpy Indlcaiwl 1<r n <^n 

Fia. amt CorolJn nf PeniMoninn (tTMiiHrlnn 
I Merllo nura«nl In lh« i<1iM:e of tl>e (!»!. numi: 

FIG. an. CurolU oT Colalps liUd opea, wit 
of tLree ■bortlye onat. 

>pon, Tlth the four rtiunen 
I laid opon. wllb lis four it 
two portMt ■CunsDi and I 



doable, in which case the wnnting set is genorollj- (but not quite 
always) the inner, or the corolla ; 

Dicltlamtjdeoiu, when both circles of the perianth (calyx and 
corolla) nre present ; 

Acblamydeout, when both are wanting, as in Fig. 365. (These 
three tenns are seldom employed.) 

CnUextiiil (also Dhlmout or Separated) ^vhen the suppression 
is either of the stamens or the pistils. In eontradistinctioD, a 
flower which possesses both is Bisexual or fkrmaphrodite. 

Siaminate, or Male, when the stamens ore present and the 
pistils ahsent ; 

Piglillnle, or Female, when the pistils are present and tlie 
stamens absent ; 

Monacioiig (of one household), when stamens and pistils oc- 
cupy different flowers on the same plant i 

Diaeimu (of two households), when they occupy different 
flowei-s on different plants ; 

Pnlffifamous, when the same species bears both unisexual and 
bisexual or hermaphrodite flowers. This may occur in various 
ways, from the greater or less abortion of either sex, either on 
the same or on separate individual plants ; — as Monadomls or 
Diaciously Polt/gamaui, occorrling to the tendency to become either 
mon<£dons or dicecious. Recently Darwin has well distinguished 
the case of 

Gynodiaeloiit, where the flowers on separate individuals are 
some hermaphrodite and some female, but none mate only ; and 
Andrtt-Jiaei'oHi, of hermaphrodite flowers and male, but no 
separate female. The latter is a less common case. 

NeutrtJ., as applied to a flower, denotes that both stamens and 
pistils are wanting, — a case neither rare nor inexplicable on 
grounds of utility. {35G, 504.) 

Sterile and Ftrtile are more loosely used terms. A sterile 
flower may mean one which fails to produce seed, as a sterile 
stamen denotes one which produces no good i)oIlen. and a 
sterile pistil one which is incapable of seeding. Kut commonly a 
sterile flower denotes a staminatA; one ; a fertile flower, one which 
is jtiatillatc. if not also hermaphrodite. 

348. Bnppremed Perisntta. Almost universally, when the peri- 
anth ia reduced to a single circle, it is the inner, or corolla, which 
is not produced. Or, rather, when there is only one circle or sort 
of perianth-leaves, it is caJled calyx, whatever be the appearance, 
lextnre, or color, unless It can somehow be shown that an outer 
circle is suppressed. For since the calyx is frequently delicate 
and petal-like (in botanical language, pttaluid or colored, as in 



Clematis and Anemone, Fig. 364), and the corolla is sometimes 
greenish or leaf-like, the only real diHercncc l<etween the two is 
that the calyx represents the outer 
and the corolla the inner series. 
Even this distinction becomes arbi- 
trary when the periuuth consists of 
three or four circles, or of a less 
definite number of spirally arranged 

349. Yet the only perianth obvi- 
ously present may l)e corolla, as when 
the calyx has its tube wholly adnate 
to the ovary and its border or lobes obsolete or wanting.' Aralia 
nudicaulis (Fig. 341) is an instance, likewise many Umlwlliferie, 
some species of Fedia or Valeriauella, the fertile flowers of Nyssa, 
and those Compoaitte which have no pappus. For PAPprs, 
the name originally giren to thistle-down and the like, answers 
to the border or lobes of a calyx attenuated and de|)aui)erated 
down to mere fibres, bristles, or hairs. The name is ex- 
tended to other and less obliterated forms. (644, Fig. 631-633.) 
When the obliteration is complete, as in Maj-weed (Fig, 630), 
in some species of Coreopsis, &c., the corolla seems to be simply 
continuous with the apex of the ovary. A comparison with 
related forms reveals the real state of things.* 

350. So also in Hippuris, in which (along 
7 witli extreme numerical reduction of the other 
floral circles) the calyx as well as corolla seems 
to bo wanting ; but the insertion of the stamen 
on the ovarj' (epigynoua) suggests an adnate 
cal_\-:i, and near inspection detects its border. 
_ 351. Both calyx and corolla are really want- 

ing in the otherwise complete and perfect (symmetrical and 

» In the flower, of the two common species of Prickly ^V»h (Zaiiihoiy- 
lum) of the Alluiiic United St»lo», ont- has a double, the other a single 
pcrianlh (as shown in Gray. Gen. riuslr. ii. 1*8, t. 160) : the poBJlJon of the 
■luneni fflret a prcsninplion that the mining circle of the latter ia the calyx ; 
jet it may be olherwiie explained. In Santalaceaj there are wime groundi 
for inrpectin^ that the simple perianth, although opposite the slumeni. Is 
corolla; and Ihe foliaceaiu aepal-lobes of the female flowers of Biickleya 
would confirm this, it these are tnie sepals rather than adnaie bracis. 

' In the pappus at CompoiJlR, every gradation is seen between undoubted 

calyx. recoRnixable as such by structure as well as position, and diaphanoiu 

scales, lirlslles, and mere hairs, wholly " trichomcs " as (o structure, although 

in the place of " phyllomes " and representing Ibem. ^1 

FIO. 3». Flowfr 'if Ancmmii PennBylcanlu; speUlons, tlie tMjx petalold. ^M 

Fla. aw. AdtlDiD^JsoDi Sawet ot LUanl's-lall Oaumnii c«ninus|, nagnUML ^H 


trimcmUB) flowers of Sauninis, Fig. 8G5. But achlamt/deoiit 
blos9on:B are iiaualty atill fiirtlicr itdueeJ to a aiDgk' e 
852. Suppression of ouc cirtle of sUintciia is of very ( 
oopurreucc. U is B<?eii iu different species of Flax : nbicli have 
mostly S-meroii8 perfeetly symmctriunl and eonipietc flowers with 
ouo set of stamens abortive. Jn some species ^as in Fig. 3C7), 

vestiges of tlie missing circle of stamens arc conspicuous in 
the form of abortive Hlamcnta, inter)K>s«l between liie perfect 
Stamens : in otiiers, tbeso rudiiuents are incouspiciioua or even 
altogetlwr wauling. 

353. Suppressed Andrtpcinm or GjiKeclnm. Tbis occurs witb- 
out or along with suppression in the perianth. In eases of the 
fonner, vcrtigea of 
the aborted organs 
often remain to sig- 
nify' tlie exact nature 
of the toss. Se|Mi- 
raliou of the aexea 
{monacittat, rltaei- 
OHI, &c.) is the re- 
sult of such aupprcs- 
siun. In Meuiaijer- 
tliis is accuiupanierl 
by nn nctital doub- 
ling of both calyx 
and corolla. The 
dicBcious flowers of 
Smihix are similarly 
complete, (except by 
the ftlmrtion of one sex, but tlie calyx and corolla are s 

no. 3CA. FlumrofmLlnnmoi 
of S prrfect ■tamnn. alleniiitlnc n 

Fid. satt.SIIU. Dbeclnun aawem < 
iiBia or niiil« bluHum ; 308. llnUli 

no. xin. A D 

Shi. Canihln«l with sniiprewlon of Perianth. Tins, which 

found in most ameiitaopuiis or oalkiii-lK-ariiig trees, in Bonoe wi 

^^\ [inrtM §up|irei)8ion of iKTiaiith, is well ilhiHtratcii 

U JM in Willows, the flowers of which are all aehlamydeoiu 

^r antl diacimii. (347.) The little scale (glanil or neo> 

^Hk tnry) at the inside of each blossom might be snfK 

HIllJ posed to represent a perianth, re<hiced to a single 

Wfiy piece ; but an extended comparison of forms refen 

«*» it rather to the rece|itacle. W'illow-lilossoma (Fig. 

370-372) arc crowded in catkins, each one in the axil of a i»r»ct i 

the Btaminate flowers consist of a few stamens merelj', iu this 

species ot only two, and the pistillate of a pistil niercl.y. la 

Satix purpurea, the male flower seems to be o single stamen 

(Fig. 374) ; but it consists of two stamens, united into ona 

boily. Here extreme 


companied with o^ 

alescencc of tt 

existing members. 

355. Still more 

simplified flowers, 

a s^vj I y-vi* but more difficult 

JL ^\ \ / to comprehend, are 

\ * tW I /<7i those of Euphorbia, 

' "il Qi?i ^^ii^ *"" ^^P""^^- These 

ous ; and the female 
flower is a pistil, the 
male is a stamen. J 
The pistillate floworl 
(of three carpetati 
their ovaries united 
inlit one ihree-lobcd 
ctniii>r)nnd ovai^) 
snmiounts ii slender |>eduncle which lemiinntcs each branch of the 
flowering plant. (Kig. 375.) From ai'ound the base of this pe- 
duncle rise otiier smaller and shorter peduncles, each from the 
axil of a slender bract, and 8urmountt>d by a single stamen, 
whicli represents a male flower. (Fig. 37C. 377.) This nmlicl-tike 


FIO. 3T4. A Hi>a 
IcBMnt (mnnailalpbni 

no. na fiouoi 

dlThtol lenglbwtw, a 


ig bniicli or EuplinrliU 

ini (Tniriiiate flonor iletucliwi Willi IU brMt, 
by tbu ■oUlary ntdnfiii. c. ^§. Pintll In rn 
Una au^^evXti canwl* of wlikb II i* conpo"'' 

if Sallx t^inKlcw^i *[^ <b« > 
llkfl « liiliele ona 
. 37n. Culyn-li 

lu ■]>)•« 

wiled k, .^^H 



flower- cluster is surrounded and at first enclosed bv an involucre 
in tlie foiTii of a cup, which imitates a calyx ; and the lobes of this 
ciii> (the fi-ee tijis of the calyx- leaves) in Ihc present six'oies are 
bright white, bo that they exactly imitate petals. Here, then, is 
a whole cluster of extremely simplified flowers, taking on the 
guise of and practically l>ehaving like a single flower, the invo- 
Incre serving as caljTc and corolla : the one-stamened male flowers 
collectively imitating the andrisciiim of a polyandrous blossom, 
and surrounding a female flower which might pass for the pistil of 
it. A series of related forms, fVom various parts of the world, 
gives proof tliat this interpretation is the true one. 

3'i6. Suppression of bolb ADdrfectDm and Gjnierlniii. This 
occurs in what are termed NetUrnl Flowrrs (347), such as are 
conspicuous at the mai^n of thccj-nies of Hydrangea (l''ig. 293) 
and of Viburnum laiitanoides and Opulus, also at the margin of 
the head of flowers of Sunflower, Coreopsis (Fig. 287, 288), and 
the like. In these and most other instances, the perianth of 
which only the flower consists is much larger and more showy 
than in the acconn>anving i)erfect flowers: in fact, their whole 
utility to the plant, so far as known, is in this eonspicuonsness. 
No plant normally bears neutral flowers only ; but in cultivation 
all Bomeliraes become so by monstrosity, as in the form of Vihur- 
nnm Opulus called Snowball or Guelder Rose, also in " AiU 
double " roses, pinks, &c. Occasionally flowers become sterile 
and neutral by mere deiiauperation and abortion of perianth as well 
as of essential organs, as in certain Grasses ; but such are 
mostly vestiges of flowers rather than neutral blossoms. 

%G. Ktei 


357. Anteposltion or Superposllton is the opposition of sucoes- 
sivo (or apparently successive) whorls which normally aKemale. 
This result ia brought about in different ways, some of which are 
obvious, while of some the explanation is h,\'pothetical. 

358. In the first place, there are cases of seeming anteposl- 
tion. which are cxplaiued away on inspection. In a tulip, lily 
and the like, there is a perianth of six leaves and a stamen he- 
fore each. The simple explanation is that the flower 
G-meroua, btit 3-merous : there is a cnlyx of three sepals, colored 
anil mostly shnpetl like the three petals, which alternate with 
these and are elearly anterior in the bnd ; next, three stamena 
alternate with the jietals or inner ciivle of the perianth : then 
the three stamens of the inner circle, alternating with the preced- 
ing, necessarily are opposite the three petals, as the first three are 




■ Two TBB TLOWEB. ^^^1 

I opposite the Bepals. These organs nltogether arc in four whorls ^H 

P of three, not in two of six menilx^ra ; anil tlie piRtil at the centre, ^^M 

of three combined mcraliera. is tlie Hflh ami fltial wliorl. ^^M 

959. The Barbem- Tamily cshibita n eimilar seeming ant^ ^^M 

position, which is more striking on account of a niulligilieatioti ^^M 

of the memljcrs of the perianth. The ealjx is of six sepals is ^^M 

two circles, the corolla of six petals in two circles, the stamens ^^M 

equally sii ; and so each jietal has a stamen before and a sepal ^^M 

I behind it. But, when projicrly viewed as n trimerous flower with ^^H 

double circles of sepals and pctnls as well as of stamens, all is ^^M 

symmetrical and nonnal. Menispermiim in the relatctl Moonseed ^^M 

i fomily is in the same case, but the flower is tetramerous, as seen ^^M 

I in Fig. 369 : in tbc male blossom this is obscured in the andnn- ^^M 

cium (Fig. 368} by a multiplication of the stamens.^ The ^^M 

same thing occurs in tlie jierianth and bratts of certain Clusiacen, ^^M 

in which the members counted as in fours arc 8n|>eqx>8ed, and ^^| 

In some of which the double dimerous arrangement with apparent ^^| 

anteposition extends through the corolla ; while, in other closely ^^H 

related flowers, the corolla changes to simply tctrnmorous and to ^^H 

altciiiation with the prcivding four sepals. This passes, in the ^^| 

(same family and in the allied Temstnrmiacefo, into ^^| 

StiO. Snperposltlon bj 8plrak, as where five [wtals are ante- ^^ 
posed to five wi>als. by an e\-idenl continuation of pentasticbous 
phyllotasy; and the stamen-clusters of Gordonia I.asiaiithus 
are probably in this way brought before the petals.' The flower 
of Camellia is continuously oo the spiral plan np to the gyaij>- 
cium ; but u|>on one which, from the bracts onwaitl. rises from the 
) to the K and jj order or higher, throwing the petals of the rosette 
in a full-double Itower into numerous moix' or less conspicuooB ^^H 
vertical ranks. ^^| 

8G1. Antepmnton In the AndroBelnm. Tt is in the andrcccium^^^l 
that real anteitosition is most common, and also most dilflcult to ^^ 
account for ujion any one principle. Doubtless it comes to pass 
in moiv than one way. This condition is chiefly noticed when 

I the stamens are definite in number, and mainly in ieostemonoua ^^ 

and diiilostemonoiis flowers. (324.) ^H 

SM. With IsoRtenonjr. Vitis (Fig. 379-381). also RhamnOB^^H 
I (Fig. 415. 416), and the whole Grai)e and Buckthorn families of ^^ 

I ' In Ciilumbine (Aiiullpgiiil.mnltlpliiiilion of dieitnmrnsinBucceMively 

altemnting 6-inerouB wliorla Bimilarly bring* tlip anctrficiuin inio ten ranks; 
(o, wlivn tlitwc ■tam'mi in double dowpr* nrc Traiiiifnmiix] in[o bulluwBpunvd 
[wtalB, thnc arc lot one Into another in ten vertical ranfca. ^H 

- Oen. Iltuitr. li. L 140. Bui the petals altpniiite with Ihe Kpali in lb* ^^M 
ontinary manner of ilie dower, iliough tlieir alrong qiUnuuncisl imbricaUoa ^^H 

L (UgKeitB tlie i{Hral arrantrenivnt. ^^H 



which they are the typea, alTurd fumiiiar cases of a single cirule 

of stameua placed Iwrure tiie petals. In Vilis, Uiorc art' giveu 

ueclarifi'i'oUH lolwa or proct'sses (Vom 

the receptacle, alternate with and insiilc 

the stamens : llierc is no good reason to i 

suppose tliat they answer tu a second | 

mn of stamens. All isostemonoua Por- 

lulacBceffi have the stamens before the 

petals ; and, when tlie stamens aiv fencr 

than the jietala, those which exist occupy 

this jiosilion. Among the orders with 

gamoiM'talous corolla, such anteiiosition 

ia universal in riumbaginaceie. Prima* 

laeeo?. the related SlyrHinuccie, and in 

must Saiwtikcete, in the latter usually 

with some comphcations. ™ 

6G3. The earliesl and the most obnoua explanation of the 
auoinaly ia that uf the suppression of an outer circle of stamens, 
and to this view recent morphologists are returning.' Obsen-a- 
tionauppliesno vestige of proof of it in Rhamnaceie anil Vilaccie ; 
but, in the group of related orders to which the Primnlaceie be- 
long, evidence is not wanting. For Samolus and Steironi.'ai& 
both exhibit a series of rudimentary organs exactly in the place 
of the wanting circle of stamens, which may well be sterile fila- 
ments. In the allied onliT Sai>otaceie, while Chr^-aophyllnm 
haa in these res|>ects just the structure of Primulaeeo;, and 
SiilcTOxylon that of Samolus, Uonandra Uutta (the Gutta-percha 
plant) has a circle of well-formcMl stamens in place of the sterile 
nidiments of the preceding ; that is. alternate with the [>etal8, 

1 Eicbler, Bliithendiaprainme. pawim, ■nd ir preface to PmH II. iviii., 
rcUlIn^ chiefly to ol)d)pln«tciTuiny. The principal opponng iiew is thni nf 
St. HitRire. Duclmrtre. &<.-.. mMinUininKthtit curoUa and itamrna liere rcpre- 
fcnt one efrcle of orgaru dniibied by median choriii* ; apnn wliich »ec note 
under ft following p«ragr»ph, Aecording to that hypoihcBi*. there in no 
■ndiwcial circle In each blossomi. or only vesligea of one. Imt the petala hB*e 
luppllod Ihe deficiency by a ■upemumerary pmductinn of (heir nwnl The 
mure plauiibte h7pol1ie*i> of Brsun, thitt o( « «Qppn-e*ed inleriiir circle 
of extra pet»la, would reatore (lie allemaliun, and make tlie eilitut eio- 
mcnt (lie fourth fionil circle. t,t doe* the adopted explanation. Bmun'a 
hypollie«ia, If i[ in«!BlB that an extra row of petkli ia wantinit. auppoaea lh« 
■upTire«aioD of (hat which very rarely exiili ; hut, if n( itamenH, then tha 
lUppoaeil luppreasion ia of that wllicli la in generally ptvaent. nr with indi< 
cation* of pmence, aa properly to be aeconnt^ a part of the floral type. 

FIO. 3Tfl. Vhiwct nf I 
nme. wirlimit Iho pvUli 
■taiDiiiu. 3U. Uttnm ut Ibo 

Ine la iK'IBia IwTnre sitWRFilnn. 
uida of Uie dltk lUiUiicUy, i 



completing the sjinmetrj- of the blossom anrt the normal alterna-' ] 
tion of its memberB. This esp la nation or the aiit«|>o8iti(>u ol' a J 
siiigle circle of stsmens is the more readily reeei^'ed, liccaiise it-J 
well afconls witb the iilua here adopteil, lliat the and^u^eiu 
of a typical flower should consist of two circles of stauietia. ' 
(Sai.) The ouly serious objections to tlii«esplftnatioii rise out of | 
tlie difficulty of appljiog it to analogous outepusition when both J 
cireles arc present. 

304. For Dijilitttemont/, tbe condition of two circles of eta- J 
mens, each of the same numlwr as tbe petals, ia also itself veiyj 
commonly attended by anteposition. In normal or JMrt 
Diphttemoag, — that which answers to tbe Qonil tyjw com* 1 
plctely, — the anliHepalous stamens (324, note) are tbe ontet 
and the antiijetaloua the inner aeries, and the eari>ela wbea 
isomerons ultcmalc wilb the latter and oppose the sepals ; lbs 
alternation of whorls is therefore complete, as in Ibc diagram^ 
i'\g,SS2. Sucb stamens, however, may actually occupy a eingla 
tine or coalesce into a : 
® W tube, without derange- 

ment of the type. But 
as commonly it occurs 
tliat Uic iinlipelalous sta- 
mens are more or less 
exterior in insorliun, and 
then the carpels, when 
isomerous, are alternate 
^ "* with the inner and aiiti- 

sepaious stamens, and therefore opposite the petals, as ui the 
diagram, Fig. 383. This arrangement takes tbe name of J 
Obdiplottemonj/. In it the normal alternation of succossire'l 
whoris is interrupted, so as to produce anteposition, ^ 

36a. With ObdiploateDiouT. This condition prevails, more or 
less evidently, in Ericacese, Geraniaceue, Z\ gophyllaccie, Kutaceie, 
Saxifhigaceje, Craasulacca!, Onagracere, &c. (but in some of these 
with exceptions of direct diplostcmony) ; also, accompanied 
by a [lecuiiar multiplication of members (380) , in Malvaee«t j 
Stcrculiaceie, and Tiliaceie. The exphination is difficult. The • 
hj-potheses maj- be reduced to three, neither of which is qnito f 
Batiafactor;-. There is, llrst, the hyiwtbesis of .St. Hilaire, ap- j 
plied to this as to the preceding case (to Rbainnus, Vitis, &c.), , 
that these exterior aiitipetalous stamens belong to the corolline 1 
whorl ; in other words, that the petal and the stauien Itcfore it j 

tn nf r*<li!m Howit wIiIi Jlrrnt itii.l^limimiy 3K3 
.b oUdli>](iiMmi>ny. Ilutb Ihim HUililar'a BiailimiUbMtiai 


eaf vhich ^^M 
72) taking ^^1 

(whetlier ailnato to or free from it) answiT lo one leaf 

has devclupe^l into two organs bj' a d ed up li cation (372) taking 

place transversely. This makes the inner and 

aiitiscpalous stamens the thinl floral circle 

or the ouly truly an(lra?cial one, and eym- 

metrically altematc with the petals ou the one 

hand and the caipcls on the other. The 

second hyixithesis conceives that there is a 

whorl fiii|ipressed between these anti|)etalou8 

stamens and Uie corolla : this, ideally restore)!, *" 

gives symmetric sneccssion and alternation to all the succeeding 

whorls. The Ave glands in a Geranium- flower, altcmate with and 

next succeeding the i>etale (Fig. 384), were plausibly supiiosedlo 

represent this missing whorl, which according to Hi-aun should be 

an inner i-orolla ; accurdiug to others rather a primary circle of 

stamens. The third is the recent hj'[X)thesis of Celakowsky, 

which Kichler adopts : this i-egards the antipetalous stamens aa 

really the inner or second circle, and conceives that in the course 

of development it has liecome exti^rual by displac(.'uent. The 

dilSculties of this hypothesis are, first to account for this dis- 

phicemcnt. and then fur the aiiteposition of the cariwls to the 

assumed inner stamens in the great majority of these cases.' 

1 In tlw flrst part uf ilie BliiLUcniliattraiiimt. Eicliler ini:linc<l ro ihc lint 
hTpolllcais, liiat of Si. Hilairc (now very much abwidoiitil on aiX'ounl of 
the feeble eri<lenu« thil there i> anjr sucli tiling a> trsngvorse or median 
chorisia); in tlie »ceoni], he diae&rdi tliia in fkvor of Celakowsky'* tIcw 
(pabliaheil in Keguiuburg Finn, 1876). A* (o mcmbm irhieh «re iDorphtv 
loincBlly interior becomiug exterior bj oulwanl diiplaccnieoi, Eivhler dies 
I)k- tilttiDiDodia or Xerile staoiun-L-lugten uf Pamauia (Fig. 400, 401), and 
tlw correBponding antlpetaluiu slaoit'Di of Limnuitbc*, a* clearly iolcrior 
in the early flower.bud, buE extvrior at a lalcr period ; ilatei Ihal the vascu- 
lar bunillei wliii'h enter these •UtiienB generally are either inner a* n^epeels 
those ol the episrpnloui stamen* or in line wilh them ; that In lonie cases 
(aa in many Caryuplijllaeea:) the teal inwrtlon of the eUmens is that uf 
ilirect diploftemooy, while the upper part of their filaments and the anllier* 
are exlemal to the episepalniu •criti ; that in must famlUeJ wilh obdlplos- 
temnnyexamplesufdin.'ctdiplosleniony occur, and Rtillmore caiet with both 
statnincal circles inserted in the anme line ; and thai, as a rule, the epitep- 
alous •lamrni are either later or not earlier fomieil than the epipetalous. 
A» (II the poaition of the carpets before aniipetalous stamens and petals, 
Cvlakovsky auggcsls that (his may result from the outward recession of 
those stamens affording more room there, while in the normal i: 
greater space is over the cpiacpoloiu itamens. And, indeed, enccplioni 
to the prevalent position are not uncommon both In direct diplostemanj 

PIti. »*. Dtaicruurcrcw-Mii'llnnjaltlicflDii 
Ilw rtlatliD i-MLilun -r i-Mln. iii'l the ■yniRict: 
h bwlisa i^alleil glawli, aDtliwI 

turn, ■ihibnin 

366. The case of stamcnB in n cluster before tlic petals is A I 
complication of citlicr of liic furegoing with a ptouliar kind of; J 
multipUcatioL, termed di^duijUculiou or t-liorisis. (372.) 

§ 7. Ikcreased k 

3fi7. Augmentation in the numtwr of floral nioniiiei-a is one ' 
of the coounonest mod illcnt ions of the type. It oceiirs in two 
wajs : Ist, li_v an increased number of circles or turns of spirals 
!u the flower, which is Repular Multiplicatiott ; 2d, by the pro- 
duction of two or three or of many ot^ans iu the normal place 
of one, Choritit or Dedupliealian. The first does not alter th« 
normal symmetry of the blossom. Although it may render it dil^ 1 
ficult or impossible to trace or demonstrate it. Tlie sooond' i 
apparently disturbs, or at least disguises, floral synmictry. 
Kither may i»e drjiniu, or of a (constant and comparatively ^ 
small number; or iniiffinite, when too numerous for ready 
counting, or inconstant, as the higher numbei's are apt to be. 

3GS. Rcgnliir Hiiltl)»licatiwD, or Ani/meatation of fiural circles 
or tpiraht may alTccl any or all tJic fum- organs, but most com- 
luoiity the andra'cium. ^^'hcn the pcriauth is much increased 
in the umnbcr of its members, the distiuctiou between calys and t 
corolla, or even between bracts and corolla, is apt to disappear, 
OB in most Cactaceous flowers (Fig. 317), Nelumbium, Calycan- i 
thus, &c. In these and similar cases, the mcmliers of the |)enanth 
are prone to take a S|>iral instead of cyclic arraugement ; and this 

and in olxliploileinonj. Along with the lack of cloar analog; lo lupport 
Si. HIIaire'B hf pothcsis of transverte dcdu pi < cation, tlie limUar oricntalion 
of the Tucular bundle* in the petal and the itanien t>efrin> it mu», u 
CcUkon'tky inalili, be good evidence that thew repriitent Indeprndcnl 
leaves, and not (uperposed portioni of one. 

The main objection to the second hypotlieHia (that of a Buppmsed 
circle outiide ot the antipetolaUB atamens) i» (hat this missing dnJe, 
whctJirr ot jtctaia or ctanieni, a not actually' met with in any nearly re- 
lated (orm* (for in MunionU the Bf leen stamenB are ollierwiae cxpiaiiied) ; 
alu [hat there arc Iranildons. as abore mentioned, between obdiploftcmony 
■nd direct diplo*lemony. To Braun'a theory Ilial the gland* liehlnd the 
antiaepalouB stamena in true Geraniaeece aniwi^r to «uppreB*ed phylla, 
RIchliT objects lliat these are present bi-liind ill ten stamens in Oxaliden; 
also that all are wanting; when the offlcu of neutar^ecretlon, which they sub- 
lerve, I* underlukeo by some otiier port of the flower, *■ by the calyx-spnr 
in Pelargnniiini and Tropicniiim. The lint objection Is forcible : the spcnnd 
mixe* morphological con itldi'ra lions with functional, and is inconclusive. 
Abortive organs, pivserved for tlieir utility as ncftarles, might totally dis- 
appear when rendered useless by a different provision for the wine f unctloii> 



is even more true of grentlj multiplied stamens ami pistils, ae 
ill Mu|rnoliu and Liritxtendroo, most Anoiiaceiv, UaiiunciiJiis 
Anemone, ami llie like. But in Aquilegia, wliorc the niimlior five 
10 fIXMl in tlic poriantli, the cyclic airangemeiit with alteraation 
of whorls prevails tliroughout. 

3G9. The definite augmentation of calyx and corolla by the 
production of uiie additional wtiort of each, and the seeming 
antv[»silJou which comes of it when the audroecium remains 
simply diplo8t£moDOU8 (in the manucr of the Berboridaecfe, 
Mcnispennaceie, &c.. 3u!)) has already been explained. 

370. Similar increase tu t*ro whorls affectinfi the corolla only 
cliamcU'rizes Anonaceic, Mapioliaivie, Papaveraceie, and Fuma- 
riaccie. In all but the bat order, this is accompanied by indoii- 
iiitely mnltt|ilied stamens, ami mi>slly by an increased numl>er of 
carpels. In Fumariaecip, wltich has dimerous flowers, tliere is a 
diminution by the suppression in most cases of half tlie normal 
andrtecinm. and also an augmentation of tlie other half by 
cJiorisis. (372.) 

371. PKrapclaloas MaltipUcation. Under this bead maj' be 
described an anomalous arrangement of angmentttl stamens 
which prevails in the order Kusacea^. but is not peculiar to it.' 
The 6im[ik'»t vww, but a rare one. is seen in the lO-slamened rati- 
ety of some Hawthorns, as occasionally in Cratu^us coeeinea and 
C'rufl-galii. The ten arc in one circle and in iiairs, the pairs 
alternate with tiic [vetaU. Some would say tlie pairs are before 
the petals ; but the sj^ace between two stamens before each petal 
is mostly rather wider than in the pair taken the other way, 
llie nest case in order, as in lu-stamened Hawthorns, and 
constantly in Nuttallia, adds to the above asimjile interior circle 
of five stamens, one directlj- before tl»e middle of each petal. 
Next, as in most Pomeie and many Potentiileie, there are twenty 
stamens, thus place<l, but with an additional circle of five alter- 
nating with the preee<ling one. Ne.\t there ore 25 iu three 
circles, the second circle as well as the first having ten stanicns ; 
and finally there are from 30 to 50. all probably in circles of ten 
each. Tliere is little doubt tliat the circles develop in centri- 
petal order; the inner successively the later.' 

■ It wiu nnt ulMrly deBcriln-vI b^ Dr. A. IHikion, in Tmni. But. Soc. 
Eilbib. Tiii. 408, Knd SMmsnii'i Joar. Hot. iv. <T3 ( IWO). lie iDirmluccd t)>c 
term, pafaf^ialota. whitli If charmf (eristic ai it In its clenK-uiary fonn {i&i, 
nMr): ii is |>anicutartx illoatralrd b; Eii-hli-r, In BlQIIiiiKliieramnie, u. 
4n5-610. Tliv f'lrmor interprets <t by cliorisis. Iwih mnliBD anil collalfrml i 
the Utier prcwiilB tlie faclB and poasiblc view*, but di-cUiin to adopt Hthvr 
of theni. 

' Avcoidingly, the vrbole is protiabl; to be expUined b; Mmu modiflca- 


372. Chorlsis or Ih^ii plication. Both these terms, an<l t 
uk-as wbirh tlicy ileiiute, origmulcd with Uitnal, Imt were fin 
e3C|xiuti(le<l by MoquiD-Tandon.' The first word is Greek for ^ 
separating or separation. The second is a translation of DnnaTat] 
French worti deduulitement (literally undoubliiig) . the ambiguity 
of wliich, and of the original presentation of the case, 
retailed tlie right apprcbeneion or the subject. Diremptioi 
been suggested (liy Kt. Ililairc) as a proper term. The luoan-- 
ing simply ia, the division of that wliieb is morphulo^ally 
one organ into two or more (a division wliich is of cohtm 
congenital), so that two or more nivalis occupy the position of 
one. As tlms used, cborisis is rcstricteil, or nearly so, to the . 
homologncs of leaves in tbe flower, and mainly to stamens i 
cnriwls ; the division or splitting up of a i»etal or a sepal, when it J 
occun, being expressed in tbe phrases nbicb are applied to leaveftr J 
Yet a compound leaf, esijecially one of the palmate tj-pe, i 

a good tji:ie of cborisis, the several blades of a coiniMJund leaf , 
answering to tbe single blade of a simpli' leaf. It bas been ob> J 
Jected against tbe terms cborisis and deduplication that the 
assume the division of that which has never been united ; 
so equally does tbe established terminology- of foliage. A 
vided leaf has never been entire. 

373. Cborisis is eompletfl wlien tbe i>arts concerned are diii* 
tinet or separate to the very inseition, as in the stamen -clusters o 
Hj-pericum. Tbe foliar form of this would be representod by 

tion i>f the au^enuliun of tireki. 
thrK, ur five (tsnicni wliluli are riiore 
de<luplicalLon« of ihiiE poul, iroulil uon 
bat il may be dismissed «t once. Y 
reprCBUQt rach an anli>ep>lous stain 
InL'omplctelyl and niucli wpanitcil, Is 
expUnailon (which may be li 

Uii'kaun's hypolliMi*. thHl the two, 
or lees in Incii of va<;h pvMl are oH 
11? lo bv iiuticc-d under (hv next lies'), 
ct tliNt tlie pain In ilie oulcr cirule 
en, divided by ehorisii [■omollme* 
not itnpmhable. The other lenabls 
'd with the Insi) is thai the outer 
circle of ilnnicni here rightly consbia of tea members, n-speelliely altenuit 
iag with Ihe teptU and petals taken u a whole. This makes them pan- 
petaloos, and at the same time brings them under Kotmeislcr'a general law 
that new organs iirlginale over inlcrvali of those preceding, in thisu 
the ten pcrianth-intcrvali directly. It also accords with Hartog's eladdatis 
of the aeccasory part« in the Huwer of Sapolacee (in Trimcn'a Jour. Bol. 187SI 
Tlie inner circles are there sometimes 5-merous after the priiiiilice tjpt 
toinetioies lO-merout in regulnr alternation to the preceding circle*. 

I Moquin-Tandon, Euai dc« De'doublemens, &c , Honlpellicr, 
■ide'ratlons inr lei Irre*giilarile* de la CoroUe. &c., in Ann. Sui. Nat. x 
237, 1S32; Ti<raloli)gie Vdgctnte, 837. Dunal, Easai sur lea Vac 
ISIS, cited by Moquin (some pagv« printed, but never published) ; CotiwM-j| 
rations sur la Nature et les Rapports dc quelquea-uns dcs (Jrganes de b 
Fleur. 1H20. The next botanist to dcrelop it was St. Uilaire, Morphology J 
VSgetale, IWI. " 



Buch si>ssile palmatcly oompotnid lenvcs as tho»c of some species 
of ABptilntlius. It is iiioinipktt; when division dues not extend 
to the base ; ns in Fig. 387, 393. Compare, as a •M^/!'/; 
proxitnaU? homolc^iie of this, a pi^tnl of Alignonctt«, v^(^ 
Fig. 383. But proper choriaia requires tliat the f^\ 
suiiemumerary organs should be dovelo[)ed like 1/ '|j J 

unto tbe original otgan which is thus multiplied, or \^ 

shiiuld complete Iheir 8jTnm<tr>% whatever it be. "» 

37-1. .St. Hilaire ilistinginshed two kiuds of deduplication ; viz., 
coilitlfTtil when tbc members stand side by side, and paralUl 
when an organ becomes double or multiple antero-jxwteriorly. 
Tbe latter, sometimes called vertical, itnd sometimes tTansverae, 
is bett*'r named median eborisis. The collateral is tbe origi- 
nal and typical chorisis. Most botanists incline to restiiet the 
name to this, and to give some other explanation and name to 
the median fonn of augmentation. But some cases, such as 
those of Tilia and Spnnnannia, are clearly of the same nature 
as the collateral, and nmy be a disguised form of it ; there are 
others which may l>c expluined in acciirdnnce with it ; and there 
are sueb transitions between some of these and coronal out- 
growths that the term chorisis is most conveniently made to 
comprise augmentation or doubling in either plane. Distinct 
antcjjosition, however, may lie explained in other ways. (357.) 

37.^. Tfplcal or Collateral Chorlsls, in which the members, 
together answering to one leaf, uonoally slnnd side by side, 
occurs in many families of plants, and 
in a variety of forms. A few are here 

376. Elodca Virginica (a common I 
marshplantof the Hy|>ericnm family), ' 
like most of its near relatives, has its 
calyx and corolla on the plan of fivt 
its stamens and car|>els on tlie plan of 
three, as is shown in the diagram, Fig. 38C. This makes a break 
in the symmetry between the corolla and the stamens ; but all 
within is in regular alternation when the three stamens of each 
cluster are countetl as one as their nnion at base into a phulanx 
(Fig. 387) may surest. Those phalanges alternate with the 
three caqjels, and therefore stand where single stamcuH belong. 
The three conspicuous green [irojections, which in a general way 

I jiolftl ur HiKiioi 

1 oduntta), wltli BMay luuMd bUdo, 

ria 3M. tHagnni ur n»«>r of KlodH Vlr«lDl<^ wftb Ibrm pkalati-ja at at 
(hfmlng tlie Inner rlrcle, iinil ihroe glanili umttiuf to Uie outer drulo. 3S!. 
tachoil phaloHx of tlireo ilitawiu. 


arc- called glands, alternate with the phalanges, and so arc taken I 
lo represent the outor ciivle of stamens. Tht morphologist 
accordingly bihm in the glands the honiologues or reprcsentativea 
of the outtr series of stanii;ns, reduced to three by nlxirtion, and 
in the three stamen-clusters onlj' the three alternating Btamvns 
of the inner aeries, treblnl by uhorisis, and this ehorisis inconw 
plete, Itecause it has not quite divided the Qlampnt into three. 
In Ilypericitm, the glands arc completely suppi-esaed, each phar* 1 
Innx is almost or quite divided into a chister, either of about , 
three stamcus each, as in H. Sarothra. or of a few more (in H. 
miitiium and H. Cunadense). or of an indefinite number, as in j 
the i-oinmon St. Johnswoi-ts. Then in some other 8i>e(-ies (u 
in oiu- n. pyramidatum) tlie carpels and the atamcu-cluatcrs rise I 
to Hve, realizing complete pentamcrous symmetry, exeept thai I 
the almost numberless stamens all belong to the one inner cirelei 
Moqihologically, they t 
in most speeies three) 
decompound and ses- 
sile or almost scssilo 
leaves. The indefinitely 
numerous stamens uf 
Rk'inua arc siinilariy 
increased from li\e liy 
comiMUnd ram ideation. 
377. F urn aria eew, the 
Fumitory family, may 
fiimish tho next illus- 
tration. The flower is 1 W 
on llie plan of two \ /■ 
(tlimcroiis) tlirougliouU I / 

Taking Dicentra to show it, there is first a pair of small and I 
scale-shaped sepals, not unlike tlie pair of bractlcts on Uie \ 

FIG. 3M. r>lr8iitniCucullartii(Duu;Uiniur«UtBBchw),««c«r« 111 flower w , , 

•Broredfroiiitlioiiinimliirbullillurmwinrtlif dilmrgorihmHiofiiciii.Ui-), 3Mi. t)eloclii)d , 
Bmrer. at nManl idie. thnwlnc Kin Ibe pair of hiiuUet* on tin pndlcol. 300. 
«Uli |<Brt« dt>|>lti;eil, Mil 3UI. Iniisc petiils plnool aluve Sai. rXiirnai o( di 
IHrinilraaf AdIUDilii, [rniD kHctluD w^ " --......i-i. 

uorAdlDmla; uro<r part onlj. 

u the iiimmiL 383. Oua of tlig phKluEM of 

pedicel below (Fig. 389, 390) , nnd normally alternate with them ; 
alternate with these is a pair of hii^e pt-tals, deeply saccate or 
spurrc«l below ; alternate with tliette, a pair of smaller petals 
with spoon-shaped tips which cohere at the a]>ex (the curoUa 
therefore of two circles as in the relatod Poppy fainilj) ; alternate 
with tiiese, two phalanges or united stainen-clnsters, of three 
stsmena each; alternate with these is nutliing, for the second 
set of atamens is wanting : altcrnnte with this vacancy is a pair 
of carpels wholly combined iiito n compound 2-merou3 pistil. 
The statement itself explains the mori»liol(^y. The three sta- 
mens of each phalanx atanit in the place of a stamen, and are 
t!ie divisions of one. In Dicentra the members of the phalanx 
arc almost separate; in Adlumia (Fig. 3'J3) and Corydalis the 
undinded filament reaches almost up to the anthers. The middle 
anther of the phalanx 13 normal, or two-celled ; the lateral 
anthers are one-celled, as if iialved.' 

' Elcliltrr aitopis thU inlerpri'ialinn (propriged in Gray, Gen. Illustr- 
f. IIH), and applies it In the (tucwI inetance o( Hfpnnnm. In the flnwer 
of tbia Old VVurld genua, iliere are four apparently' titiipte and c'omplclD 
■lamcna, one before each petal : tlie simpleit interpretalion wnuld be that 
whldi the faiMi appear to prcacnl, viz. (hat both Uimcmua cirelra of alBmciM 
are complete anil nurmal. But EiL'liler — in view of the early dcreloptnent 
and tlie double viuculnr bundle oF the «tarnena U-Iore Ih« iiiiicr pctali, and 
fome oueaiional iKght disjunction of their anthtnvll* — cunaldcrB that 
llie interior tlampn-eircle It iiantmg here, no leu than in the otbM' genera 
of the order ; tbnt wliat liere takes its place before each inner petal is a 
•tainen composed of the adjacent lateral member of the phalanx, eoniteni- 
Inllj severed from llie group to wliich it belong* and soldereit into one fila- 
ment, bearing the two one^cUeil anllien ao brought together aa lo imitate a 
normal two-celled anther. The organogeny of the hloasom is thought to 
favor this hypotheaU ; and It certainly favors ihe Tiew here adopted of 
the en m position of the tliree-memtiered phalanx of the family generally. 
If this interprelalion of Hypecoum aeems farfetched, it Is no more an than 
its exact counterpart, through which DeCandotle. Llndiey, and 01 hers explain 
llic CMC of die real of Ihe family. Starling with that genns m ihe simple 
type, tliey conceive thai the stamen opposed to each inner petal is vauh 
SL'veri'd into two. and that these half-stamena attat^hed to the eidetuf tliu two 
iniael stamens, thna producing the phalanges by coalescence. 

A gnnl eniplrieai conception of the formation, from a single leaf, of three 
stamens in Fumariacen, or two in Cruclferae, i« affordeil by the petals of 
llypecouni. aa Illustrated by Eichler. The outer petals are slightly three- 
lolieil from the apex ; the inner are deeply so and narrower. The mcin- 
ben uf Ihe next circle \n the family generally are just such three-lobed 
bodiei, the tip of each lobe transtonned into an anllier. There is an ap- 
parent coDgruity in the production by the symmelrieat middle lobe of a 
lymmeirical (wo-celleil anther, and of a one-celled anther by each uDsynt- 
metricnl lateral lobe or stipule-like portion. A fuller development of theae 
■id«« of the leaf, and non -development nf the middle portion {somewhat 
after tlie analogy of Ijithyrua Aphoca, Fig. 21B|, with nnihcr-fonnatlon, 
wuitUl convert the leaf into a pair uf staucai. 


378. The obrioits relationship of Cnicifcne to Fiimariacetej ' 
their agreement in tlic rare pceiiliarity of having the two carj>elB 1 
siile by side instead of fore and afc 
(median), and Ilie <.'liaraetcristic 
anomaly which the andrcecium pre- 
1 sents (i.e. Ibetetradynamy), would 
It u^ve reason to expeet that ita prob- J 
18 might be solved by chorisia. 
Indeed, the doctrine was applied Ui 1 
this, long before its applieation to J 
tlie other order. Beginning at the J 
fcntre (Fig. 31)5, &c.), the pistil is J 
oftwocarpclH.riglitandlcft; aller> 1 
nnifi with these is a pair of stameaa 1 
on the side next the axis, matched | 
b^- another |)air on the opposite 
side or the pistil, the four longer 
and interior stamens ; alternate 
with these, and lower in insertion, 
M ii; a single stamen on each side ; next, 

four pL'lals. of somcnhat various overlapping in lestivation, 
which essentially alternate with the two single stamens and the 
two pairs ; lasth, four sepals, alternating \hfith the four petals , 
a whole, the anterior and posterior overlapping the lateral ones 
in the bud. Now the median {i. e. the anterior and posterior) 
pairs of stamens occasionaUj have their contiguous fllamenta ] 
conjoined, as in Fig. 397 If this nere at all eonetant, the j 
inference would mKloubte<lli bo that the case is one of ehori«ai 
and that the flower as to its essential oi^ans is dimerous. Thii I 
is apparentlj- the best explanation to be given. It assumes that \ 
the chorisis is nonnally complete in the audi'a?eium of Cnieiferie, 
instead of incomplete, as in Fumanaceie.' And this view is { 
conflrmed by the fact that the median stamens are simple and 

' The hypolliesU here adopted, ni lo the andriKiuni, i« Ihnt of Sleinheil 
(I83D),BT>d of Kk'hier (ill Flora, 1865, 1872, and Bliilhcnd. ii. 200|, replacing 
that of Kunlh. 1S33, &c„ enip1nye<l in former Hlltiona. Tlie rejected view 
nukrr the flower 4-nien>ui up to the piitil, and the itamcnB all of ntiv cin'le. 
altemaliiip n-ilh (he tour ptlals. the median 9lamenB(aa in our view) doubled 
by L'horisl*. Krttuae anil WrcUcliko (elted aa above by Eichtcr) would 
have the floral cireles 2-meroui and 4-mcrDUS by rums; llie calyx of two 
S-merou* drde) (whitb it plainly Is) : the corolla of one 4-ineroug circle 

FIG. 1 

■ill marknl ilinre 
laonftrcHlt)' of lliD sa 
i-anlhcrlfsrous IhmI]'. 

L cn.ilfBr.>m a"»Br 


ucli a Hon 

single in Senebiera and many siwcies of Lcpi<liiitn, in which the 
lateral or sliorl stamens are at the same time almrtive. 

371). It is quite iwssibte that clmrisis may 1>e extended to the 
corolla of the cniciferouB flower, and reduce tbc whole to a 
Bj-mmctric^i 2-nierous plan, and to congruity in tbo perianth 
also with FumariaceiB. The only obstacle is in the petals form- 
ing a whorl of four where all tlie rest is 2-meroiis, for tlie sepals 
arc maiiifeatly two decussating pairs. Now the median petals 
of lli-peconm are deeply 3-lol>ed. An aliortion of their middle 
lobe would leave them almost two-parted : a little more would 
seiinrate them ; then they would imitate the four enicifcrous petals 
as in the diagram, Fig. 'd'Ji). Applying this view to Crueiferse, 
the blossom in the two orders would neeonl in having a 2-meroua 
three- wboiled perianth, Uic first and third whorls me<)ian ; ' as 
also in the dimerous audra'cium, the first whorl of which ie 
lateral. The difference is that in FumariaceEe the two members 
of the first whorl of stamens augment by chorisis into throe, and 
tiiB second is wanting, or is present only in Hypecoum ; while in 
Cnicifera> the first whorl is simple (of the two short stamens) , and 
tile second is doubled. In Fiimariacere only the first whorl of the 
perianth counts as cnlj-x, and 
the corolla is of two whorls ; 
in Cnieifene, the first and / 
second whorls are calyx, the 
inner sepals aneweiing to the ^ 
outer petals of Fnmariaceie. 

380. Chorisis along with 
anteposition of stamens is well 
seen in Tiba or Linden, at least in the American species. In 
tliesp the hidefinitely numerous stamens are in five clusters, one 
before each petal (Fig. 398, 399). and there is a i>etal-like body 

alltmiitins wilh Ihc wlyx-nipmliiT* ■■ a whole ; Hie short itamena following 
u A 2-nieruiif circle ; then the long «tamcn» m « 4-iDeroii* circle ; la«ily the 
ftmenius v^nnMium. G. llenalow (in Trnnii. IJnn. Sue ser. 2. 1. 105} would 
hsve the flower 4-iiieniua by Ihc luppreiiion ot the flftli itii'itilicrt of n 
li-iiicruiu type, iiiii] a turtlier suppreuiiun of half of the retnaining exterior 
•taroen-circle. &v. Finally, there in the much belleMnainlained view that 
the cruL-itcToiu Bower Ji 2-iiierotu lliroughout, a* explained in the fulbw) 
p«ni)(Tapli, 370. 

> 'Diii view •«« taken by Steioheil, In Ann. Bd. Nat. »er. 3. 337 (IBW), 
Mid ii cmcntially reproduced b; a Rnuian botaniat, MeacbaJ^tf, in Bull. 
Soc. Imp. Nat. Hoic 1873. 

Pin. : 

Dlitgnun of Ilia doirsr of Till* Ai 

n with tM iwUil-Uk« Kale 

3. SSI (ISW), ^H 
haJfCr, in Bull. ^H 

n American Lin- ^^^| 

in oach cluster with which the stamens cohere. The explanation } 
by chorisis is that each chister, petal-like l>odj- inchuUil, is a 
ninIti|)Ucation oT one stamen. The diagram (Fig. 'd'JH) accii- 
rnteiy shows that most of the stamens originate Trom the onter 
siile of tiie base of the petal-like portion : this is most naturally 
explained by me<lian chorisis. The superposition of llie ohistera 
to the petals will take the same explanation as that of Kliamnus, 
Vitis, &c. (Fig. 3G3.) That the andrceeiiim is here composed 
of the inner circle merely is partly oouflrmed by the altemattoa 
of the carpels with tlie clusters. According to Duchartre.' the 
de\-elopment of the andro'ciiim in a Mallow indicates a similar 
strneture ; for the whole iniited mass originates from five protu- 
berances, one before each forming petal anil connected with it, 
this by collateral chorisis forming a cluster of stamens, and the 
five clusters coalescing as they develop into a tube of tilamenta, 
such as in Fig. 465. Now Hibiscus and its near K-latives have 
a naked tip to the stamen-tidie, ending usually in five teeth ; 
and Sidalcea, as is most strikingly shown in the Cnliforniaa 
S. diptoscypha. has two scries of stamens, the outer (answering 
to those of Mnlvn and its relatives) in five membranaceous pha- 
langes, Super|K>seil to the petals ; the rather numerous inner 
scries, more or less in phalanges, surmounts an interior filaraent- 
tube. Whence it is inferred 
that these, and the five teeth 
terminating the column ia 
[libisous, represent the in- 
ner stamincal circle which is 
wanting in Malva, as it is in 

3S1. The case of Famaai) 
sia would be explained 
analogous to that of Tilift, 
bnt with the stamen -clusters before the i>etuls wholly sterile, 
and of fewer divisions, while an inner circle of fivi 



' Comptei Rcndus, 1844. & Ann. Scl. NbI. ter. 3, Iv. 123, Duchartre M 
othtra who draw freely npon tncilian chorisis to explnin Rnlcpositlon, nodi 
cmisiilcr that congenital union prores it, take the phnlsngei in IhMc cttm, 1 
like the lingle «Umens In Viii«, to be u inner part of the pels! itself. ~ ' 
this view appekra to have iiad Its day. 

« Gmy, Gm. Illuitr. ii. «, 57, 75-82. Tlie position of the earpeU btfot* I 
the petal) in PaTonU and Halvariscus brings the former Lilo symmetrical 'I 
■llematlnn with such an inner stamen-circle; hat it is not so in Hibiictu^ i 
which has the carpels Iwforc the icpals. 

Fir.. Ml). A twtfll nr Purnsul* Ciirnllniiinii. with \ triple nlumlnixilnu bcfbre It. 

FIO. IDI. UlHiraoi at (be flower or ParnaMhiCiUQlinluia. 

alternate vdih the petals forms the effective andrrocinro. For 
the Bcaic-like boily before eut'U petal, and even slightly adoate 
to its base (in 1", Caroliiiiaim about 3-parted, as in Fig. 400, but 
in P. palnslris a thin aeale, fringed with more immerotis gland- 
tippi'd fllaraents) , is plaitily outeide the stamens in the full-grown 
Bower-bnd. But Eichler and Drnile have founil 
that it is inside in the early bud.' Wheiefore, if ' 
these stamen-like !>odies really represent a ciitle 
of the androecium. it must be the inner one ; and 
that is the more probable view. 

382. Slultiplication by chorisis in the gj-ntecium 
18 not common; but there ore well marked in- 
stances of it in all degrees. In Drosera, the 
styles and stigmas are doubled {V\g. 402) ; m 
Malvaceic, the same thing takes plaee in Pavonia 
Mid its allies : while in Malope and two other 
genera of the same order the few normal earjwls are multiplied, 
evUently by ehorisis. into an indeQnitc number of wholly distinct 

§ 8. Outgrowths. 

3)^3. Proper chorisis is the congenital multiplication of one 
organ into two or more of the same nature and office; or at 
least into two or more organs, even if dissimilar, as in the 
American Lindens, in which one memlier of the cluster is a kind 
of petal. Between thU and the production hy an organ of ap- 
pendages, or outgrowths of little or no morphological signifi- 
cation, there are many gradations; aa also between these and 
mere cellular outgrowths fVom the surface, even down to 
bristles and hairs. The latter, in all their variety and modiflca- 
tioDB, are proi^rly outgrowths of the epidermis only, and there- 
tbro consist of extendetl cells, single or combined, unaccompanied 
by vascular or woody tissue. To Ihem has lieen given the 
general name of TViehomet {Triehoma, pi. trirhnmata). that is 
Structures of which hairs arc the ly\>c. They may occur upon 
the snrface of any organ whatever. Their mor|jholog>' is the 
morpliologj- of cells rather than of organs. They will therefore 
be most conveniently illustratetl under Vegetable Anatomy as 

1 Eichler in Fl. Bnuil-, Sauvatn-ijiun. & Blathcnd ii. 424 ; 1>ni<le in Lio- 
mea, xxiU. 200. Kklilrr nUn to llii* u a, conflrmaiina uf rdakowiJi;^ 
explannlion "if olyllploilenionj' by posU'rior liiiplneemeDt. (.lOo.J 



1 the Glossary as respects tc^ 1 

reapecta their structure, and 

384. But into some bristles, such as those of Drosera, a sub- 
jacent BtmtiiiD of tissue enters, including one or moi-e ducts or 
even some woody tissue. I'rickles are of this class ; and fhjm 
the most sleniler, wLich puss into bristles, there are nil grada^ 
tions of stoutness and induration. Such outgrowths may even be 
fbrmed in most regular order, as the prickles on the calyx-tube 
of Agrimonia and scales on the acom-cup of Oaks, and yet liav« 
no morphological im[K)rtance. On the other band, tnic represen- 
tatives of leaf or 8tom may, by almrtion and depau iteration, be 
reduced to the structure as well as the apiwarance of trichomes. 
Esamplos of this arc familiar in the pappus (answering to limb 
of the calyx) of many Compositre, and in the bristles wliich 
answer to perianth in many Cj-peracciP. The scarious stipules 
of Paronychia and of Potamogeton, the ligule of Grasses, and 
even the corolla in Plantago, are equally reduce<l to mere cellular 
tissue. So that the structural difference between trichomes and 
outffTyntit/-s * is not at all absolute, and the morphological distino- 
tion must rest ujmn other ground than anatomical structure. 

S85. Among the corolliiie outgrowths most akin to cborisis is 
the Crown ( Vorona) of Sileue and allied Caryophyllacere, at the 
jimction of the claw 
with the blade of 
the analogj- and 
probable homology 
of which totheligide 
of Grasses (Fig. 
l.^>0) is evident; also 
the mauy-ra3ed filft- 
*• •" nientous crown of 

Passion-flowers (Fig. 404). which consists of two or more series 
of such outgrowths. In Sapindus and some other Sa|)indaoeie, 
these ligular outgrowths or internal appendages are more like 
a doubling of the petal ; as also in Erythrosjlum, where they 

' Tills u Iht btm English name for Ihc Kmergriara at tile OermsM, tha 
EinlJatlema t>t Wanning, £c. For the ilevelupnient und discjlssion Of thii 
snbjpci. we Warming, in KjilbenhiiTn Virlensk. Mwlile!. 1872, t,aA a Urger 
tresllse on RsniificRtion in Pliuicrogsini, Copeuhagtii, 1873. AIm>, Uhl- 
wona in But. Zi-il. 1873; CeUkowsky in Flora, 1874; iind Eiclilcr"* notp on 
Emeryeaxen in Bliilhendia gramme. 1. 41 

FI«. 41 

L vaerule^ r«iIuc<Hl lu ilEa. 





arc often more complicated in stnieture. They are always on 
the inner face, and are commoniy two-lobed or partcil, 

!)86. Similar Htamiiieal apiientlagee are w<!ll knonn in Cuscnta 
(DtxUler). in LDirea (Fig. 40.1) ami other Zygophyl- 
laceip, and less conspicuously in Gaura. 

3S7, To extend to them Ilie name of Ligui-e may 
not be amiss, whether they are regarded as mere 
outgrowths of floral leaves, without further morpho- 
logical relations, or whether thoj' be, at least some- 
limes, interpreted as the homologue of intra i»ctiolar 
stipules, as Uieir ordinarily two-cleft form, and tlioir •" 
eoincidence in Erjlhroxylum with an intrnpetiolar two-cleft stipule 

g 0. FoRUs OF THE Torus or Receptaclk. 

!)88. Toms is the more spociflc and proper name, Receptacle 
is the more nsunl. (303.) A normal receptacle of the flower 
would be that of Kig. 316, the apex of the flower-stalk somewhat 
crilargt'd, roundish or depressed, and with surface mainly cov- 
ered by the insertion of the several organs ; the several inter- 
nodes which it potentially contaiiis being 
undeveloped. As the meml)ers of the flower 
multiply and occupy numennis ranks, the 
receptacle enlarges or lengthens to give them 
insertion or standing-room. 

389. Of elongate<l forms of receptacle. 
Magnolia and Liriodendron or Tulip-tree give 
familiar iustanccs. The lengthening in the 
former is mainly for the sujjport of both an- 
druwium and gjiia?cium : in the latter, as In 
Myosurus. mainly for the gyncecium only. 
The fall of the matured oarjKds reveals it 
as a veT>- slender or bodkin-shaped pro- 
longed axis. Of broadened fiirms. the Straw- 
berry, even in blossom, aflurds a familiar 
example. (Fig. 406.) Id the same ortler, 
Rubua ndoratus shows a verj* broad and flat mr 

receptacle : in roses, it is so deeply concave as to l>ec!oriic the 
reverse of the strawbeiT)- (Fig. 407), being uni-shapctl with a 
narrow mouth, upon which the petals anil stamens are borne. 

no. <ne Sumcn of Ljuna Mdlcuia, (rltti a aiiw|ilciuia 
(he buH wllMlL 

inwbeiTjr In lungitodliwl ■ecUim 

]|f iilalB ■[tp^mlagfl at 
lot. Same of ■ nwo. 




while the pistils line the walls of the cavity, the base or centre 
of this eavitj' answering to tlie apes of the strawberry, 

300. Somctimea intemodes are lengthened between certain 
members. In .Schizandra, the receptacle, barely oblong in blofl- 
aom, lengthens greatly in fhiiting, so as to scatter the carpels 
on a long flliform axis. 

S91. Jn many Gentians, in 8tanleya and Warea among 
Cruciferre, and in most species of Cleome. the internode of the 
receptacle between stamens 
^ ^4'\ \^ J ? /^» "'"' P'^*" '^ developed into 
K\\V\l^ \\\/i7/y' " '""^ *'*"' ^ ^^^ latter. 
\\\\iil \\\il/// Gjnandropsia (Fig. 409) is 

hke its near rehitive, Cleome, 
•.-iceptlhatthisTei^- long stalk 
' has the lower part of the 
stamens aduatc to it : the in- 
ternode between the coroUa 
and calyx is broad and slightly 
cicvalcd (or in Cleome, &c., 
narrower and longer) ; and 
so tlie several floral circles 
are as it were spaced apart by this unusual development of 
receptacular intemodes. In Silene (Fig. JOS) and many other 
plants of the link family, an internode between the calys and 
corolla is prolonged into a stalk or A'd/w.' 

' SrifB U the ([cnpral namo of a Malk formeil by Ilio rci'irptadc or boidq 
iport of ii, or \iy ■ carpel. To diilinguinb <ti pHrtii-ular nnlurc )n any caae, 
Ihe followmg lerms «re more or leaa employed : — 

Thecafuokb, for & stipe which belonga to n aimple pistil IlMlf (where 
it Si homologout vrllh t, pvtiole), nnil U no pnrl of tlie rcccplacle, aa in CopUa ' 
or OoldthrtHd. J 

GTKtPBDBE, where the *tipe is an intcmodc of receptacle dcxI below tbs 1 
gyiKtvinui, Bi the pod^eulk Id sume Cniclfera, Cleome, and GyiMndmpiis. | 

GoxopBOBK, when it elevates both itamcns And pistil, as il seemlhitly I 
does In the lower ilipe at GynandropBia, Fig. 409. | 

Amtuofhoke, when Ihe stipe is ■ developeit internode between tba ' 
caiyx and corolla, at in t lie IMnk family, fig. 408, 

GvKODASE is a term properly applied to n short and compsniliTely broad 
portion of reeeplaele on wliloh the gyniccium resls. as in liue and Orange | 
(Fig. 414). Hoiuidstongue, Snge, jic. This may extend up between ti 
pell and pass Into, or the upper part l>cconie a 

CARFOPiiniiE. a name properly applied to a portion of receptacle whiok j 
is proionficil between the rurpels ae a central axis, as in Geranium (Flf. T 
411) and mnny Umbirllifene, Fig. 412. 

FtO. Me. Section of ■ flower of Silona FmnsylTUiIca, iliowing 

FIO. 400. Flower of OTnandroinii, wttli aoial citclw Hparatcd OD tbs alongat*! . 



332. Instead of forming (i stnlk, the clongalion may Iw continued 
between the car|X'ls in the form of n slender axis, as in Gera- 
liiim (Fig. 410, 411). and in tbe carpophore 

fft of the (Viiit of llmlwlliftTBc, Fig. 412. In 
f (u'rnnium, this prolongation of ruccptacle 

extends far above the ovaries as a beak, to which tbe styles nre 
adnate for moat of tbcir length. 

303. In Neliunbiiira (Fig. 413), the gjnojibore, or portion of 
rcceptaele aliovc IIk' stamens, is enlui^ed into a singular broiidly 
top-8hn|>ed licHly, with n flat summit, in whieh tbe pist4ls (a dozen 
or more isolated carpels) are separately immersed. 

S94, A IHsk is n part of tbe receptacle, or a development of it- 
enlarged under or around tbe pistil. When under it or around 
its base and free from the calyx, 
tbe disk is h^pogynoiu, as in 
Orange, Fig. 414, Here it is a 
kind of gynobase. When adher- 
ent lo or lining tbe base of Uic 
calyx, it is ptriffynoui, as 
lUmmnus (Fig, 415. 41G) and Cherrj- (Fig. 337) ; when i-arrie<l 
by complete adnat.ion up to the summit of the ovary, it is 'pi'i'i- 
noua, as in Comns, in Umbelliferie, &c. Not rarely it divides 
into lobes, as in V'iiis (Fig. 379. 380), iu Periwinkle and most 
AjMieyimceons plants, and in Cmeiferre, These arc tfrnit-d plandi 
of the dbk, and indeed are commonly glandular or neetariferoua. 


the Am avariianr rrlU bihI Iha Irnrurpurtuf tliHlr«tTlE««iiiinitwl awl iwhitIiij nwiij 
ftniD tlM proluiifnUun nt Utc ftiU or raeepUcle, to wlikh IXxy vert ti ai>««Hng'llDi« 
llmiljr ■Itubwl. 

Pin. 412. MMara trait of Otmnrrliln. Hie two nrjwlt splUtlng ■way below ftnin 
llie Hlinvni pn>l<mg»Unii nf (he rnvpiiwlii. or ™r|wplior>!. 

PIO. «I3. Tlia tup-ilioinil mKi-ttu^'euf ^'«l>•>I■blu^>. nitli Um jiliinl*. Immcnod Im 

FlU. 4 

It 18 not possible by any direct demonstration to distinguish be- 
tween such (iroductiona of the rct'eptafle, which are classed . 
belonging to the asis. and suppressed or undevclopud pliylloua 
organs, aiich as stamens, which glands of the dUk may some- 
times represent. 

Z9o. HfpautlUiun. Inspection of Fig. 41S, 416, and 337, and 
coi]][>arison Tilth Fig, 339, will suggest an explanation differ- 
ent from that which is generally 
idoptcd. Instead of regarding the 
calyx aa hccriiiiiing on a level with 
the base of Ihe ovary, and the cnp 
ns lined, more or less thickly, by 
an expansion of the receptacle (the 
pcrigynous disk), 
the calyx may be 
^i*y- ~ «■ iMft, undcralood to begin 

II ^J'S^fi jliVvv\. where this and the 

1 ir ImI Aim \^tv ovary become free 

jJL_^II| 1^^^ llv \'jf\ ''''"™ ^"^'^ '**''^''" 

^*^"*'^''''-^''^ H<N\ ■> \ *» Umlerlhatview.the 

reccptiicle, instead 
of convex or protu- 
berant, is here con- 
cave, has grown up 
»" us around the ovarj', 

which, however, is free from the cup in the earlier citeiJ figurest 
butimmoi-sed in it in Fig. 339 and the like, A comparison with 
B roae-hip, an apple, and a jwar mm;h strengthens this interpre- 
tation, which is rather largely ailoptwl at this day, at least 
theoretic-ally. It was perhaps fiist pmjx>9ed by Link, who intro- 
duced the appropriate name of IIvrANTiiiM, A hypnnlhium or 
hypimthlal receptacle is, as the name betitkens, a flower-axis or 
receptacle developed mainly under the calyx. The name is a 
good one, in any case ; and such structures as those of Calycan- 
tims (Fig. 417^19), a rose, a pear (the lower i>art of which !a 
evidently an enlargement of peduncle), and of Cactus-flowerm 
(Fig. 31 7), although quite compatible with the theory of adnation, 
are more simply explained by it.' 

> But, whether the cuci are well dUtliiKUi»hiihle or not, it lij no meaiM 
follows that the receptacle plays such a part in all inslmicvBoF peri gjny ■oil 1 
of inferior or partly infi-rior ovarj. Butli a view is attended by m " 
Dulll(.-a ihan tlie other. Unkii« the medintioii of an inTisible rct'eptacle must I 

F1Q,4II. FiDweHng branch ufCalyciuitli OS, 418. VErtlualKii:1ionor(lieani.«bapal 
npeiiuclc, ths Imbiieateil bracts or >e|Alg on 11* ■iirDu-o cut Biray. 4IB. Malan 
... . '- - „ rBcap t ada luiliie, ihawliic ume acan ftuu wbkk Oa bracU Lan taltan. 


Section IV. Cebtais Adaftatioss of tub Flower to tub 
Act of Fehtilization. 

§ I. Ik Geseral. 
31)6. The iotroduction into morphological botany of the cod- 
Biilerations now U> be nienlioncii sbould hove dated tVom tite 
year l''J3, in wbicb Christian Conrad Sprcngci published liia 
curiuuB treatise on the strueture of flowers in special referenue 
to insect aid in tlicir fertilization. For tliis book, which was 
wholly ni^lecU-ci and overlookeil for more than sixty years, con- 
tains along with some fanciful ideas tlie germs of the present 
doctrine and many excellent illustrations of it.' The interest in 
the doctrine now prevalent is witnessed by a copious special 
literattirc, beginning with the publication, in 18C2, of Darwin's 
book on the fertilization of Oa-hids by the aid of insects.* 

be liivoknl nliPDcvrr Iheru ii ■ junction of I wo iHsumilnr orgRna, Uic peisli 
uiil itaiDcne of t, Lyibriini or a Ciijilica ure uniied wiih ihe calyx Itself, 
inilt'sd of calvx bt'ipnnitig al llie top of a lun|t and (iinplv lube. And if 
tbroc or inui« of the floral whorl* maybe cuntKniiatly tinilcd, Mhynol theae 
alao Willi rh(^ remaining nnc ? Van Ttrghi-m. in bis Analomle Compart de 
la PIcur, maintain* wholly Ibe old virw. founding it upon analonilt'al ttruc- 
tare and hia ability to trace down to the bate of the otsry the diiiind 
Taacular bundlr* of llw sevi'ral Involved uTKani. 

1 C. C. 8prengcl, Dm entdcL'kle Gehclniiiiu dcr Nalur Im Ban und der 
Befruchlung der Blimicn. Berlin. 1703. Rveti earlier, Kolreuier < Vorlauflg* 
Nachricht, etc., I7QI-I706) rccognlied tbe iwcEstliy of inieei.iid to varioiu 
bloasoms, and dmiTibed tome apevinl coiilriTances for the purpose. 

' Charles Ilarwin, On Ihe Various Contrivances by which British and 
Foreign Orchids are (ertiliu-d by Insects, and on the (iooil ERecii of Inicr- 
croulng. London, 1862, Kd.2, 1877. Tills lait contains a list of Ihe paiiera 
and biviks whii-h benr upon Ihi? subject, published since 1803. 

Other leadintt works and papers on Ihe subject are. eiclaslve of the 
other voluitica and jiapers of Darwin, more or less referred to licreatter 

Treviratius, Uebcr lUclmgamle, &i- , in Bot. Zellung, xxi, 1863. 

Hugo von Mohl. Elnige Beobachluogeu iiber diniorphe Bluthi^n, Boi. 
Zeftung. xii. 1003. 

Delpino, Pensieri sulla Biologia Vegclale, &£., 1S07. Relaziune suU' 
AppaTeochio dpila FecondszioDe netle Asciepiadie. Ac. IWT. Ultvriore 
Usscrvaxioni sulla Dicliugamia. &e.. 1608-60, 1870. and luter papers. 

AxcU, Om anordningama for de Fanerogama Vaxiemas Befruchtung, 
Bloekliolm, 1800, 

Hildebraiid, Die Geschiechler-Verthellnng bei den Pflanien, 1667, ud 
other papers. 

Hermann Miiller. Die Befruchtung der Blumvn durch Insekten, 1873, and 
papers in " Kaiurc " and elsewhere. 

" Flowcre anil ilieir Unbidden Gucsta," an English (ramlation of a work 
by Profnaor Kemcr. which dcucribes arrangements In blossoms for exclud- 
ing unwelcome RUcsts. has not yet reached us. It introduces ihe new termi 
Auiir/iimg and Allajamif, defined on tlie following page ; tbe latter compre- 


397. The subject, here considered ae a iiart of morpliologj-, 
must be fully treated, as i-cgards actu uiid pi-oeessea, undi'i' ptijei- 
ologj'. Every tliiog in tbe flower is in illation to fertUizatioD 
and tVnctifi cation, directly or iudirectly. This section is con- 
cerned with those adaplatiuns of strui-ture by means of which 
agents external to the blossom are brought into sernce fur its 

39h. Linneeua and liis auccessors taught that the adjustments 
in liermaphrodite flowers were such, on the whole, as lo secure the 
application of the pollen of its stamens to the stigma of its pistil 
or pistils. The present view is. that this is doubtless strictly 
secured in certain flowers of a mudeiate number of s|>tieie8, but 
ni'ver in all the flowers of any such siwcies ; that in ordinarj- 
Howers. where it may commonly take place, it is not universal ; 
tliat in the Jailer mimlier uf siiceies there is something or other 
in the floral structure which imitcdes or pi-evcnts it. Some 
flowers are adapted for close fertilization ; some for cross fertili- 
zatiou ; some for eitlier. Here two terms need definition, viz. : 
Clott feriiUxaiioa or Stlf-/ertiliiation, or Autogamy, the app^ca- 
tion and action of a flower's pollen ii|)on its own pistil ; 

CrvM firtilii'illon, or AVugamy^ the action of the pollen of one 
flower on the pistil of some other flower of the same species. 
This may be near, as when Itetweeu flowers borne in tbe same 
cluster or on the same plant : remote, when between flowers of 
distinct plants of the same immediate iiarentage ; most i-eniote, 
when iK'twcen ditTerent races of the same s|)ecie8. Any thing 
beyond this is hybridization, or crossing of s|>ecies. 



1 Allogamy on Inteuckossiso. 

399. The doclrine now maintained appears to have been first. I 
propounded by Sprengel in tbe statement that '* Nature scema C 
to have wished tlint no flower should lie fertilized by its owo-fl 
jKjllen." — a proposition which is not wholly tenable, for Iheraf 
are blossoms specially adapted to self-fertilization. It was re- J 
' aHirmed in our day by Darwin, in a similar adage, "Nature \ 

abhors perpetual self-fertilization," — a metaphorical expreeeion i^ 

Lto which no effective exception has been taken. And the infer- ■: 
ence was drawn by him, that some important good to the species J 
must result fhim propugntion through the union of distinct 4 
individuals, and especially of individuals which have Iwen di»-'] 
tinct for several or many generations. 

hcniting C'eilom;/nmii, fcrtilizstiun by pollen of olher flowora of the * 
I, aud Xaioyumg, hy pollen from a flower on anolbur plant. 


400. The actual proiKksition, simjily al.iUt), is thnt (lowcni are 
Iiabitufllly iulfrfrosaed, and lliat Xlieiv are mnnifuld ittnicrttirat 
aduptntions wlik-h sptiire or fuvor iiitiTcroanlng. to such extent 
as to jiiHtif\- llic proposition. The pnxil of tlie pni|><jsilioii is un 
indiiftioTi from a verj- great number of paiticulttr ohat^n-ntiona. 
That intercrossing is iKuelicial is a mtional inference fVoiu the 
array of sjieeial adaptations for whidi no ulJier suRleicnt ruuon 
n[>|K'nrs, nr {lo resume the inotaplior) from tUe va«t iiains wliieh 
seem to tinvr Ix-cn tnki'ti to secure tins end. Tbla inrercnoe bos 
been to aome extent conRimed tty tlirwt ux[)orluenl.' 

401. SvpaniLion of the sexes is a direct adaiitation to intei^ 
crossing, rendering it necessary l»etvf een Individuals in diteeioua, 
and largely favoring it in most miina-cious and iiolyguuious 
flowers. Strictly cloeo fertilization can occur in herraapbrtxlite 
flowers only ; but it is In these that the must curious adaptation* 
Tor intercrossing arc revealed. 

402. The agencies to tlie one or the other of which moat 
flowers are structurally a()a|it(.tl iu n.-fi.'n.-iit'c Ui inten-nnwing orv 
mainly two; viz., Uie winds and animals, of these chiefly insccta. 
Delpiuo has accordingly elassiflml flowers Into Anrmophilov* and 
EalumofihUiiyt ; literally wiuil-lovers and ins«'ct-loTent, liut de« 
noting wiud-fvnilizi<d and insect-fertilized, aeeunling to tbtt 
agent by wliieh pollen is transi)orted.' Tlii-nt are ht*nna|ibro<lite 
and uniM-xiiol flowers of both classes, but m(«rt winil-fertiliiwl 
flowers are unisexual. 

4U». Hlttd-firrtiUuliIe or ammophHouM flowcn are nioiitly neu- 
tral or dull in color, deatitnle of odor, and not nectariferi^u*. 
llieir princiitat structural ailaptatloiia to this en<l, iM-siilea Xlim 
Be(>aratloii of the sexes in nMf«>t of tlicm.arc tlif iiu]ierabundance. 
incoberi'ncy. dryneaa. ami ligliineas of thi- [Mpllen, n-mleriiig it 
very transportable by wind ami <iinvDts of air. Tlk- imnM-nar 
abundBncie of |Nilk-n. its ligbtiieHa. and Its trve and far dilflitiion 
through the air io Fint^. Fin. Tas'xliiini, and (flher Cotdfem^, 
are familiar. Thi-ir i».Ilnj filU the air of a formt during aiitlir- 
sis: aiul Uic "showers of Milpliur," iiopnlaHy •u-call*^l. tbv 
yellow ]Niw()pr whii-b after a tranitii-nt Khrtwct- M-miuubteB as 
a Mum on the aorfacr uf waU-r M^eral iit rnany niln Ihxn Uw 

• Uwwia. Thr ESMtj af Cmn amA ftoU-ParuUcukB la Aa TiiMWt 
Uagrioa. Luwda>. IMA Aawinw IMitliw, ««• Yurfc. UfH. 

oihH- yrfa OM kMwa to Ida/ a iMriter iMi k •^MUrtsI laghM. 


nearest source, testiSes Lu these particulars. All amcnIaceouB 
trees (Willows exceptctl) , Hemp, Hojis, &e., are wind- fertilized ; 
and, among perfect flowers, tliose of most Grasses, Bedgea, and 
Plantago. In tlie latter fanuUes especially, the anthers are pro- 
trudeil or hnng out in the air only when jnst ready to disohai^ 
their pollen, and ui*e at that moraent ausiwiided on suddenly 
lengthened capillar}' ditwping filaments, fluttering in the gentlest 
breexe ; and the stigmas are either dissected into plumes, as in 
most Grasses, or beset with copious hairs on whieli iwllen is 
caught. One physiological adaptation, very common in the fol- 
lowing class, is not unknown among hermaphrodite wind-fertiliz- 
able flowers, where it is important for scciiriug intercrossing, vii. 
Dichogamy. It is best seen in the common siiecies of I'lantago 
or Plantain, and is described l>clow. (408.) 

404. Imect'rerUlixable or enlomophihv* flowers are correlated 
with showy coloration (including white, which is most showy at 
dusk), odor, or secretion of nectar, often hy all three modes of 
attraction to insects combined. Some insects, moreover, visit 
flowers for their pollen, a highly nutritious article, and onliua- 
rily pro<luced in such abundance that much may be s)iared. 
The showinesa of corolla or other floral envflojies is an attractive 
adaptation to fertilization, enabling blossoms to be tliscemed at 
a distance ; nor do we know that fVagrance or other scent or 
ttiat nex-'tar subsenes any other uses to the flower tlian that of 
alhuing insects. Adaptations in the pollen of such blossoms 
fbr transportation by Insects arc various. Cummonly the grains 
are slightly moist or glutinous, or roughish, or stiidded with 
projections, or strung with threads (as in CEnothera) , bo as not', 
to be readily disijersed in the air, hut to have some slight; 
coherence as well as capability of adhering to the head, limbs, 
or Ixxlies of insects, especially to their rough anrfaces; and 
in two families (Orchidaceic, Asclepiadacete) the pollen is comvj 
bined in masses and with B|M-cial adaptations for being 
ported en maue. (421.) With this tlie stigma is uauaUjra 
correlated, by roughness, moisture, or glutinosity ' 

405. Adaptations of the flower itself in reference to inseot' 
visitation are wonderfully various ; and most of these are found 
upou investigation to favor, or often to necessitate, intercross- 
ing. In dicucious flowers. tJiis is necessitated by the separation : 
in mona.<cious and polygamous flowers, of various kinds and 

' Tims ncBriy every Orchid )cpnu8 liiii one Iibs a pergiBlently glutinoDs 
BligniA ; in the exceptional une. L'ypHlH^ilium, it a moiBl and minutely 
ened, in correlallon with tile \oQ»c\f grsnuior or pnllkuei 


^utinoDa I 

which a^^H 


219 < 

degrees of eopanktioii. [lollen is vtry rorainon!y borne from 
plant U) plaiil : in lic>nnn|ilircKtite Howers only are tuoTc sjiceial 
arrange men 18 riitdwl toaccun- iiiter^Tossing or a certain uiL'asii re 
of it, iinil ill these sueli arraiigeiueiits atioiind. 

40t>. Irreynlftrltf is one of the commonest modifications of the 
flower (32G, 337) : it ib never conapicuoua except in blossoms 
visited by insects and generally fertilized by their aid ; and it 
finds rational explanation on tlie score of utility iu this regard.' 

407. Dicboipimj, a t«rm-introdueed by C. C. Sprengel, who 
first noticed and described it, is one of the most usual and elTect- 
ual (rather physiological than morpbolc^cal) adaptations for the 
promotion of intercrossing between hennaphroditc flowers. It 
meuDB that such interci'ossing is brought to pass by a difference 
in the time of maturity of anthers and stigiua ; tJiis rendering 
diehogamous blossoms practically the same as diiEcioua or raou- 
axtious in res|>ect to fertilization, while there is the economical 
gain that all the flowers arc fertile. According to whether the 
anthers or the stigmas are precoi-ioiis, diehogamous flowers are 

Proirroiidratu (or Prolaiidrovt) , when the anthers mature and 
discbarge tlieir pollen before the stigma of that blossom is recep- 
tive of pollen ; 

Proteroffynow (or Prologynoui) , when the stigmas are ia 
receptive condition before the aiitliers have mutureil their pollen. 

Synanihftit.' the maturing of the two sexes simultaneously or 
nearly so, is however made to secure tlic same result through 
8i>eciul orrangements. 

408. Protero^fiif. The Plantains, such as I'lantago major and 
P. tanceotata. arc familiar instances of this iu a wind- fertilized 
genus with henna phrudita flowers. The anthesis pi-oeeeds from 
base to aix-x of the spike in regular order, and rather slowly. 
While the anthers are still in the unopenwl corolla and on short 
fllaments. the long and slender hairy stigma projects from the tip 
and is receiving pollen blown to it from neighboring plants or 


' TliU did not ocapc (lie atti-ailuQ of Sprengel in the Uet ucntur;, and 
atoDfc Willi it (Iw Itvt thai alrictly terminal and also vertical Huwen, whelliO' 
rm'l iir luiprndixl, arc teldom irregular, while CDmparaiirL'ly lioriiontal or 
obliquely tvl dowen more commonly are to. Tlie irregnlBritf U in refer- 
enci> to a landing place far the vliiUng insMl, or alio to storage of ol 
UUiv la nectar, &c. 

Ihirwin (Forma of Flowers, 147) remarks that he does not know of a 
•ingle initance of su irregular lluwer which is wiiid-fertiliiH-d, 

* Si/naciitg is the tenu proposed bj A. W, Benneil. in Juumal of Botanj, 
vili. (18T0). 310, with its opposite, llrlrraftug, tor yalfrandry and f/nlenggng. 
The Utter names, in llieir shorter torm {prataaJrj and ifUajgng), appew I» 
hsve originated with UUdebrand, ISGT. 



8]>ikcs : a day or two itncrwnnla, the corolla op^ns, the filamanta 
gifallj' lengthen, and Uic four aiithera now [jendenl from them 
give their light pollen to the wind ; but the atigniiis of that flower 
and of all Iwlow it on that spike arc withered or past reeciring 
pollen. Among Grasses, Autlioxanthuni is in the same ease. 
The arrangement ia somewhat similar to the I'lantatn in Amor- 
pUa, wliJcU ia furtilized by inseeta. the simple stigma projecting 
beyond the corolla in bud, while the anthere are still immature 

and enclosed, Scrophnlnria ia a good instance of proterogyny 
in flowers fertilixe<l by hees. The flower is irregitlar (Fig. 
417— 119), and is approacherl (Vom Uie frant, the spreading lower 
lolw being thi; lauding place. Fig, 420 repreaents a IVeshly 
opened blossom; and Fig. 421, a section of it. Only the st^'le 
tipiied wilh the stigma ia in view, leaning over the landing plaoe ; 
the still closetl anthers are enseonecil below. The next day or 
a little later all is as in Fig, 422. The style, now flabby, haa 
feUen npon the front lobe, its stigma dry and no longer receptive : 
the now-opening anthers are brought npward and foi-ward to the 
position which the stigttm oceu[>ied Itcforc, A honey-bee, taking 
ncctnr from the bottom of the coiiillu, will l>e dnsttil with jioUeti 
ftom the later flower, and on passing to one in the earlier stAte 
will deixisit some of it on its fl-esh stigma. Self-fertilization 
here can hai-dly ever take place, and only through some diaturb- 
aneo of the natural eoui-se. 

409. Protcrandrj. The pnxNhsa is the reverse, and is at- 
tended with much more extended movements in Clerodendron 
Thompsoniffi, a Vcrbcnaceous tropical African climl»er now com- 
mon in consenatoriea. The adaptations in this flower (whiclt I 
we indicated long ago) arc e.\quisilc. The crimson corolla 
and bright white cnlyx in combinalion are verj- eonspicuotu. 
The long flliform filaments and style, upwanily enrolled in tlW' 


bud, straighten an<l jtrojoct wlien tlic corolla opuns : the stamens 
remain straight, but the style prottiiis to vtinv iluwiiwanl uuil 
backtranl. tts in Fig. 423. The aiithere are now discharging 
pollen: the atigtnas arc immature and closeil. Fig. 4H repre- 
sents the floft-pr on the second daj , the anthers effete, and tho 
filnments recurved and roUetl iiij njiu.iIIi , whde the style has 

taken tho position of llic filunicnts, and the tvo Etigmts now 
separateil and receptive are in the very position of Uie anthers the 
previous day. The entrance hy which (he proboscis of a butterfly 
may reach the nectar at Itottitin is at the up]3er aide of the orifice. 
Tlic Bower cannot self-fertilize. A good-siKed inoect flying fVoni 
blossom to blossom, and |)!aut to plant, must transiKirt pollen 
IVom the one to the atigma of the other. 

410. Proterandry alionnds among common flowers. It ia 
cons|»cuonB in Gentians and in nearly all that family. But. 
while in Gentians the short sljle is immovable ami erect, in 
Sabhutia it ia thrown strongly to ono side, out of the way of and 
Ihr Ik'Iow the stamens, the branches closed and often twiati^'d, so 
that the stignm is quite inaccessible until tlic stamens have shed 
their ix>llen : then the style becomes erect, tmlwists, its two flat 
branches separate, and ex|)ose the stigmalic surface of their inner 
face in the place wliieh the anthers ocou])ied. In Sabbatia 
angularis, Lester F. Wanl ' ob8er^■ed that the anthers of freshly 

' In Meehsn's G«rd>.>ner»" Monllily, September, IPTS, 278. 
PIO. U9. nawuorcieraUeiHlniaTbonipmUSilIrM ilkji W NMBddBf. 


oponwl blossoms are all thrown to one side almost as stroQgly 
sa the style is thrown in the opposite direction. One of our 
common Fireweeda, E|iilobium augustitbliiim or E. spicatum, i 
it is variously (railed, which is common all round the norlttem , 
hemisphere, is similar to Sabbntia in behavior. In the freshly 
opened flower, while the anthei-s are in good condition and are 

giving their pollen to bees, the still immature style is stronglj] 
cun-«l downward and backward, aa in Fig. 425. Two or threft J 
da^'s later, when the t>ollen is mostly shed, the style straightens^ 1 
lengthens to its full dimensions, an<l spreads its four stigmas overl 
the line of tlie axis of the blossom (Fig. 43G), in the very I 
position to be pollinnted by a t>ee coming from an earlier flowi^. | 
411. In the following instances of protcrandry, the style is I 
made the instrument of distributing the pollen which it is not ' 
itself to use. Tlw | 
> anthers of a Cam- 
pannla discharge ftlt 
their pollen in the 
lopened bud, and it 
nejirlynllileijosited j 
I the style which 1 
they surnjund, the! 
upper part of which I 
is clothed with a coat 
of hairs for holding 
_ the pollen. (.Fig. 427.) 

In the open (lower, the stamens are found to be empty and withered, 
aainFig.428. These flowers arc visited by bees and other inaecti ] 
for the pollen. While this is going on, and while the pollen ii 1 
fresh and plentiful, no stigma is apparent. Later, the top of the | 
style opens into three (in some species Ave) short and spreading i 
branches, tlic inner faces of whicb are the stigmas. Althoilgb J 

no. 42G. «». Flmen at E|>l|[ 

IFhIiIv cxpnnilnh I'l tlw iwcauci, > 

Fia. <I7. VerU**! 

u brawl wUte linn » 

nngiiiilidilluia or Bplcnti 

McUoni of t*a uitliun 

BO close at liuiid, litilc ir any of the iwlleii of tlint flower can 

reach the atigmaa. Those nctuallj' gtt fertilized by poUen 

brought hy bees, which come ]oa<I<.'(t with it from 

other flowers and other plants. Symplij'andra differs 

fl-om a tnic Cftmpanuln chiefly in the contiimcd 

cohesion of the five anthers into a lube around the 

style. (Fig. 429, JSO.) The i»llen ia discharged on 

and held by the hairj' npix^r jwrtion of the atylc. 

.■^oon after, the corolla expands, the lower 

part of the style lengthens, and curries 

llie pollen-loailcd part out of and above 

the anther-tube, as in Fig. 430 ; lastly, the 

three connivent tips of the style diverge 

and expose the stigmas to [xilLen mainly 

hronght by bees from other flowers. By n 

slight fnrther niodifi cation in Lobelia and 

ill Corajxisita;. pollen is pushed out of the 

antlier-tubc bj' the tip of the style as it 

lengthens, or bj' the verj' back of the two 

stigmas, the faces of which, afterwards 

ex[iosed, are not to receive this, bnt other 

pollen, though it may at times receive some of its own. Tlio 

arrangement in ComiH)sitic is here iltustrated IVom Ix^ptoayne 

maritima (Fig. 431-435), a showj- plant of Southern California, 

now not vcr}- rare in cultivation. The large flowers around the 


and plKIl of ■ rniint, snil 430, 
HuttanoT Le[rt»Ta' marttlma. of 


mni^n (ray-flowera. with ligulato corolla), one of which is seiia- 
rately shonn in Fig. 432, are pislillntf only : the cnlargetl and 

pxUrndcd open part of the J 
p corolla (bright jellow Isv 
color) serves for attrwy 
tion, the cii-cle of rays 
gives the ai)pearancc as 
of a single lai^ flower. 
The flowers of the disk 
or whole central part are 
hermaphrodite, and with 
narrow tulnilar corollas, 
fVora the orifice of which 
projects the greater part 
*" of the tube of five co- 

alescent anthers. The pollen is early discharged into the interior 
of this tube. The style, with somewliat enlarged anil bnish-like 
tip, at first reaches only to the 
tiottora of tlie anther-tube '. it ■ 
slowly tenglhcns, pushes th^rn 
ixilleii before it out of the tubM 
(Fig, 4,1.'i) and into tlic way of 1 
insects of various kind, which, 
travelling over Ihe surface, con- 
vey it to older flowers of thi! si 

head and of other plants The style, elongating yet more, raise 
some of the pollen still higlier (as in Fig. 434) ; and at length iU 
two branches separate and diierge (Fig. 4.3.''). exiKisiog to othen 
pollen the stigmatic receptive surface which until now was t 

412. In Parnassia, which has sessile stigmas, their recepU' 
surface is actually not formed until the anthers become effi 

Tin. tJi A llRTilnie femali! flower ef Ibo nine, mil h conlrsl hf rmnpl: 
433, VpTur pun "f lliii Inner, mnre enlarge.), the Inhe of ■ntliern |)rit]in.-i 
onrnllu.wirlUis pnHsn pnijevting rrom speinribe itnther-lube. being piiii 
longUwnliiguftlieat^lalwnMth. 131. TliliM^le nowiimjectlng. anrl Knuie pnilmil 
nnlng an la Up. 43S. Tip or nme iCyle (mnn advanced and magnlllnl); Ui> t 
bniMibm iqiraaJIni, Mill canylng tame pnllen on the apex of each arm of briuKb, ■ 
tqr tlw dlrmvsnn now sipoiltig tbe illgniiitlc Inner bee*. 


ami, as the phnts or stems mo sitiglc-flowpreil, they arc fbtiction- 
ally dkecious uliile stmctiirally hi'i-iuaiihi-ixlite. 

413. The mtuptatiouB fur btrmophroditc intercrossing witll , 
■j-naiitliesis (407). i. e. where there is no ossentiot diffemico of 
time ill tlie maturing of aiithera aiul stigma, nro maiiifolil. 
Thpy mny he I'laased into tlioac without and those willi dimoi^ 
pliinin uf stameufl and i)istil8, or, iu otber n-iirds, those with 
Homogonoug nnd thoee with Uelerogunntu flowers.' 

414. The cases witliout dimor|)ldaiii arc the most various, \ 
Gcriaiii raiiiilies having a|)ecial tyix-s; and are of all ilegrccs, 
from tJiosu tliat rtiiuiro intercrossing to tliose thnt merely favop 
or permit it. Vot the present piiqwse, having only morjihology 
In view. It aiifHcCB to bring to view two or three cases or types of 

415. PkriicQliir Ad^ilatlon in hormaphrotlite blossoms, not 
involving: eilber didiogamy or dinioriihism. These arc exceed- 
ingly various ; but Ibey may l)e distinguished uito two gcoeral 
kinds, nnmely: 1, where loose and 
powdery pollen is trans [wrted from 
blossom to blossom in »ci>aratc grains, 
and 2, where pollen-masses or the 
whole contents of anthers are bodily 
so transportctl. 

416. Papilionaceous (lowers (such 
as iK-a-tilosstims, 3;t8) — having ten /|v 
stamens enclosed with a single pis- ,* 
tjl in the kc^l 
of the corolla, 
their anthers in 
close proximity 
to the stigma — 
wore naturally 
supposed to be 

self-rcrtilizing: and so they sometimes are. yet with marked 
adaptations for intercrossing. None are less so than those of 

■ Tcrmi {iropoacd in Amcr. Jour. Sci. i 
Kstamliit, Janiury, ISTT. Dimiirphiim in llowcra ran; affci-t tlic ppriantb 
only, anil nnt Iho jtrti ur OMniiiRl nr^pini; or Ihcm may be two kinil* of 
flowers «■ rc<pe<7ls tliree also, but wllh no recipn>cal rclalinns, ai in rfrinte- 
^fiiti4UilinHirphism)&14| ; or of two kinds i>iM'nti*ll.v aliki- pKit'pt in marncm 
and iiiflil, and llii'w reciprocally atlaptvd lo MU'h other, wliich is *■ 
dinurpAitiii. or, wlien of tliroc kinds. frinoqAiim, 

Fro. «W Fluwirr at Wistaria SlnenaE* nitlnml >lM. 431. Sane rnUirol. ■Ilk 
auiiiUnl. Hliig*, ami liair U] 

■fl ■liePiln 

Is lla HSU 

ling pine 


srarr, mars uagnlDedi ■ Mage of Otut bt 

h ptutuftbt 



Wistaria (Fig. 436-43!)), in wliich the light fringe of etifTlwiini I 
around the Btigma (shown In Fig. 430) woiikl nut prevent pollen ] 
of surrouudiog anthers from fulling ut>on it. Vet when a be« \ 
alights U]X)n the keel, 
with heat! toward the ] 
I base of the flower, and J 
;£l J prolioscis is insetted 

\^i^^^^ 'i"' neetar between the I 
foot of tho standard 
und Ihe keel, the latter 
J// y^^lX '^ depressed hy the 

jT*^^^^^^--— -""''^ / |w|[j domen of the insect ia 

^ ^tT '—'-^^^^''^^•^ . J HWkII brunjiht against the ten 
anthers and the stig- 
ma, becoming thereliy 
smeared with pollen, J 
some of whieh when ' 
other blossoms are vis- 
ited cannot fail to l»e applied to their stigmas. The very similor 
ftowerof Locnst (Robinia), like that of the Pen, tidds an adapta- 
&\'or of iiiterorossing. The style for some length below the 
stigma is covenKl with a short beartl of hairs, as is ^ 
seen in Fig. 443. The anthers open early and dis- I 
charge their pollen, which mainly lodges on thitj 
beard (Fig. 443). in a manner which may thus fltt 1 
Ite likened to the case of Campanula. (411.) The I 
wings and tlie keel are yoked together, and sfvj 
together depressed by the weight of sn alightii^^ 
bee. This does not bring out Ihu anthers as la 1 
Wistaria. These remain, early effete, within the sac, while th6 J 
stigma and the pollen-ladcu part of the style (Fig. 441) : 
projectoil against the bee's abdomen, which, by the oblique 1 
movement, is first touched hy the stigma and nest bnished over % 
with pollen by the style below. So that, in ^'iaiting a succession 
of blossoms, some jwUen of one flower is transferred to tlie body 
of the bee, and thenoe to the stigma of the next flower, whicli 
flower imme<liately gives to the same spot some of its pollen, to 
be transferred to the next flower's stigma, ond so on. 

417. Two special modiflcationa of the iiapilionaeeous type.l 

ited cann 
flower of 

need particular nic^nlioii. One of theio, Uie U(.-aH-l>lu§aoin, ia 
well known lo l(otaniHt8 ; the other not so. The peeiiliarilj' in 
tbo cuininon liean, I'ham.'olus ^ulj^aris, and its ueuivttl iilHlMea, 
is that the keel, eneluaiiig tlie stameus and pistil, is pruluuged 

into a narrow enoutwhieli ia spirally coiled (as inFig. 444— 146) ; 
that the sligina is ohlique on the lip of the style, and the bean) 
on the style is mainly on the same side that the sti^cma is : the 
wing-petals stand forward and turn downward, forming a eon- 
venient landing place for bees. As in the IxMrnst-blossom, the 
anthers eurly disehai^e their pollen, much of whteh adheres 


liglitlj- to the 1«ard of the style. In the untouched flower, all 
ttom first to last is conecaleil in the coiled keel. I*res8 down the 
wing-petala. and first the stigma and then the pollen-laden tip 
of the style projects from the orifice : remore the pressure, and 
they wilhdmw within. When this pressure is made by a bee, 
resting on the wing-petals while searching for nectar within tho 
baae of the blossom between tlie keel and the standard, the same 
movement occurs: the stigma first, and then the jwllen on tike 
Bt^'h-, strikes against a certain portion of the fVont or side of 
the l>ee'8 body, and the repetition of this o|>eration causes the 
fertilization of each Idossom hy other tlian its own |>alleii. A 
slighter pressure or lighter movement of tlic wing-petala sulSces 

]mUI> prowol ilown *iii1 li|. af ityln priju'tliie It 

eOKlKkiii riT 443, enUnrcd. •hoolni iilnliiljr t)M ] 
kMl, «iteri«d. nhnolncIlisMjiIflirlihtn brfnrr tl 
fhunoK ii«t ilalliuaUd. 4V. PMII iMtthei Iti 

IT. l.'|.|.rr pun of kwl. In rba 
t>i|[ Myln. ua Aocllon of Uw 
irn ■>!«■■ : ■tknnu tnr take of 



SO tlmt ^^1 
exhibits a ' 

to josUe some of the jMlIen down upon its o 
Bcil-t'i'i'tilizHtion ig nut uucoinmon. 

41X. Ai)ii)S tiilieroea. a ne«r ri'lative of Phaseolus, exhibits a 
difTtreut and equally curious moclillcution of thi' aaine parts. 
The wing-|>etals for landing phkve 
ai-e similar: the stundtird is pn>- 
IKirtionally large, firm in texture, 
PS I \ V ' ' ^ T^ / "'"' Bli^'ll-Blit>[>^ or oonoave, witb 
]F_/ g^^ C"-^ " small boss at the tip aa seen from 
iK-hind, or a shallow sac as seen 
frotn thp front : the keel is narroir 
and sickle-shaped ; it arL'hea aci-oss tlie front of the Oower, and 
the blunt apes rests in the notch or shallow sat' of the til) of the 

standard. (Fig. 4riO, 452.453.) So it remains if niiloiidicd until 
the blossom withers : no self-fertilization has ever been obBerved, 
and none ordinarily occurs. The itnthers, 
are assembled close around the stigma, 
but a Uttlc short of it (Fig. 453) ; the | 
pollen is not early nor copiously shed in 
the enclosure : the small terminal etigins 
s at tlrst covered with a puljiy secretion, 
which nt length collects into a soft ring 
I around its base over or through which no 
I )H>llen passes. But when the keel is libcr- 
^ aled by lifting from underneath, it curve* < 
promptly into the shape shown in Fig. 

keel dlalwIgKl Ihim MiF r> 
tmrled qthI Chrnst A^wnp 
Fia «a. Enlnrgnt re 
with hnlf tbo iitiimlitnl r 
noteb. 4M. Dii^rnninff 
plAcswhsn tiM »\'*\ l-f I 
I>r»snil. uniltliiifinl nm 
hatn Agrlrnltnrlil In I87«L 

plm iDlwriMA, nnTUIed. ISI. Same kfter Tlaitallnn, 
Killing nntrb, ami mnre incurrsili Lhs tipnf Ilie Mfte im> ] 

ImlHrilnnnr aaosr-IOHlof A|d«liib«n*a. Wa A Bom 
r vwnj, Id ilmw ths Uiint Kinx of Die keel r«Ili>t I" tl 
wer. with Imlt nf Hip tiUilirriir.1 nit aw»j. loiOiiHr wliat Mk< 
f kwl In llh»™t«L The flmir« (also Ihmw from *!« to U 
int lit lbs adaptatloni of A|du*. wore pablMied in Die Amap- 


229 ■ 

451, or better in Fig. 454, where tlio dotted liiiro indicate iU 
origiual position ; and Bret tli© end ot llic stjii', tipjKnl willi 
its aiigma, is [lushcil forwnni, and then the anthers come into 
vit'W. The flowcre ure viaited hj- huiiibk'-lH.H.'s. and iwiui'times 
by honey-bc«B. In scnrchtiig for iioctar tit the tinae of the flower, 
they prohahlj' push forwani into tlie space under tlie aivhiiig 
kwl, and by slightly elevating disludge its miox ; when liwt the 
stigma and then tlie anthers an- bruiigbt agniust Home jwitjon 
of Ute insect's liody, aiul against Ihe same portion in sueceoliiig 
blossoms, thus etfeetiug ci'oss-fertilisation. This rutionull.v ex- 
phiins a remarkable ndaptution, whieh seems to l>e not otherwise 

4m. Special AdajitatlfliH. Two of these, each |>eculiar to 
llic genus, may here hi- ivferred to. In Kuhuia-hlossoins (Fig, 

4."i5-45H), the antliers diseliarge the pollen through a small 
orifice at the apex of each cell, in this resgwct agreeing with 
Hhodoclendrons and their other relatives ; bnt 
none of them utilize this family (tecnltarity in the 
manner of Kalmia. In the flnwer-hnd, each of tlic 
ti^n anthers is lodged in a small cavity or [KX'ket 
(exlenially a Itoss) of the corolla, in a way analo- 
gous to that in whieli the keel of Apioa is lotlged in 
the tip of the standard (418) : the espansiun of the 
liorvler of the corolht in anthesis curves the lihi- 
meiits outward and hackwanl ; and when tlie Uiwed m 
stamens are lilterateil by rough jostling tliey fly n|> elastically, 
and the pollen is projected from the two onflees. SmiK- imilen 
may iKiasibly be thrown ii|x»n the singU^ snudl stigma at Ihe 
tip of liie alyle, which rises much above the Htamens. But the 
anthers are not dislodgi-d when undisturbed, at least nntil 
after the clastii-iiy of the f)lument« is lost : they are dUhidged by 
huuible-bces. wUieii circle on the wing over tlie blossom, the 

no, tSi Vcrlli^kl wU.lll <;f ■ fluw. 

I-bIsvI ui Iba pivkBf* nl 
UT. V«ttkalaH< 




iiiiikr side of tbc abdomen t\equcntl> touching the stigma while ^ 
tlie proboscis is seaichmg round the bnttnni ol the flomi hberat- 
ing UiL Htameits m the process which one In om prujLut tlieir 
pollen uiKtn the under aide of the insect s IkxIj In the pnssagu 
fVum flower to flower, {)olIeii is thus con^c)c<l from the antliera 
of one to the stigma of another J 

4211 Ins has three stamens one before each sepal or oot«rl 
lobe ol tile perianth, and behind each petal like lobe of the style " 
(tig 4j')) the stigma, a 
shelf like plate of each lobe, 
IS just al)o\e the anther; 
but as the anther fkces 
outward and the stigma Is 
higher and laeeB inward, no 
IMilleii tail find its waj TmH 
the one to the other But ti» 
adaptation uf parts is adrair^ 
abU for pontes auce h\ beee, 
which, stanthng ti[wn the 
onl\ landing plaee the r&- 
cnrved sepal thrust the head 
don n l)elow the anther, and 
in raising it carrj oH gxillen, 
to lie nllei wards lodged 
upon the stigmas of olhxsr. 
"' flowers wliicii they ™it. 

421. TraiHiMrUtlMi of PolUnla, or of all I he pollen in a 
mass, is cffec-ted hi most of the si)ecies of two large ordera, 
not otherwise allied, the Asclepiailacen; and the Orehidacee. 
While in the Iris family the number of stamens is reduced ftom 
sis to three, in all the Orchis family, except (i.vpripedium, the 
stamens are further redueei] to a single one ; but the pollen ta 
)>ef'idiarly economized. That of Arelluisa is in four loose and 
soil pellets, in an inverto'l cnsqiie-Bliapcd ease, hinged at tiie 
back, resting on a shelf, the lower face of which is glutinom 
stigma, over the front edge of which the casqne-shaped antltcr 
slightly projects ; and this anther is raised by the head of a bee 
when escaping out of the goi^ie of the flower. The loose |>el1ets 
of pollen are caught upon the tice.'s head, to the rough 
face of which they an" liable to adhere lightly and so to be carried 
to the flower of another individual, there left upon its glntinou* 

no. iim. Flinwr of Irln |mni[!«. with IVont pnMlim •ml b«lr 
lolm anil tligmA mil iimiy, Tbc Mellon of tbe itlginii it •wn 
oppn mrnco only ■■ ■llfiuallo. 







Stigma by the same upward 

emeut whic 

immediately nOcr- ^H 

Ward rajseti Uie aritlier-litl 


I'arries nw 

y itH iHillcn, to bo ^H 

traiisrcrruil tn a third blussom 

and so on 


4-22. liut it is in Urchis 


and ill tlie commoner iv- 

.^--v ■ 

preseiiUitivcs ofOrcliis in 

Wi 1 

North America (viz. Ha- 

beiiaria, &c.) tliat the 

most €X((uisite adapta- 

W^L 1 

tions arc found', and tho 


greatest economy se- , 
tunil ; parallf le<l. Iiow- ' 




ever, by most of tlie very 


^^^v ■ 

numerous anil variouscpi- 

li 1 

pliytic and by larious ter- 

||"^SK^n/ ^^ 

restrial Orchidsof wanner 


1 \I\ 

reruns. A single iUue- 


1 w 

tration may here sulllcc ; 


1 \l 1 

and Darwin's vuhimc on 


1 n .^H 

tlM! frVrtilizatiou of Or- 


l\ 1 ■ 

chids (3!>6. not«), with 



its rurcrrncca to the 


co|»iou8 literature of llie 

>/ f I 

aubjei't. may be studied 


for fiill particulars and 

Im ^^1 

their l)caring8. The flower 


/ ■ 

ia trimerous. and tlie jH-ri- 


auth adnat« to the o>nry, 





veloped upon iu sum- 


mit. The lliree csU^mal 

\ i 

^ ^v'Trt ^H 

parts of tho i>rrianlh. 

' // 

/ /A^'-^l 1* 

which in Habenaria orbi- 

' f/ 

/ /-j^tj^jl 

cuhtta (Fig. 4m) are 


!■ m 

/ Jf^^Bm 

much the hi-oadcr. are the 

f -^ 

' ^^"^^^^H 

wpaJB: the three altcmale 


« (J^^ 

and internal, the petals : 


the base of the long anti narrow- 

petal which 

is tnmcii downward ^^ 

is hollowe«l out and cstendeil lielow into a 

long tulie. closed at ^H 

bottom, open at top (the spur 

or net-tary) 

in which nectar is ^H 

nn tm. 


l1iPntorblciil>t>.ci<liirEnl. Id. Cnniblnnl 

M f 

mr .a tho Iwo pollen -mmc-w <p-lll'ia). wllb 

lutulk kihI kIuUuoui aiBk « Eland. 

Lower ptkit oT Ud> itmlk uhI Hi lUik, miin 




coijioualy spcroted and contained. The central iiait of the 
blossom, bfjonil the oiilice of llie nectary (sliown separately in 1 
Fig. 461), consists of one antber and a stigma, fused together j 
(tlie elinandriitm) : the marginal (wrtiona, opening by a long 1 
ctiinic, ore tlie two cells of tbe anther, approsituate at their j 
broader jmrtion above, widely divci^ent below; most of tba:! 
lower pHrt of the space between is excessively glutinous, and ifl 1 
tile stigma. Tbe grains of jwllen are united by means of shorfrlj 
tbrca<ls of very elastic tissue into small masses, antl these inta 
larger, and nt length into j)eUets, having stalks of tbe i 

elastic IJssue. by wbicb they anjl 
nil attached to a firmer contr 
stalk, or eaitdiele. (Fig. 463-46S.) 
To Uie lower end of this caudiu' 
(directlj- to the end of it in onej 
HabenariiE and Orchises gcner- ' 
ally, ill this instance to the inner \ 
side of the end. bIiIi a thick iaUir-' 
mediate base iutt<rvcning) . is sb> 
tucbed a button -shaped disk, the .' 
face of which is exposed, and is 
on a line with the surface of the 
anther ; so ttiat tliese two diskS' , 
look towar<I each otiier across the' 
ln-oad intervening stigmatic space, 
as seen in Fig, 461 . The exposed J 
face of the disk being covered with > : 
«> «n a durable layer of very viscid maV 

ter, the bwly itselfis sometimes termed a gland, and not im{>roi)erlji^ 
The viscidity is nearly of the same nature as that of the intervet 
ing stigma, of which llie glands are generally supposed to 1 
detached portions. If so, then a portion of the stigma is cut offJ| 
ft'om the rest and spwializcd to the pur|K»se of convej'ance of the^ \ 
IJollen. When a fiiig(!r's end or any smaller hixly is touched tO*l 
tliese disks, they adlicre so firmly (hat Ibe allitcbetl pnlliwa Ofim 
IMillen-masses are dragged out of the cell and earrieil away ea- • 
tire. Some of these pollen-masses have been found attached by ■ 
the disk to the eyes of a latge moth. Wlien a moth of tbe siz« 
of bend and length of iirotaoscis of .Sjihynx dnipiferarum visits a' ' 
spike of these flowers, and presses ita head into the centre of tlis ' 

'111. tea. A tnnm tnii«iilllocl iKillcn-m 
I itlnnil. 401 Pivu nf Uui Hinnitp j 
Hie Ihnuuls -t tlnOD mnncctlDK tlwni 
la of Uw iHillBD-inlo* Id toon deUulic 

*W. A purtlon more lilElil]> 



floffor so that its prolxiscis m&y reach and (Irain the bottom of 

the nectariterous tube, a |>ulleu-muas nill usually be affixed U> 

each eyv: oii mihilratral, 

Uicse will ETtand h» in Fig. 

46fi. Within a miunte tbey 

will be lurued iluwanmnl 

{Fig. i(it)*). mil by tbdr 

wi-ight. but by a contraction 

in (lr,ving of one side ot the 

thick {liccc which connette 

tliv disk with the stalk. 

When a moth in Itiis eon- 

ditiuii jiassea frotn tiiv last 

0|N'ii llowor of one si>ike to 

that of another (ihiiit. oiid 

tbruets its iirolxiscia down a 

ncctart'. the trans]H>rte<l pol- 

Icn-niassFs will be brought 

in contact with the lai^ 

glutinous stigma : on with- 

ilniwal, either some of the 

sniall iiclletM of [Killen will be 

WD, KclhereHt to the stigma, 

the coiiuectingelastic threads 

giving way ; or rlac a whole 

IMiikn-mnas will ))c so left. 

its adhesion to the glutiiioaa *"" 

stigiiia Iwiiig greut^-r than that of the disk to the moth's eye. 

Tbc former is a common and a more economical procee<liitg, as 

then a sac-ccsMion of flowers arc abundantly fertilized liy 

or two pollen- masses. In either case, new poUen-niasscs ore 

i'arric<l otf from fresh flowers and np|ilieil to the fertilisation 

of other blossoms on the same ami eventually on those of dilfer- 

ent inilividuals. Cases like this, and liundnfdg more, all cqimlly 

rrninrkable. serve to show bow aeduloua, sure, and eeoiiomical are 

the adajilatiuns and processes of Nature for tlie intorcrossiug of 

hernia phnxl it V flowers. 

A2i*. In Asclepias, and in most AsclepladacrtE. the whole 
contents of an antbcr-ccU are cousolidHteil into a folid mass, and 
this is in a dilTerent way a<Iaptc<l for transportation to otlier 
flowers. There are ten such pollen-masses to each flower, their 

lUtf, ■bmlai Uw psUnn-B 


caiidicles Attached in pairs to fire double or two-cleft glands, i 
shotrn in Fig. 522. Tlie glands are alternate with the nnthere, ] 
niiii 80 the two |K>llen -masses sus|M?li(le<l [Vum t;aeh glaiul be- | 
long to adjacent anthers. The apimralus is liltol out or the | 
anthers and transported by visiting insects, when their log« or 
tongues hapjicn to be drawn throiit^h the chink of tlie gland, 
which immediately and firmly ctIoscs u|xtn the m«inlier liy i 
sensitive action, which here plants the part which in Orchids it 
performed by the adhesion of a glutinous surface.' 

433. DlmorpUsn, 1. 1. the ease of two kinds of blossoms, both 
hermaphrodite, on the same species, is another adaptatioi 
intercrossing. Not all dimorphism, however, for in eleiitogamoui ' 
dimoqthism (434) the intent to self-fertilize is evident. There 
may also be dimorphism as to the perianth, not particularly 
afl'ecting fertilization. One Itiud, however, and the commonest, 
is a special adaptation to int^-rcrossing, viz. : 

42i. HeterogonoDs Ulmorpbism. (4)3. note.) This tenn i 
appliul to tlie case in which a species prodncos two kinds of ^ 
hermaphrodite flowers, occupyingdifi'erent individuals, tlie flowers 
essentially similar except in the andrceeium and g_vn<Bcium, but 
tliese ret-iprocatly dilTerent in length or height, and the adnjita- 
tions such that, by the agency of insects, the pollen fhim the 
stamens of the one sort reciprocally fertilizes tlie atignia of the 
other.' This dimoqihism hna l)een delected in about fort}- genera 
belonging to fourteen or firteen natural orders, widely scattered , 
through the vegetable kingdom ; but there are far more example* J 
among the Ruliiacea; than in any other order. Sometimes atl-V 
the species of a genus ai-c hetcrogtmous, us in Houstonio, andfl 

Is ia I 

tout ^^^ 



est, ^J 


ers 1 


' Till* action wa* iliei'ovem] hjr Mr. Lunc Burk, ancl invcullgateil by Dtv 
J. G. Hum and Edwaril Polls, of Pliiladtlpliis (hb rejiarted in Piwwi' 
Aoid. KbI. 8d. AuKUsl. 1878, 203), who have verifli^ it. 

' Tliii peculiar arraDgi'mpnl )iai Iwen long known in a few plant*, 
■■ Primnla Terii. P. gran<lil]ora. Hnil Houstonin. In Toircy anil Gmjb •] 
Flora of North AmerlfS. ii, 38. 89 (1843). llieBG flower* are 
dimnrpboUB, not denoting lliat Ilioy are nt all uniEOXua], but tliat Hip two 
forms iKvupy dilTcrenl individnali. Their meaning wai delected by C. 
Darwin, and made knnwn in hie pnper "On [lie Two Formii or Dimorphitt. 
Condition in Ihc Spciii'* of Primula, and on tlieir Rcmarkobte Soiual Itela- 
tioni," publiahed in Hie Joamnl of the Linnean Sociely. vl. (1802). 77 : rn>ub- 
llalieil. in 1877. ai the leading cliaplerofhii volume ertilliHl "The DiflcTCTit 
Forms of Flowe™ on Flanti of the Same Species." Mr. Darwin had lermcd 
the*« flowcn simply Di'fw/iAiV ; but in tliia rnlanie he adopted Hilik- 
brtnd'i name of Hrinwtifiril for Ibis kind of blossom. The diflermc«v 
however, affect* ihe andriEcium. and even iIip polli-n, ns v 
wherefore we proposed for It the name nf Ihlrroyonom or Helrnr/one 
phism, aa menUoned in a former note, 413. 



ChiL'lioiia, sometimes only a part of them, as in PrimiiU and 
Liiium. Ill Hotloiiia, a Primiilaccous genus of two flpe<.'i<>a, tJie 
EuroiH'an one liaa bi'terogonoua dimoqtiiism ' for cross- fertiliza- 
tion : the Ameriean one has bomogonons showy nowers wllh 
only the general chance for intt^rcrossing, and c&rlier flowers 
wtiich are eleistogamous for self-fertilization. 

i'ib. The nature of liolerogune diinori>biBni may be well under- 
stootl fVwm a single exnmtile. 'I1ie most fnniilinr one is that of 
Itnustonia: but, in larger blossoms, Uelsrinium Is a line illus- 
tration in the Southern United StAtes, and Mitohella (Fig. 467) 
DUMtly in the Northern. Raised fVum the seed, the individuals 


are about equally divided between the two forms : namely, one 
form with Itiiig style and short or iow-inserte<l stamens; the 
other with short stylu anil long or high-inserted stamens. The 
Bti^mos ill one lise to about the same height as the stamens in 
Uie other. l>»tli in the tall or exserted oi^ans and in Llieir low 
and iiieludLiI counterparts, as is shown in Fig. 4G8. answering 
to the left haiul and Fig. 40!) to ll:e right band flowers of Fig. 4(17. 
A bee or other insect with |iruboscis of aliout the length of the 
corolla-tnlw, visiting the blossoms of Mitchells, will brush the 
same jwirt of its boily against the high anthers of the long- 
slamcned and the high stigmas of the long-stj'led fonus : and 

> r. C. Sprcngtl. n« DarwiD lucnliuni, l»d nodwd thii, before 1703. Hp. 
" wllh liU luual MgBcilf, aJili Ihul he dnu not bvlicve llio cxiBlrnre of 
tlie twn forms tn be scciilent>l, Ihough be csiinot pxplain llieir puqiotc." 
ttarwin, Fomu ot FIowitk, 61. 

Some liclerognnolu PrimuUi arc laiil to produce homogonoui tarictlea in 
cullivatinn. In Primula, and in olhor genera, there are apecies which »ecm 
aa if of une tort only, no rvciprocat lorl Iicing liaowii, ai if one fumi had 
boiunne «clf-fcrtilc an<] the other bad diupptared. 

I, tU. lang-alaiiiHieil 


the BHrae part of the prolj.jscis against the low aiilliei-s of tha 1 
short-stamened aiiU the low stigmas of IIk' siiort-slyleil fonn. 

'21'). Moreover, Dar- 1 
has aseertaiiieil by I 
i*oseo[iie«l exainiuflr 1 
F tion thnl the polleo of 1 
F tlie two (litfers in sze or f 
slinpe, and by eiipori- 
meut titat it ia Icaa 1 
aetive U|>oii its owq j 
sligma Ihuii ii|Kin thel 
oilier; indeed, that in^ 
many L-ases (a» in aonif 
epedea of Linum) Itii 
quiU> iuaetive oriinpo-J 
tent not only niwu it«3 
own stigma liut nixtn tti J 
own-form stigma, whilal 
H is preimtent on the other, and ttiia reL-iprocally of the two! 
forms.' Here, then, are flowers striieturally hemiaplirodite, but i 
fiinetionally as If dicecious. securing nil tlie advantagi^s of tha i 
latter, along with tlio economical advantagi^ that both sorts <^ 1 
indiviihml and every Idossom may bear seed. With diisciani I 
only abont half the plants eonld be fruitful. 

427. Hetcro^noos TrImorphUm. A threefold heterogonlsa 1 
is known in eertatu 8|K>eies of a few genera ; and this (H>mplica-. ] 
tion may have certaiji eonceivable aclvantages over dimorphism 
Where seeilling dimor|>hoii8 individuals are few and far betweei 
(those multiplying from root would all be alike), there would ' 
be an even chance that anj' two near each other were of the I 
aame form and therefore sterile or imperfectly fertile. But if 
the organization were of three forms, any two of which iiit«r- 1 
crossed with perfect fertility, the ehancea (as Darwin romarks)'" 
are two to one that any two plants were of different forms, ukL i 
tlierefore by fertilizing eai'h other complet*'ly fniitfiil. 

i'i». The earliest known inBtanco of three forms as to recip- 
rocal relative length of stamens and pistil is tliut of Lj-thrum J 

' Imintciicc of own pollen, plllier absolute or n-lntivi-. oorun no lew i*. 1 
certain Bowera wliith are Dut ilinrarphuus. u io Curyilalia, «nnie ■pociM ot / 
I^u*iflnra. &e. Dn tin- enntnry, many <llniorphnu> fiuwcrs are in a cMtatei ^ 
iltiprpe relf-tcrdle. t«poelally iti Ihp lonR-slamencd and aliortaiyleil form.- j 
Tliesc ■ubjet'ta arv pliyiiologiuil, anil t«lontt lu aimtlicr volume. 

. UV. Linif-Muiieiieil flu* 



SoUciiria. This was imlicatod by Vnudicr iu 1841. more par- 
ticularly flos(rilH*ti by Wirlgpii in 1^148. but wus iiiUTl>ivt*il bjr 
Uarniu, aixl Llie moi-e recondite (tilfereiices brought to iiotiue. in 
1864.' " The three forma may bo eorireniently called, from Uie 
unequal lentjith of their pistils, the lotig-atyleit, tnid-styled, and 
short-styletl. The stamens also are of iiiieqiial lengths, and 
thc«tc may be ealktl the longeitt. niid-len^i. and Hbortest." 
*l'he iKtllen of the dilTercnt classes of stamens is uf two sorts aa 
tu color, and of thi-ee as to size, the largest grains fl'oui the 
largest stamens. "The piatll in each form dilTera tfoat tli&t iu 
either of the other forms, 
and in each there ni-e two 
sets of stamens. ditCerent 
in npp<iiraiice and func- 
tion. But one set of 
stamens in each form 
(^rrespinds with a set 
in one of the other two 
forms. Altogether, this 
one speeieB ineludes three 
females or female orgutis, 
and three sets of male 
organs, nil us distinct 
fKim one another as if 
tliey belonsjeil toditferent 
HIKvies; and, if smnjjer 
tbnclional dilferenees are 
considered, there are five 
distinct sets of males. Two of the tbr^ hcrmaphmditea iniist 
coexist, and jwllen must be carried by insects reciprocally 
front one to tlie other, in or<ler that either of the two should Im 
l^illy fertile; but, unless all three forms eoexisl. two sets of 
stamens will be wasted, and the organization of (lie B)H<cies as 
ft whole will l>e incomplete. On the other hand, when nil three 
hermaphroililes coesist, and [Mjlleti is carrie*.! fl-oni one to the 
other, the scheme is perfect : there is no waste of pollen and no 

' In Bn nrlide l>i the Spxunl RplittioD* »t the Thiw Forms of r.yllirum 
Ralkaria, in Jour. I.inn. Soc. viii. IWt. Altm on tlie CliamoliT Biid rij'brlil- 
likc Xatnre at Ihe OITnprinic <>( the nie^liniHti? I'ninns of Diiuorplik- ai>il 
Trimflrphic Plstit*. IWd. t. 303, 18*18. Ropnxluced and oilendcd in hi» 
Tnliime enlllleil '■ Fnmu of Flowpr«," 1877. 


[Mufntni of III 

n of Ihe thrrt tnrmw uf I.Tthrv 

wthI "I 

n full ferlllltr. <Fnn [Mrwli>,| 

in Sillearla. In thair 
r tU\t. The •Inltod 
b« cairted M «*db 


(Ulae coadaptation." The whole arrangement is displayed i 
the annexed diagiam (Fig. 470), and in the follow inj 
of Uie operation.' " In a state of nature, the flowers are inces-J 
aantly visited for their nectar hj hive and other bees, variooftl 
Diptent, and Ijepi(to[)tera. The nectar h secreted all i-ound th»l 
base of the ovarium ; but a passage is formed along the uppwa 
and inner side of the flower by the lateral deflection (not repre^fl 
sented in the diagram) of the Imsal portions of the filaments (V 
BO Uiat insects invariably alight on tlie prt>jectiDg stamens and ' 
pistil and insert their proboscides along tlie up{>er and inner 
margin of the corolla. We can now sec why the ends of the 
stamens with their anthers and the end of the pistil with the 
stigma are a little upturned, so that they may be brushed hy 
the lower hairy surfaces of the insects' bodies. The shortest 
stamens, which lie enelose*! within the calyi of the long- and 
mid-styled forms can be touched only by the proboscis and narrow 
chin of a bee : hence they have their ends more upturned, and 
they are graduatetl in length, so as to fall into a narrow file, 
sure to be raked by the tliin inlniding proboscis. The anthers 
of the longer stamens stand laterally farther apart and are more 
nearly on the same level, for they have to brush against the 
whole breadth of the insect's body. . . Now I have found no 
exception to the rule that, when the stamens and pistil are bent, 
Ihcy bend to that side of the flower which secretes nectar. . . , 
When nectar is secreted on ail sides, thej- bend to that side 
where the structure of the flower allows the easiest access to it» 1 
as in Lythrum. ... In each of the three forms, two sets of stOnl 
mens correspond in length with the pistil in the other two ronnit^ 
When bees suck the flowers, the anthers of the longest stamens, 
bearing the green pollen, are nibbed against the alxlonicn and 
the inner sides of the hind legs, as is likewise the stigma of the 
long-styled form. The anthers of the mid-length stamens and 
the stigma of the raid-styled form are rubbed against the under 
side of the thorax and between the front pair of legs. And, 
lastly, the anthers of the shortest stamens and the stigma of the 
ahort-styled form are rubbed against the proboscis and cliin ; for 
the bees in sucking the flowers insert only the front jiart of their 
heads into the flower. On catthing bees. I oijsened much green 
pollen on the inner sides of the hind legs and on the abdomen^ 
and much yellow pollen on the under side of the thorax. Thevi^ 
was also jmllen on the chin, and, it may be presumed, i 
proljoscis, but this was difflcnit to observe. I had, howeverjl 

■ AH from Dmrwln, Furma of Flowert, 137-147. 4c. 

independent proor that iK>llen is carried on the pntbostis ; for a 
small lirunL-li of a protected ehort-titjled plant (whicli produced 
Bimntancously only two eupsulcs) was accidentally lell during 
several daj-s pressing against the net, and bees were seen insert- 
ing tlieir proboseides through the meshes, and in eonseqiieuee 
numerous capsules were Toruied on this one small branch. . . . 
It must not, however, be supposed that the bees do not get more 
or less dnstcd all over witli the several kinds of pollen ; for this 
could be seen to occur with the green [lollen ft-om the longest 
etamene. . .'. Hence insects, and chiefly bees, act both as 
general carriers of pollen, and as si>ecial carriers of the right 

429. Finally, a long series of experiments (requiring eighteen 
distioet kinds of iiriiuii) proved that both kinds of ]K)Uen are 
nearly or ipiit« impotent itpou the stigma of the same flower, and 
that no ovary is fully fertilizabtc by other than a •' legitimate 
union." t. €. by stamens of the corresponding lengUi ; but that 
the mid-length pistil is moi'e proliflc than either of the others 
under illegitimati! union of either kind ; which might |)erhai)s be 
expected, as the pollen proper to it is intermediate iu size of 
grains l)etwecn that of the long and that of the shortest stamens. 

130. Nesffia verticillata, a common Lythraceous plant of the 
Atlantic I'niled .States, ia similarly trimoq>hons, but has not 
yet been particularly investigated. Several i>outh African and 
American species of Oxalis are equally trimorpbous, and have 
bwn Investigated by Danvin and Hildebrand,' with results 
quite as decisive as in Lj-thnim Salicaria. One genus of 
Monocotyledons has tritnoqihoua blossoms, viz. Pontederia, of 
which the North American P. conlala is a good illustration,' 

4:!1. All known flowers exhibiting reciprocal dimoqihism or 
Irimorphism arc entomophilone : no swch wind-fertilized species 
is known. Few of them are irregular, and none wry irregular : 
Ihey do not occur, for iustnnee', iu Lt^uminosie, Lahlata;, 

' Monalsbcr. Akad. Berlin. leOA : Bot. Zcit. 18TI. &c. Accnrding to 
IWwin, Friiz Mui'llcr " haa aeen in Braiil a larjie SpIiI. man; at-rFs in eilcnl. 
coTpred with tliu red liloMiimi of one form [of an O^taliaj alone, anil Ihoe 
ilid nol iiniiliicc n iilnglp aptd. His own lanri la covered with tlie ihorl^VlMl 
form of anolhor »ppi-l™, and thi* i« equally •tcrile; bm, when Ihe three 
forma were pinnleil Dear together in liia irarden. they aenled freely." Forma 
of Flnwpn, 18ft 

' Drtceied liy W. H, I^ecKetl. See Dnlletin n( Torrcy Bot. Club. vi. 83. 
170; and for the ori^rinal discofery in BraxilJan spwica. by Frill Mueller, 
fee I>arwin'e Forms of Flowvra. IS.% Ac. Pontnlrria ha* thrM tennlha of 
■tyli^ and eountcrpiirt itHmetia, w In Lythrum SftUimrla. each flower luifEniE 
two acta ot slBmena. three in each act. 

Scropbulariacere, Orohidaecie, &c. Nature is not prodigal, and 
does not endow with ndilU'ss adaptations floircrs wbicb Bf,_ 
otherwise provided for. ^M 

i S. Adaptations ron Ctosr: Fertiluatio^t. ^| 

432. Kven wliere cross-fertilization in l>iscxtial flowers is 
obviously arranged fur. it is apt to be t«mpere<l with mure or 
less of elose-fertilization. The more exquisite the arrnngeincnts 
for the former are, the more completely is tlie plant dt'iieudcut 
upon insect visitation. Failure to intercross is a remote and 
small evil compare<l with failure to set seed at all. In nnler 
therefore that the plan of croaa-feitilization may not defeat even 
its own end, through too ahsolote dependence on preearious 
assistance, some opporlunily for self-fertilization will usually be 
advantageous. Also there is a. long arraj' of insect-visited 
flowers, especially ix>lyandrou8 ones, in which close fertilizatiuu 
must be much the commoner result, exc-ept where the pollen of 
another but wholly similar flower has greater jwtency. 

433. Subsidiarj- self-fertilization is secured in a great variety 
of ways. In Gentiana Andrewsii. which is proterandrous. and 
usually cross-fertilized by huiuble-betis entering bodily into the 
corolla, an exposed suiface of pollen long remains fresh upon 
the ring of anthers girding the base of the style : when the stigmas 
separate, they remain for some days simply divergent, but tbey 
at length become so revolute that the receptive surface is brought 
into contact with the ring of pollen below. The opening and 
closing of blossoms by day or night, the growth of style, fil»- 
monts. or corolla after antheeis commences, or other changes of 
position, may secure a certain amount of self-fertilization in a 
subsidiary or even in a regular way. Then certain six'cies, snch 
HB Chickweed, which blossom through a long season, close- 
fertilize even in tlie bud in early spring, when insects are scarce, 
but are habitually inti-rcrossed by insects in summer. Somewhat 
similarly, according to Hermann Mueller.' certain species, sacU 
as Euphrasia officinalis and Rhinanthus Crista-galli, hnbitually 
produce two kinds of blossoms, one larger and more showj'. 
usually affecting sunny localities, and with parts a<lapted to 
intercrossing by insects : the other smaller or inconspicuous, and 
with anthei's adjusted for giving pollen to the adjacent stigma 
without aid. There are gradations between these last arrange- 
ments, and the more special and remarkable one of dimorphiam 

1 Bctruchtung ilpr Blumc-n duruli Ltsekteii, 2U4 ; Nature. tUI. 43S. 




4S4. CIplHloKam;. Here the intention nnil the ni-coiii|)li»liinont 
of eelf-ferlilizatiou are unmislakahlc. Tbis pt-culiar dimorpliisra 
(■ciiisititii in ttie production of \ery small or iiieonepieuous and 
elnsed llowora, neeessarily scIf-fertiliziHl and fully fertile, in 
addition to ordinor}', conspicuous, and much less fi'iiile, tbougb 
perfect flowers. Two cases were known to Linnieus,' and one 
of them to DilleniuR before him ; those of \'iola have long been 
familiar in the acaulesccnt species; Adrien Jussicu made out 
the structure of the cleistt^amous flowers in t-ertflin Jlulpighiaecie 
in 1832. and recorded in 1843 that Adolphe Brongniart had well 
investigated tlioee of Spccularia, and tliat Weddt^l had discov- 
ered them in Impatiens Nolitiingerc. A full nccounl of ihe then 
known cases was given hy Mold ' in 18GS ; but D. ^Iiicllcr, of 
Ul^ala'. who examined Viola eaniiia. is said by Darwin to have 
given,* in 1H57, " the flrst (^11 and satisfaeturj- account of any 
eleistogamic flower." The appropriate name of cleittogamout 
was given by Kuhn.* in 18fi7, and is now in common use. 

Ha. Clcbtogumous dowers are now known in about 60 genera, 
of iK'twccn twenty aud thirty natural onlers, of very various 
relationship, thougli all bnt Bvo arc Dicotyledons. All but the 
Grasses' and Juncus are entomopbilous as to the ordinary 
flowors. and most of these such as have 8|)ocial arrangements for 
their intercrossing, either by diohognmy. hetcrogone dimoqihism 
or trimorphism (in Oxalis) , or such s|>eeial contrivances as those 
of Orehids. 

43G. It has been said that the ordinarj- flowers in such plants 
are sterile, and perhaps tliey always are so except when cross- 
fertilizMl: in most cases they are habitually infertile or spar- 
ingly fertile. Probably they suffice to 3e<'nre in every few 
generations such beneUt as a cross may give, while the principal 

' CiimpKnula (now SpecuUria) pert»liata n 
UttWr a clfUliignmuiu Riaie at R. tubFrnsn. Li 
llniLiarv uf One flimi-ri, but euppmcd thcin lo want tlir »lauR'n». 

• In Bot. Jtriluiit!, xxi. 900. 

• In Hot. Zfiiun^. xvi. "30. 

• Ililil. xxr. Ou. Tli(^nami-(acnoliiig"clnie<1up"unionnTfertiliiatinn)hai 
born Wlittcit dritliKfrmim. vrlik-h li not aa pmpcr. We proftr Mna/amma lo 
tUilajarHic (and ui of limilar term*), ai lusi harmoniiinp with Ihe Tjitin 
adjective form, both in (orro of lOTmiiwiiun am) In enphonioiuly inking Ihe 
acwnl upon the anlcpcnull. 

• Amphicarpiiui (Milium itmphicarpon. Punih) U tlie earliest recognUcd 
ctoiltoganmai Onui, cxnrpl pvrliapa Livrnia oryiraidM. Siittio iptcica of 
SpomtMiiu* are iikc the Utter. anJ Mr, C, G. PrinKle hu rewnlly detecHil 
•ocli flowprs miKTalcH at the baie of the sheatlu in Danthooia. Amtr. 
Jour. Sd. January, 1678, Tl. 



iDcreaM is by cIeist(^amoii3 self-fertilization, which thns ofTsetS' 
the incidental disadiantage of the former mode. 

437. In general, the eleistognmous are like unto the ordinary- 
flowers arrested in development, some arrested in the almost 
fkilly formed hnd. most at an earlier stage, and in the best 
Diarked cases with considerable adaptive modification. la 
these, ''llieir petals are rudimentary or quite atxirted ; (bar 
stamens are often reduced in number, with anthers of veir smalt 
size, containing few iwllen-graina. which have remarkalily thin 
tmnsimrent coats, and generally emit their tubes while stilt 
enclosed within the antber-cells ; and. lastly, the pistil is mucli 
retliice<l id size, with the stigma in some cases hardly at all 
devclo|>ed. These flowers do not secrete nectar or emit any 
odor : from their small size, as well as from the corollft being 
mdimeutnrj'. tliej' are singularly inconspicuous. Consequently, 
insects do not \TB\t them i nor. if tber Aid. could they flntl an 
entniDce. Such Bowers are therefore invariably self- fertilized ; 
yet they pnxlucc an aliundance of seed. In several cases, the 
young capsules bur}' themselves beneath the ground, and tha 
Bceils are there mataretl. These flowers are developed before^, 
or after, or simultaneously with the perfect ones." * In Grassav^' 
however, aa in some Dicotyledons, there is much less modifica- 
tion and more transition. For when Leersia half protmdcs its 
panicle, in the usual way, the includ&i half is fertile and the 
expanded portion sterile (or almost always so), although the 
flowers may o|>en and exhibit well-dcrelopcil anthers, ovarieoi 
and stigniaa. But when similar panicles remain enclosed 
leaf-sheulhs. they are mostly thiitftil throughout. 

438. Fully to apprehend the economy of eleistogamj- in pollen* 
saving alone, — and contrariwise to estimate the expense of 
intercrossing, — one shoulil compare the sraoll number of pollen- 
grains which so completely scnc the purpose in a typical cleis- 
tf^amous flower (say 4<I0 in Oxalls Acetosella, 'ihQ In Impaticns, 
100 in some \''iolets) with the several thousands of all entomo- 
philous cross-fertilized flowers, rising to over three and a half 
millions in the flower of a Peony, also their still greater number 
in many anemo))hilous blossoms. To this loss should be added 
the cost of a corolla and its action, also of the production of 
odorous matei'ial and of nectar. No siiecies is altogether elei»> 
tugumous. Thus cleistogani\-. with all its special advantage 
testifies to the value of intercrossing. 



Sectios v. Tiik Periaiith.' on Caj-tx and Cukulla is 


439. The distribution of the florai IcHves around tlie nxis, 
wliicli )iclong;8 to phyllotaxy. and their gwrticiilnr diB]K)sitioii tii 
the bud (lestivatioii). have already been eonsidered in Chnp, IV. 
Sect. I., II. And most of Itie mor|iholog},' of calj-x and comlln 
has l)een outlined in Uie preceding sectiuns of tlie jiresent diiiii- 
ter. What reniaina chit^Hy relalvs to iiailietilarB of Tunn and 
to lemi ill o logy - 

-l-tU, DnralioD. The difTerencea in thia respect give liae to a 
few terras, such as tlie fulliin'iiig. Calyx or corolla uiuy \k 

Periisltnt, not cost off after antbesis, but r(.>inaintng utiwithered 
until the Truit is formed or matured ; as the calyx in Labinlie, in 
I'hynalis. and most Hoses. 

Mtircetemt, ivilhcrin;; or drying without falliiig away ; as the 
corolla of Heaths, Droacra, Ac. 

Vfciiluiim. falling after aiithcsis and before fhiclification : as 
the )>etals of Hoses, the calyx an<l eorolla of Columbine. 

B}thrm«rnl or Fagaeiout, lasting for only a day ; as the |>eta]s 
of Poppy, llclianthemuin. I*nn<iane. and Spiderwort. In the 
two former, they arc cost <)r early deciduous, the anlhesis laHtiiig 
but a day: in the tno latter, the anthcsis iu eiiually or niorv 
brief, but the petals (i<'liqucHce or decay at once witliout falling, 
as does the vhole flower of Cei'eus graudillorus and other night- 
blooming Carta cere. 

Carfiieoat. falling when the blossom opens ; as the calyx of 
Poppy and lianel>erry. 

441. 5DBerl«l Term, siiccipetly denoting the niimtjer of 
leaves, either of the perianth as a whole, or of anj- one of lis 
circles, are common in de3cri|)tive botany. The most general 
are those which simply specify the niiinlier of component leaves, 
by prefixing Greek numerals to the Greek name of leaves, ex- 
pressing them in Latin form, or transfeiring them to Uio Eng- 
lish. Thus 

D'phgUom. of two leaves (sepals or [letals) ; Jrip/i^ltiu, of 
three; TVfni/i/y/oui.offour: Penhiphyllout, of live; Nexnp/igllout, 
of six. and so on. A tulip and a Trmlescantio {lower have a 
Iiexa]>h\'llous jierianth, bot conii>osed of two circles, answering 
to calyx and corolla: each Triphyttom.* When the chnrader 

I Prrionlhiam. *lia* I'tritm' of Paigonivai, {200. ) 

■ A* cIh'wIiciv ('xplRiiwd, when iiiiinerir>l compoilliun i* indimtHl wiihour 
reference W nalure of ptirU. Ihe lcrm« diwrrow. irimenia, litnmrrmtt. jKiila- 
rntma, Ic, DMjr be nK4. (322.1 


nf ibc or^n, i.e. whether caljx or corolla is to be spccffi 
the woni »K.-paI or petal ia employed in the combination ; 

X)'>(j)u/«M». oftwosepaU: Tritepalout, of Ihree; Tetratepnhjut, 
of four ; Pent<uepalou$, of five (also written d-Be|inlous, and ac- 
conlingly 2-sepalous, 3-scpalouB), and so on : also, 

Dipetalout, Tripetalout, Ttlrapelaluut, Pmlapelalous (2-5- 
petalous). Ac, when the corolla i« oonecmeil. 

442. Munopki/ flout, MonoKpnlous, and Monoprtatoiig are the 
proiwr terras for perianth (calyx, corolla, &o.) coraiwaed of a 
single leaf. Likewise Polyp/tt/Uout, Pofgn^aiotn, and folffpetal- 
oiii for Uie case of a considerable bnt unapecified numlwr of 
members. Unfortunately, in the Linniean and long- prevalent 
Dse, monopetAloua was the term omployiHl to di-signatv u corolU 
of one piece in the sentw, or the fact, of a coalescence or grow- 
ing together of two, three, five, or more petals into a cup or 
tube : and so of a ealj-x, of a whorl of bracts, &c. And jmly- 
lj«tatou9, iTolj-sepaloiia, and polypbyllons were the connteq>art8 
of this, meaning of more than one distinct piece, whatever the 
number. The misleading use, consecrated by long prescription, 
is not 3'et abandoned, but will in time be obsolete. In present 
descriptive botany, a polyphylious calyx, or a polyijctaloua 
corolla, or a r>-|)etalous corolla, would he taken to mean that the 
aepnla or petals (as the case may be) were distinct or uucom- 
bincd. and a monopetalous corolla to be one with petals combined 
by coalescence. (329.) 

44a. Terms of CnloD or Separation. The projier term (br a 
corolla or a calyx the leaves of which an' more or less coalescent 
into a cup or lul*e is 

Gamopttalmii for such a corolla, Gntnotepaloug for the calyx ; 
these terms meaning united petals or sepals. The older and mis- 
leading names Monopetalous and Monoirptthut, although current 
up to a recent day, should be discontinncil. Another term ia 
not rarely used in Germany, that of Sympetalous, for the gatno- 
l>etalona (or formerly monopetalous) corolla, — therefore Syn' 
Sfpahm for a similar calys. It is perhaps a more apt term 
than gamo|)etalou9, and of the same etymological signification ; 
but the latter ia already well in use. 

Churipetalout ia, on the whole, the most fitting name for a 
corolla the petals of which are separate (as it literally cxprcsaes 
tills), that is. for what is still commonly called Pulypeial'/us, ae 
already explained. (442.) Itisadopt^'rt by Eiehler, Ac. Chorl- 
tepnloui ia the term applied to tlie calyx, Dialypeltiloui (em- 
ployed by Endlicher) has the same meaning. Both this tenn 
and choripotaloua carry the implication of sepai-ated, rather 



than of t\"pkally separate, parU. Eltuiheropetalout (literally ■ 
rrec-potalkfl) has abo bei-n used, liitt is infoii^eDiciitly lung. 

444. IX-givp of coalfsceuce is most eorivctly exprvsecd liy tlii- 
jihra^L'S unitotl (connate, or coherent, or coaksceal) a/ tht batt, 
to lilt middle, ur Iv the summit, as the ca^ may be. But it is 
more usually and tersely ('Xi)ressecI in botanical deacriiition l>y 
emiiloying tenrnt of tliWaion, identical with those used in describ- 
ing tlie lohing or toothing of leaves and all plane organs. 
(1S4_1KS.) 'ITiot is, tlie calyx or corolla when gaimiphyllous 
ia fur description taken as a whole, and is said to be parttd 
(A-fiarted, b-parled, &c.). when the sinuses CKtcnd aluiost lo 
the Imse ; elfft, when about to the middle ; lobed, & general tJ^rin 
for any oonBiderable 8e|MirutioD beyond tootliing; dmtute or 
tvothed {^-toothid, ^-toothed, &c.), when the union extends 
almost to the summit; entire, when the union is complete to 
the summit or bonier. 

445. Ptrlii ot Pelftls, fte. The expanded portion of a petal, 
tike that of a leaf, is the Lamixa or Blade : any much contracted 
base is the L'Nurta or Claw. Tbe latter Is vcrj' short in a rose- 

petal, Init long and conspicuous in a i>ink and all flowers of that 
tribe {Fig. 471). in many Cappari dew (Kig. 401* ) and Cmcift-ne. 
A 91'pal is very rarely distinguish a We into laminn and claw. 

44H. Puis of tiamophrlloH PerlanUi. The coaleaceut {mrtion 
of n corolla, calyx, or of a perianth composcil of lK)th (such as 
a Lily or Crocus-blosHom). so far as the sides arc parallel or not 
too spreading, is its Tube : an expanded terminal portion, filher 
dividi.'Kl or undiWded. is the Limb or Boruer. The limb may 

Fid. 471. CnmlU nf Sfispirort. oT Hio Hpanlo tong-dawcil oi 
«lih ■ mm »l iliu Jiincttnn <>t rUw >>i<l blule. 

PIO. t:i. n«wer or GlUa connnpifnlU ^ ih» |*rl* mnawsriiig lo Iho dan oT 
pMklnnrihalut OicuRiluin nil untUiI Inln ■talx'. 

rta tn. n'>*n-nriIuC>TircM.VIna(lpoiDmQiwm«lli):tl>e|>et>lsiUttlehr 
onttnl liirn % atF-1„bu1 Bpnwllnf hnnin'. nn*i-ri<rihi>l|.inHi'aniiv'lTHa:thonv«>>oRi|viiml|«lal>r«rfvilyBii 
lalo • Uiui>|>c(-*lia|>eil tabs, and bajruui lutv aa KtmoM snun npnaiUiig bvnlu. 


be iwilwl (that is, the comiwneDl parts not united) quite or 
uearlj- down to tliu tu!>e or base, as io Fig. 472, 475 ; ov lesa eo. 
OH ill Fig. 473. 47C (witb limb 
5-lol>f(l) ; or with ratTely angles 
or i»oiiitB to represent the tipa 
of tlie L-oiiiiKinent members, as in 
Fig. 474 ; or with even ami entire 
border, as in common Morning- 
Glorj-. Fig. 482. 

447. The tine, or sometimes a manifest or conspiououa portion, 
betwwn tiie limb and tube (in the corolla always a portion abo^-e 
or at the insertion of tlie stamens, when tliese are Iwrue bj the 
corolla) ia called the Tukoat, in Latin Fai^x, pi. fitucei. This 
is mostly more open than tbe lube, yet less expanded tlian the 
limb -, but it ott«n presents insensible gradations from the one to 
tbe other. 

448. Sncb gpiwndsges as the Coiiona or Cnown (585, shown 
in Fig. 403, 4U4, 471) usually lielong to the throat of a gamo- 
j)etalijua corolla or perianth, as in Oleander, Comfrcy, Borrage, 
Narcissns, &c., or to a correxiKiuiUng ix)sitiou n ben the porta 
are not coalescent. 

449. Forms of Corolla, Calyx, Jtc. As to terminott^y, some 
of these are special and arc applica1)lc to eorolla only, as the 

Papilionaeeoiit, the ix*uliar irregular eoi-olla of the tj"pical 
portion of Leguminosa: (3H8, Fig. 342-334). which bas been 
already illustrated, and in which the petab, two pail's and rd 
odd one, Ijike i>articular names. Also the 

Carj/ophffllaecoiu, or Pink-flower (Fig. 471), a regular eorolla^ 
of five long-clawed (un^uirvlate) petals, tbe claws enclosed in a 
tulnilar calyx and the blades spreading ; and Ibc 

Cniei/eroiu. of four somewhat similar {wlals, the four abruptly 
Bpi-eading blades in the form of a cross (crueiale) , as in Fig. 394, 

Rmactnui, n-itli roundish and widely spreading pctab on veiy 
short or hardly any daws, as in Rose and Apple- blossoms. 

LHiaceous. a fi-pbyllous perinnth of campaniilate or fbnnelfonn 
shape; tbe members eitlier distinct, as in most common lilies and 
tulips, or gamnphylloua, as in Lily of tbe Valley. All but the 
first and last of these sorts arc examples of regular and chori- 
petalouB perianth. 

Orehiiiacfom flowers are of a peculiar irregularity, combll 
Ijoth calyx and corolla : one memlicr, tlic jictal in front of 


id fiTe-lulWHt cotoIlA at tiui c 

of thtf^H 



stninen ami stigma, differs from the real in Blia|)e anil ii 
uectaiifi;rous ^aa m Fig. 4(10) ; it is named the Labelllm, 

GiUeale ia a lerm upiilieii to a oorolla tlie iipiwr i)eUl or part 
of wliitli is nn-hccl into the shape of a ca&citie or helmet, called 
Uio Galea: aa Ui Aconite (Fig. 3o7) and Lauiium, Fig. 47a. 
In tho former the galea ia ol' a eiuglo ijctal ; in the latter, it 
cousieta of two, completely uintMl. 

4D0. Gamo|iliyllou« forma wiUi special names are chiefly the 
following. IlluatrAtiona are usually taken fiwrn the corolla, but 
the forms and terms are not peculiar to it, excepting the llrst, 
\\i. the 

LiguiuU or Sirnp-tkaptd corolla (Fig. 288, &c.), which ia 
nearly confined to ComiwsitiB. Here a corolla, formed of tliree 
or live i)L'tAlB, imitatea a single petal, except at its verj' hase, 
which ia commonly tubular : the remainder is as tliough the tuljo 
bad been split down on the upper aide and flattcneil out. The 
corolUi of Lobelia, type of a family most nearly related to Com- 
poaiUr, illustrates this. (Fig. 488.) 

in being ^^H 

4^1. The names of the general forms arc mostlj' taken from 
some resemblance to common objects. All those in common 
use will be found in the Glossan,' : a few leading ones are here 
Bjieeifled. They may be divided into the regular and the irregu- 
br. The principal irregidar form with a special name is the 

Lnbinif, or lipiwd, also termed Bilabia/e. as there are two lips, 
an upper and a lower (8n[K>rior and inferior, or anterior and 
posterior, 2D0), alUiuugh one of thcjn is sometimes ol>s cure or 
abortive. This bilabiate character in the corolla, 
the calyx also, pervades several orders with gamo|>ctalou8 
flowers, and gives name to one of them, the Labwtu!, to which 


IB corolla ufUnsrU, apnrrnl (»lc«mtsj at Uic In 

"' """ ■"" ^H 

gamo|>etaloua ^^M 

iuitu>, to which ^^M 

I Tirtiinilirnllni fTK ^^^| 

c I riniKiil I corolla id ^^M 

T SiiapUncKL *B1- ^^^1 

the Sage and MiDt belong. Such flowers an? 5-merous, and J 
have two members specially united lo form one lip, and three in J 
the other. The o<ld seyal being posterior (or next tlie axis of* 
infiore8(«nce) , and eonsecjuently the odd petal aiiterior, the calj'xl 
has ite lower tip of two sepak and its up|)er of three ; while tbs:! 
corolla has its upjier lip of two [)ctals and its lower of three. I 
But in Legiiminoeie. where the ealyx is sometimes bilabiate, and | 
where the o<ld aejial is antt-rior (or toward the braet), this i 
reversed, and two 8ei>als or lobes of the calyx form the Upper | 
lip and three the lower. A bilabiate cotx>lla is 

Riiigent, that is gaping or oi>en- mouthed, when the throat is 
fteely o|)en, as in Lamium, Fig. 479 ; 

PeriotitUe, or masked, when the throat is closed, more or less, ■] 
by a projeetiou of the lower lip called the Palate, as in ADtlr-- \ 
rbinum and Linaria, Fig. 48U, 4tJl. 

4 J2. Of regular forms, there are the following, bepnning with * i 
that having least tube : 

JtiitrUf, or Whtfl-ihaped (Fig. 475, 470), widely spreading from | 
the verj' base, or from a short and iucouspieuous tube. 

Crater i/orm, or Suucer-t/iaped, like rotate exwpt that the broad 
limb is cupped bj- some upturning toward the margin. 

IfypocraUriform, or rather (not to mix Latin and Greeb) 
H^ocraterimorphoui, in English Salvtr/orm, when a rotate or I 
saucer-sha|)ed limb is rai»ei) on ft.I 
slender tube which does not ina<^ J 
nilai^ upward ; that Is, where a long -j 
' and narrow tube abruptly expantU | 
into a flat or flattish limb, as in 
Fig. 478. In Fig. 472-474 are seen 
salverform corollas with somewhat 
more ujjwardly dilated {trumptt- 
$haped) tulte. The saher or hgpv 
crtUerium, which tlie name refers to, 
with a stem or handle l:)eneatli, is nov j 
to be met with only in old pictures. 

Tubular, when strictly used, denoteft< J 
a gamopliyllous perianth with UmVl 
*° inconspit'UOUB in proportion to tb»T 

tube, as in Trumpet noneysucklo. or as Fig. 47"2— 174 would bft 1 
if the limb were nmch diminished or wanting. But it is som»- \ 
times used in the sense of having a conspicuous tulw. 



Jnfundihtdiform, or Fu«nelform, sucli as the corolla of commOQ 
Moruing-Gloiy (Fig. 482), donot«s a tube gra(Juall,v eitlni'gjiig 
upirar^ IVoin a uarrow base into an expanding burder ur limt). 

Campanidate, or JSell-thaped (Fig. 477), denotcH a tube oriengtU 
not moi-e than twice the brvadtli, moderately expanded almost 
fi'oni llic biise, tUe aitles above little dii'ergenl. 

Section \'I. The AsDUtEai'M, oB Stamess in FAitTicui.AB. 

az. Tbe irhole Stamen. For tlic general character and some 
of the mo<iiIleationa of the stamens, sec the first (301) and por- 
tions of tlic succecdiDg secliunH of thu present chapter. Tlie 
terms |)ecuiiar to these oi^ns. and of common use in l>olnnical 
deaeription, were nearly all coined bj' Linnirus, and cmi)lojed as 
the uumes of chissca in his sexual system. (072.) The sub- 
stantive names of those elasaes which are characterized by the 
number of stamens, and which were dcsignateil by Oieok uume- 
rals preflxed to midria (tbe Greek word for man being U8C<1 
metaphorically for stamen), arc put into adjective I'urm, as 
follows : 

Mvnioiilroui, for a flower with A 8olitar>' stamen ; Dimdrom, 
for a flower with two stamens ; Triandruiu, with three ; Tetran- 
dnius, with four; Penlandroiit, willi five; Jleiandrous, with six ; 
i/r/j/oiirfruw, with seven ; Oc/anrfroK*. with eight; Enamndruut, 
with nine; Decandrout, wilb ten: Uvdecandroui, witli twelve; 

Polgandmut. with a greater or indefinite nnml>cr. or /co$nndroiit 
(meaning twenty -staracneti) when a polynndrous flower has the 
stamens inserted on the calyx, as in the Cherry (Fig. 337), 
I>enr. &c. 

nn «JL rH*lelph'ra» «U 

> I.nplM. Wi- M'HiwInJi'hna 

PI(i. MO. net ■rnjimnlM 

kuil 1) ota r<H. 484. Monftdetiihoiu itwuent a 

a. Ac , of Mollnw. 

u of ft CoutpuiK*. 1ST. Tbe lame, laid opeti. 


Didynamoiit is a term a|)iilii.Hl lo an anflro.'c-iiim of four e 
mens in two pairs, a longer aud a sliorter, as in Fig. 3C1. 

TelraJyiiamout is Blmilarly upplied to tliat of bix stamens, two ol 
them sliort«i-, in llie mannei- eliaracteristiL- of Cruciferffi, Fig 

4 J4. Terms wbioli denote coalescence of etami-ns, whetiier i 
their filamonts or their anthers, are 

Munadelp/ioue, that is, in one brotherhood, by coalescence O 
the filnmcDts into a tube, as in the Mallow (Fig. 4Sb), Lupio 
(Fig. 4«4), Lobelia (Fig. 4«8), &c. 

IJiudelp/ioiu, in two hrotherhomls, by coalescence of the f] 
ments into two si-ts ; eumeliuies au eqnal number in each, as u 
I-'umariaceie (Fig. 3i)0), sometimes nine in one set and < 
Bopai-atc. as in the Pea, (Fig. 483) and moat PapiliouaeeiE. 

Triadelphuut, with filaments united in three sets or clusters, a 
in Hypericum. 

Penladelpliout, in five sets, as in Linden. Fig. 398, 339*1 
But in goneral. when tlie si-ts are several, without regarti to tJw J 
number the stamens are said t<> be Polgadeiphoiu. 

Sffnijene»ioiig, when the stamens are united by their antlieeiJ 
into a lube or ring ; as in tlic whole vast order of ComposiUttl 

(Fig. 486, wbere they are five in number and the filaments dia^J 
tinct.), in tucurhita (Fig. 489, 400, where they arc tlireo la' 
numljcr and tlie Hlamcnts partly monadclphous) . and in Lobelia " 
(tig. 488, where they are also five and the long filaments ore 
mainly monadelphous) . 

Pla. «Mi. Flowsr of LnballB canllnsllii. oltli tnlw nf cwiillit <tli 
flUninatomnil aniliBn anltnl liilo ■ lube; /. inha of niHinpiiOi a. nf 

Fia. 1K3. Male aowtr of CocurblU (S^n«lrl^ witli llml. nf chI' 
>w*r. to ^ow tlie lUDianB, dc, tbree Hluunnti. Klxmla »( bwc 1 
klwve. uil iLros ijTicineglaiu anlben In ■ liliul nf hewl. 4M. SUi 
cnliugal Kn<1 llie nprer p*rt cqt awaj, in «liiiw Mib iinlnn. Tlio ttiilliBni Bro 
«tl. A iIbucIiikI •iMion otlbe Malon. wllli IoomIt »fiiii"ii» 

Fig. 4IK. SUmciiB Rn.l Mylo of ■ CyiTliwllum. uiiHsl Into oiw liwly or 
a. uiUicn I Ml. tuitaged stsiila aUuniD ; atig. Uio Mismo. 


455. Of terms relatiug to adnatiou of stamens, besides tbo 
genorat onos of kypogynous, periifyuuut, epigt/iwut (^32), and 
Tpip«laiou$, ov ailtmtt' with corolla, there is tlie siteciul oiii> of 

OyntiiiJroia, bat'iug stamens borne U|x>u the pjslil, as in. 
OieliidaeeiiL-. In Cytii'ii)e<lmm, the filaiueuts of two stanieus, sml 
an eulargLHl sterile stameu behind, are adnatn to a atjle, while 
the two anthers are quite ttev (Fig. i9i) ; iu tlia proper Orchis 
tribe (as ill Fig. -ICO, 4G1}, anther and stigma are consolidated 
into one mass, and there is ho evident style. 

4oG. A c-ompleto stamen consists of Filakent and Aktber. 
The latter ia the fhnctionally essential part of the organ, and 
therefore is wanting only in abortive or sterile stamens. (345, 
353, dec.) The filament, being only a sialic or sn|i|K>rt, may be 
very short or wholly wanting : then the anther is tetsHe, just aa 
the blade of a leaf is said to be sessile when there is no [X'tiole. 

457. The FUunent, although usnally slender aiul stalk-like, 
assumes a great variety of foiTas : it is sometimes dilated so as 
tu resemble a jietal, except by its bearing an anther ; as in the 
transition states between the true [wtals and stamens of X_nn- 
pluea. shown in Fig. 318. 

458. Such petaloid lllamcnts would indieatc that this part of 
tbe stamen answered to blade rather than to footstalk, while 
others would harmonize bettor with what seems at first sight to 
be the more natural view, that the filament is tlie homulogue of 
the })etiolo, the antlier of the blade of a. leaf. Remembering 
tliat in large numbers of leaves there is no distinction into )>etiole 
and lamina or blade, such homologies should not )>e insisted on. 
The filiimcnt may l>e variously a])|iendaged hy outgrowths. Some 
of these appendages are very eonspicuons. such as the scale of 
Larrea (Fig. 405), which is on the inside, and tlie nectariferons 
hood of Asclepias on liie outside ; or there may be a tootli on 
each maitfln. as in sjx^'ies of Allium. 

mS. The AnUier, the essential organ of the stamen, contain- 
ing the jiollen. surmounts tlie tilament, when tbat is present. 
It normally consists of two cells or lobes, the word cell being 
here used in the sense of sac. But. as each sac is not rarely 
divide<l into two cavities {toctlli). the best teehniL'sl name for 
anther-snc Is tliat of Theca. The two thecie. lobes, or cells are 
>re or less evident and sometimes 
r Junction, which is mostly a pro- 
longation of the filament, the CoNNKcnvm, or in English 


460. For the discharge of the pollen, the cells of a noimal 
anther open at the proper time by a line or chink, usually' 

commonly connected by i: 
eoMspieuoUB common base ( 


extending from top to bottom (Fig. 493), the iutnre or line of! 
dfhncmct. Commoulj- this line is lateral or marginal; 
rarely it faces forward or backivaid. In the vast gotms Solaoum,] 

to wLicli the Potato belongs, in most Ericaceous plants (F 
458, 494), in Poljgaia, and in many other flowers, the autht« 
cells open only by a hole {Jommm or pore), or at most a short 

S chink, at tlie tip, thitiugU which the {loUen has 
some way to lie diticliargcd. In Vaccinium (Cri 
berry, Blueberrj", &c.). the pore-bearing tip of tJ 
anther-cell is prolonged considerably, often into i 
slender tube, as in Fig. 340. In the BarlKrrj- (F^ 
495) and in most of that family, also in Lanraeci 
uu the whole fhee of each anther-cell separates by a c 
tinuous line, foiming a kind of door, which is attached at the b 
and tunis back, as if on a liinge : in this case, the anthers arc 8aid| 
to open by uijlifled valves. In the Sassafhis and many othei 
plants of the Laurel family, each lobe of the anther opens by t 
Bmalier valves of the kind, like trap-doors. 

4C1. The attaeliment of the anther to the fllament present 
three principal modes, which ai'e connected by gimlatioi 
These are the 

Tnmtlt (Fig. 405, 49C), in whicli the anther directly continiH 
and correeijonds to Uie apex of the filament, the cells \ 
dehiscent strictly mara;inally, tlie lobes or cells not looking ( 
projecting either inward or outwanl. 

FIG. 1D3. A xtomsn, vllh Ita nnllier. b. onrninimrlTiR Ibi 
In Ibe Bormii) nannor ilnwn Ihii irlinlaleniclli nfthuoaler ulcl 

no. 4M. SUmenoraPiTola: each coll of tbe uithi^r o 
Itco or pon. 

FIG. IOC StBmsn of ■ BnrbDrry; l]ie nlliof Iba ktitbel 

FIG. UO. A rtnmnD nf l«.p>Tnm bit. 

npenl'ie isk'' bj nn igti J 


L toe 

U nilr]'tl< 

in'ber. 4W. Stunun of (Enotl 


Adnate, in which the conni-ctivo ap])far8 to be a diroct con- 
tinuation of the filament, having tlic anther adhcn-tit to the 
anterior or iK)9U?rior faoe of it, and the lines of dehiscence 
therefore Ijukiiig inwaitl ov outwaKl. Magnolia. Linodendron 
(Fig. 4S7), and Asanim (Fig. i'J9) Ainiish guoti cxaiiipli's : tlve 
lattor coii8i)i<.Hiou8l.v so. on acconnl of a prominent prolongation 
of the connective or lip of the lllamont. 

Vertalilt, wlien the nntlicr is allaclnxi at some part only of its 
hock or fhont to the tip of Uio fli.imcnt. on which in antliesis it 
liglitly swings ; aa in Plaiitaiu, in all Grasses, the Lily, Evening 
Ihimrosc (Fig. 408). &c. 

462. The direction to which an anther faces, whether inward 
(towanl the centrt' of the OowiT). or outwanl (towai-d the l>eri- 
anth), has to l»e considered; eswpl in the case of an innate 
ADtlit^r with strictly lateral or marginal dehiscence. An anther is 

Enrorte, i, e. turned outwanl, or I'otticout, when it fUces to- 
wanl the iMTinnth, as in Magnolia and Uriodendron (Kig. 4'J7), 
Asanim (Fig. 499), and Iris; these all being eases of adnate 
and estrorse anthers, the cells attached for their whole length lo 
the outside of the summit of the filament or the connective. 

htrorte, i. e. turned inward, or A»tieo\u, when it faecs Inward 
the axis of the flower: as in N^\'Tiipha>aeea> (Fig. 318). in Violet 
and loix-lia (wliich are adnate and introrse), and in fEuothem. 
In tlie common Kvening Primroses (as in Fig. 498) the authcr 
is fixed near the middle, introrse. and versatile. 

4RU. The direction in which tlie anther may bo said to f^CC. 
outwanl or inward, depends upon two characters, which do not 
always coincide. v\z. the insertion or attachment of the cells, 
and tlie poHJIion of their line of dehiscence. In such a strongly 
I'lmraeteriKiiI adnntc anther as that of Liriodendron (Fig, 497), 
hotli the attachment and the dehiscence ore plainly l)O8ti^^0U8 or 
extrorse : in miwt species of Trillium, the cells are introrse as to 
utiAchment. tint some are nearly umiginal and some are even 
rnlher estrnrsc as to dehiscence : in the related Medcola. and in 
Liliimi. where the anlliers are extrorsely affixed toward the bose 
or middle lo a slender tip of the filauieut. the dehiscence is 
either introrse or nearly marginal. Pamasaia is in similar case ; 
tlie anthers being clearly extrorse as to Insertion and more or 
U-ss introrse as lo dehiscence. 

464, Adn.ite anthers are |<erbaps as frequently extrorse as 
introrse. Othern, whether ba»!jixMi or medljtrtd, are more com- 
monly introrse. Those fixed by the middle, or at any other 
part of tlie baelc, and lying on the inner side of the fUament, 
arc said to be Ineumbent. 


465. The connective may l>e apitendagetl eitlier by a prolon* 
gatioii or otherwise fram tlie lip (_aa in Fig, 4'J'J), or from t" 
batk, as in Violets and in many Ericaceoiis iilants. 

4(5C. The normal anther is two-celled, Momlar, or (to t 
a less common term) dUhecouty and its tobes or cells )>a 
right anil left ; but the cells at first, and sometiuies at inaliiri^ 
are bilocelliUe, that is eacli is <liviiled into two by a paititiQi 
which stretcUes from the connective to the sutui-e or lino ( 
n innate anther, aiul 
/ in many ollici-s, this 
line or dehiscence ia 
luai^inal or lateral, 
cither strictly or 
nearlj- so, as in 
Fig. 500. When introrac or extrorse (as in Fig. 501, u02)-J 
the sutures may still be eonsidereil to rejirescnt the I 
turned inward or outward. The pollen is Accordingly 
dnced in Tour cavities or seimrate [jorlions of the interior, 
the two lurelU on the same side of the midrib or connectJT) 
(right and left) are usually confluent into one pollen-filled cavitj! 
or cell at maturity if not earlier, or at least the partition betwM 
them breaks up at dehiscence. Sometimes it remains, and, ' ' 
groove at the sutures being deep, the anther is strongly fon 
lolled or f/uadr- locator at maturity, aa in Meni3|wrmum (~ 
504) ; but mori^hologically this is still only bilocular (ditbet 
although quadrilocellate. and the anther opens at the sutu 
and through these luirtitions. 

4G7. A stamen iK'ing the homologue of a leaf, the natv 
supposition is that the anther is liomolf^ous with the blade a 
an npieal jiortion of the blade, therefore the two lobes or tbt 
with the right ond left halves of it. the intervening eonneetivi 
with the midrib, and the line of dehiscence with the leaf-ni 
gins,' This conception is exemplified by the accomijanjit)) 

1 Tills is llie view long afro lalii'n by Cnsilnl and Rtrpi-r. and il n 
be maintained n> tlic l*st morplioliipi'Hl roncpption. Mnlil inlrrpoeed « 
nbjcctinns la its unfriTBalllj ; but, ni prcaontefl in SsL-bs's Toxt-lkuk. tl 
art nnt incompalibti' with tlic cotnmcin morpbology. Siiflis tikei the i 
irn-nl witli tlie conneclivp to he the humoloiuie of Ihe wlmle leaf, and ( 
antlm-pellf as appendages. Oiticrs, in lilci^ning the aniheri to" 
a similar view. 

hj tba TUliUni or breaking up or Uie pulillim 

at, tin two loctlU Incoming nMM 


diagram, Fig. B03, which should, however, show the mcdiad 

pnrtilioiis in the eross-aectioii, or traces of tlioin. Pollen is :] 

epeeinl ilevelojiment into peeuiiar cclia of what would 

be parcneh_i-nia in a leaf. Its foiination uonnallj' 

begins in four plaeea, which may remaiu separate 

lip to maturitVi or the two on each side of the axis 

or c-onnective may early be confluent into one cell. 

408. Of the many delations of tlae typical two- 
celled anther, with its cells parallel and united 
longitudinally by a connective, the simplest and 
commonest is that in which (as in Fig. 50^) the 
two cells divei^ below and remain imited only at 
tlieir ajK-x. Next, the two cells may, in their early 
development, become conduent at the n|)ex, as in the 
Mallow family (Fig. 506), so as to form a continuous poltin- 
iferous ea\'ity within, opening by a continuous suture round the 
margin: here the anther is unilocular or one-celled by confluence. 
In another way, the anthers of some Bi>ecieB of Ortlioearpua (gen- 
erally resembling Fig. qQA, but the lobes or cells quite distinct 
or even eeparateal at ai^ex) lose one of the cells by partial or 
complete non-develoiuncnt and so benjine one-celletl by abor- 
tion. TliL' anther of Oomphrena (Fig. 507) is completely uni- 
locular by abortion or suppn-ssion of the comiianion cell. Tims 
losing one half, it is said to be dimidiate, or halved. 

4Cy. The two anther-cells, such as those of Fig. 505, some- 
times divei^e so much that they fonn a straight line transvei-se 
to the filament, as in Monarda (Fig. 
AOrt). m which their contiguous ends 
BO coalesce as to give the appearance 
of a one-celled anther fixed by the 
raidiilc. Or, again, the two cells may 
be separated by the cnlai^ment of 
the connective l»et ween them. asinCal- 
amintha. Fig. 50!). This cnlaigcmcnt 
is extreme in the great genus Salvia, in 
which a very long and narrow connec- ™ ■» » m 

tive gives tlic appearance of a filament astride the a[)ex of the 

n|iper • ivu'l <if a leaf 

no, an;. AnUnr of OomplucDk « Ul 




proper filament, and Ix-aring ati antlier-cetl at each end. In & 
few 8i»ecie8, the two anther-cells aif neaily alike ; in more, the 
lower one is imperTect, as in Fig. 510* ; in more, it is abortit'e 
or wanting altogether, as in Fig. 510*. Then, in the related 
Califomian genus Audibertia, the lower half of this eonnectij 

ie reduced to a eliort tail, as shown in Fig. 511*, or even In 
most of the species to so minute a vestige that, except for these 
transitions, the stamen might be supposed to consist of a simple 
filament, with on interruption like a splice in the middle, and 
surmounted by a. one-celled anther, as shown in Fig. Sit*. In 
Rosemary, the continuitj- is complete, although a minute reflexed 
tooth sometimes indicates the Junction. 

470. Pollen, the proihict of the anther, is usually a powdery 
substance, whtdi when magnified is seen to consist of sepamte 
grains, of definite size and shape, uniform in the same pla 

® O 

but often very different in differenl s|>eciea or families. The 
grains are commonly single cells, globular or oval in shape, and 
of a yellow color. But in Spiderwort tliey are oblong ; in the 

FIO. SOMill. Ant!.er». irlih o 

ppcr part 

. if KTcral lAl't 

ne. tim. or 

a oroCalitniintlm. 

»p«le« nTSnlvta, wlih l"n 


« upper fnrV of whlcl. l™n. ime 



TeiM.), b« 

lug Ih^olhwwll In k 

In h Ifmm S. e<i»llio»). kMt» 


1. mi.a. S.meof A 

■Klllwrtia mnrtin..™ 

the Iner r^rk n 




FIO. Sll-t 

ll>e upper 1. In ■ ■ 

tn^ht lln 

e irlth the akment wlilch 

M, F-ffrnfofpoU™ 

fiU, from 


IDOMhMlUl 113 


SU, UlblKU. 


Cichorj' and Tliislle tribes, niany-sidctl ; in thp Musk-plant, 
spirally gruovoil ; in lUo Mallow family and tin; S(|iiasli niid 

^ ^ O ^ 

Pumpkin, beaot with briskly projections, &c. Tlio pollen of 
I^ne. as well as that of the OnagraccK, is not bo simple, Ijiit 
&p)>ears to (.-onsist of three or four blended cells ; 
that of most Ericacete ei-idently consists of four 
grains or cells united- (Fig. 51-2-521.) The 
most extrnonliimr)' shape is that of Zostera, or 
the Eel-grass of salt-water, in which the grains 
(destitute of the outer eoul) consist of long and "' 

Blonder threads, which, as they lie side by side in the anther, 
resemble a skein of silk. 

471. Pollen-grains arc usually formed in fours, by the di\-ision 
of the living contents of mother ct'lls first into two, and these 
again into two ]>arts, which Itccome specialized colls. As the 
pollen completes its growth, tlie walls of the mother cells are 
usually obliterated. But sometimes these cells 
persist, either as shretls. forming the cobweb-like 
threads mixed with the iwllen of Evening Primrose, 
or as a kind of tissue combining the pollen into 
coherent masses, of various consistence. Of this 
kind are the elastically coherent poUen-masses (or 
PoLLfxiA, sing. Pollimum) of Orchises (Fig. 463), " 
and the denser wasy ones of many other orchids and those of 
Asclepias or Milkweed, Fig. 52'2. 

472. A pollen-grain has two coats. The outer coat is com- 
pamtlvely thick, and often gmiuilar or fleshy. This is later 
formed than the inner, and by a kind of seeretiun from it : to it 
all the markings belong. The inner coat, which is the proper 
cell-wall, is a verj- thin, delicate, transparent and colorless mum- 
bninc, of considerable strength for its thickness. Tlie pollen 
of Zostera and of some other aquatic plants is destitute of the 
outer coat. 

473. The ca\ity enrlosed by tlie coats is filled with a i-iseid 
BiibBtancc, which otten appears slightly turbid under the higher 
IK)wer3 of oniinary microscopes, and, when submitted to a mi^- 

no. SIS'Gll. Fnimi of |v>Uini: Sia, LUj; GtT, Cichor 
120. KhIriIii: six. F.vtinlnK rrimnM 

ria. 321. A j/alt of iiollliiU at AkIciiIu. ■nnexol hj tli 

uiillcln to Ui« gUad. 


nirjing power of about three hundred diameters, is found 
contain a multitude of minute particles (fuviUa), the lai^r of 
wbicli aiv from one four-thousand tli to one five~thousandt)i of an 
inch in length, and the smaller unlj one fourth or one sixth of 
this size. When wetted, the grains of pollen promptly imbibe 
water by endosmosis, and arc distcndetl, ehanging their slii 
somewhat, and oblitei-ating the longitudinal folds, one or 
in number, whidi many grains exhibit in the dry state, 
the more extensible and elastic inner coat inclines to force 
way through the weaker parts of the outer, especially at one 
more tliin points or pon>s : sometimes foi-ming projectii 
when the absoqjtion is slow and the exterior coating tough, 
many kinds of pollen, the grains, when immersed in water, 
distend to bursting, discharging the contents.' 

474. Follen-tabes. In others, and in most fresh pollen, Yihea 
placed in ordinarily aerated water, at least when this is slightly 
thickened by syrup or the like, and Submitted to a congenial tem- 
jieratui-e. a projection of the inner coat through the outer appears 
at some one point, and by a kind of germination grows into a 
slender tube, which may even attain two or tliree hundred times 
the diameter of the grain ; and the richer protoplasmic contents 
tend to accumulate at the 'farther and somewhat enlarging ex- 
tremity of this [lollen-tube.' 

475. In eleistogamous flowers (434), the pollen, while still 
the anther, sends out its tubes, which may grow to a great lengthi 
in the mere moisture of tlie flower-bud, the growing tip always 
directing itself toward the stigma in a wonderful way. Similarly, 
in the open flower of Milkweeds, the jwllen-tubes sometimes 
start IVom tlie ix>!len-mass even while yet in the anther, and in 
vast numbers, forming a tuft or skein of pollen -tubes, which 
may attain considerable lengtli and direct itself towani the some- 
what distant stigma. Commonly, however, the pollen remains 


' In Conifers;, llii; (rrainB of pollen Iiavc a peculiar intt-rnal > 
mthera development (suggestive o( a homology witii the roitrMporr* ot u 
of the higher Crrplognmis), the contents al or before maturily undergnin; 
ilirlslon into two or Ihrce internal eelli, only one of which acts In fertilinb- 
tlon. When they act upon the orule or are placed in water, anil the Inner 
coat swells by ahaorption. the bursting oulcr coat is eommonly thrown oft. 
InT^nei and Flr» (but not In Larch and Hemlock Spruce), tlie grain of 
pollen ii singularly compoand. consiilinR (as in Fig- 618) of ■ central arcuate 
body (the proper pollen-cell) bearing «i each end an empty roundiih cell. 
Tliese are veiicular pmtruiioni or appendages of llie proper pollen-grain, <^^^ 
no known functional Importance, except that lliey render lucli wind"**" 
pcFBcd pollen more bnovant tor traniportaiirm. 

' Van Tiifghem, in Ann. 8ci. Nat. scr. G, xii, SI2, Ac., 1B60. 


iinaltvrc'il uutU it is placinl upon tlic stigma. TIic more or It-sa 
visfid moiBture of tliis incites a aini- 
ilar growth, and also doubtless nour- 
ishes it ! and the protniiling tube at 
once penetrates tlie stigma, and bj- glid- 
ing between its loose eells buries itself 
in tlio tissue of the style, descending 
thence to the interior of the ovarj and 
at length to the ovules. Fertilization 
is accomplished by the action of this 
IMillen-tube upon the o^iile, and npon a 
special formation witliin it. Consequent 
upon this an ombrj'o is formed ; and the o^'ule now becomes a 

Sectios VII. Toe Pistils, ob GrNfficiUM. 
§ 1, In AsoioapERMS. 

476. The succinct description of the pistil in the first section 
of Iliis chapter (302), as also what lias been slated uf tlie modi- 
fications of the gyntpcinm in Section III., relates to the most 
typical conditions of this port of the flower. The essential 
characteristics of all ordinary pistils, whether simple orcom|K)und. 
aiv ; 1 . a closed ovary, in which one or more ovules arc include<l ; 
and 2. a stigina, nixin which pollen for fertilizing the ovules is 
received, and through which the pollen acts upon them. There 
is a more simplified condition, in Gymnosperms, in which naked 
ovules are exiKised to the direct action of the pollen. In oon- 
tl'adistinction to this, the ordinary pistil is said to be Atiffiotprr- 
mous ! that is, with the seeds enclosed in a sac or covering, this 
in the flower being the ovary.' And plants with such gynarcinm 
are denominated An(Jiospehms or Angiospekuocs tlakts. To 
sncli only the present subsection sjKcifically relates. 

477. The several terms which opjily to the Gynaeinm we 
female system of a flower, and to ita components, have been 

> AlChnu^ 1)iiu originate)], the «ro<Is lire not In nil ciun nialarcd in a 
cloied pitiii. In I lie Bi up Colioeh, Caiilopiiyllum tliaUctrolili?*. (ho ovuIm 
rniiluru llic oiary inon aftpr Huwering. nnil Ihc aepda bociime nakii] ; and in 
Migiiunetle they arc inipcrfeclly entlinoJ, the ovary being open at ilie 
(ummit from nn early pcrloil iit [rucliScalion. 

9\a.taa. a pnllcii-cnin nr DiUiin Slnunnnlam, amitllni lU ■■!«. tC4. Fnllon. 
(IHlnofaOnTnlvnliv. with )!■ tnbt IU3. Other pntlrn-inlni. with Ihrlr liihn. Ina 
Mran(l)r mufiiiawl. D9t. A t"<l1i!n-|nln of tlie EienJn^ PiiiDmH. n>Ilni| em ■ porllnn 
fifllw Sigma. Inlowliicb lh« lobe emlllcil rmm ana of (Iw Migka pcuetistCB i tlicojipg- 
•Ite angle Blw Holt tlu( a pollca-ulia. All lilglilj m " ' 


enutncratpd ami defined already (302, note) : the elemcnl 
term is timl of 

478. Carpel, Lat. CAnrELLCM. This is the term eoiawl bv D< 
and is in eummoti use. The better-romied word Ca^kpidii 
(English Car/nil) has been proiwsed, and boat of all C 
rnrLLLH, in Riiglisli Cai-popiiylt, For coritels ore. as the 
uii1)oph.vlla denotes, pistil- leaves, or leaves of tlie gyn( 
1. f., eeciUbearing or fniftifi'ious pliyila. Tbey occupy the 
trnl or uppermost region of the flower. A carjiel 
of itself, either t4ie only one of a blossom or one of sereral, 
it may be a constitueui of a more eomplex pistil. In either 
a carpel is the homologuc of a leaf. 

479. The morphological eoiiecption of an ancombiued caqie! 
is that of the blade of a leaf incurved lenglliwiso, so that 
the margins meet, and Join by a suture, thus forming a closml 
sac. the ovary. A prolongation of the tip of the leaf is the Hf^e: 
some portion of this, usually the apex, not rarely a single or 
double line down tlie side which ansR-ers to the suture of the 
leal-niai'gins, and may be i-cgai-ded as its continuation, is tlie 
stigma. The caiiH;lluiy leaf is always i'ncur\'e)l ; the lower sur- 
face of the leaf is represcntwl by 
the exterior surface of the ovarj-, 
the npi»er by the interior. The 
conjoined margins of tlie leaf, or 
whatever they bear, are internal 
in the ovary : the stigma may 
reganled as a portion of h 
margins presenteil externally. dOK 
titute of cpi'lcrmis and formed 
of loose eelhilar tissue, which in 

antliesis is moist by some secretion, Tlie ondrt are pw?nliar 
struclui'cs normally arising as outgrowths from the margins of 
the leaf, or some pail of them, sometimes IVom the whole or 
a 8[>edal portion of the upper or inner surface of the leaf. 

480. The carpellary leaf being involute, the suture, on which 
the ovules aiv normally liome. always looks toward tlie axis or 
centre of the flower. It is the only pmi^r suture (or seam) a 
caiiK'lenn have. From its position it takes tlie name of Inntr 
or Vtntrnl Suture. And the opix>sit« line or ridge, answering 
to the midrib of the leaf, being sometimes prominent and of the 


lie lln«l •in'1 Ihc niitntc hearing ilio ■itiiIpi' tnmwl rnwnni llie tjv. fS^ 
ntriiel ot Mlmh Murixnlil wljch liiu n[i«»«l anrl ulipil tlie Mwdt: Uie jkiIdIi of 
~ ' Utter tKMU|d«aau* alont Uw cdun of Ibc oupd. 



apiK-aranco of a suture, haa been somewhat iucoiigruoiisly iiaDieil 
Uio Oilier or iMrml Suture. 

4«1 . The numlier of carpels in a gjiiifleeinm is simply expressetl 
by nilJeetivG teims conaisliiig of Greek numerals preUsc<i to tliis 
word : e.g., M-jnucarpfUart/. of a solitarj- earpel ; Dienrprllur;/, of 
two eari)cls ; TricarpeUarg, of three ; Tetrcwarpetlary, of four ; 
Pentacarpellan/, of Ave, and so on up to Potgcarpellari/, of many 
or at least of several and an iniiefinitc number. Ia'Ss general 
and only partially synonj-mous terms are such as Munogymiiii 
(of one pistil). Digj/nous (of two), Pol^gyium* (of many), &e. 
These are adjective forras of the names of the orders, Dom 
Monogynia to Polggynia, in the Llnniean artidcial etassi Deal ion. 
whieli either supposes the esr|>els to bo separate or iwrliy so. or 
confounds simple and eompountt pistils. 

4M2. When tlie gjnojcium is of a solitary cari>el. the i>osiliou 
of tills OS regards the axis of inflorcsecnee is not uniform ; but 
eonimouly its back or dorsal suture is before the eulXeniting 
braet, or in other words the ventral or ovule-bearing siiluro 
faces the axis of inflorescence. When there ai-c two carpels, 
they face each otlier, biinging their ventral sutures into op]}osi- 
tioD. and as to axis of inflorescence either median or transverse 
{p}\), but usually median, tliat is antei-o<postcrior or in the 
Ihic of bract and axis. Cnieifei-o;, Capparidacea;. and Fiimari- 
aeca; are somewtiat remarkable for having their two ('nrjH'ls 
right and left, that is, collateral or, in other words, transverse. 
Wlien three, four, or a greater numl>er, they divide tlie circle 
Cfiunliy, or when numerous they take a spiral instead of verticil- 
late ortler, and occupy seteral or many ranks, as in Ranunculus. 
Slagnolia. Potentilla. &c. 

4*13. The Gyncecium may be either of separate caqx^ls 
{Api>carpow$) , or of carpels coalescent into one body {Sgncnr- 
piitit), or of all grades between tlie two. Apoear]>ous pi^^lils iirc 
timpir ; a synearpous pistil is compound. 

484. In Iwth. the essential parts are the ovarj' and the stigma. 
The style may be conspicnous and widely separate these two. 
as in Fig. o3ti-538 ; or liardly any, as in Fig. 532-535 ; or none 
at all. as in Fig. 530. 531, 533. 

483. PlaeentA. Tliis name 'is applied to any surface in the 
interior of the ovarj- on which oi-ules arc borne. It has been 
staled (0i9) that these are asnnlly borne iiixm the margins of 

' Taktm from smnote analofty with tlie ptiu.*pntB of llie lii^licr anirnali. 
The Tumc Appears l« liavu been inlroduceil Inlo bntan; by Adaninn It liai 
bpen tvrmed Tropiotptmum or Sptrmop/iionm bj wime of Uie early modern 



■ cari)cllar_v leaf, or upon some portion of whnt 
m. When the ovules are nuniLTous. 
[ times when they are Tew, the combined leaf-edges 
enlarge to form a kind of iveeptacle for their attaeh- 
nl or support : this is the Plaeetita. In Fig. aSO, 
the placenta is well dcvelope<l, and also in 
icarpons ovaries as are illustrated in Fig. 
', 544, and M5. In verj- manj' others (sueh 
Kig. 52(*, 531, 533), there is no particular enlarge- 
ment of the leaf-roai^ns visible, and no particular 
ground for the use of this special term. Still it 
is iwnimonly used, as occasion serves, even for the 
mere line or spot on which ovules are borne, as 
well as for a more prominent development to which 
KB the name was originally applied. 

48C. Simple or Apocftrpons Pistils may be solitary, several, or 
numerous. When indefiniltly numerous, thej- are seldom in one 
circle. Iiut arc capitate or spicatc H|K)n a proportionately enlai^eil 
or prolonged receptacle, as in Anemone, Ranunculus, and most 
fitrikingli- in Myosurus; when reduced to a single one, as in 
Actwa, Podophyllum.' Barherry, and Plum or Cherrj'. the car- 
pel mostly appears as if it wen- an actual termination of the 
-j_ floral axis. But even then the pistU 
/Y ff^ TW is hardly ever quite siinmetrical in 
/il |j / i\ 8li»po: the ovary is somewhat gib* 

vuftv /I \ >JL3 ^"^ **'' unequal-sided (as 
(cm\ /l\ ^a 512, 315, 316, 528, 531-533), and 
VmSgj [jl M \Vm stigma more or loss oblique or evm 
^^pf \JF ^^ wholly lateral. Tlie continuation of 
sn sai sa the latter down the whole length of 

the ventral side of the style (as in Fig. 528, and also Fig. 549) 
is not uncommon. In Schizandra (Fig. 531) it is contiaoeA' 
downward on the ventral «lgo of the ovarj' as far as to 




h arg 

> Abnurmal spcdttwne ot Podoplsyllum pclulaiu arc 
having ■ gyTHetium of from two lo eIi Kparaic tarpels. 

' Pk'iin}g[j>nc. ft GenliBimccDiu genue to nmnpd on tliis sccnunt. Iia* i 
style Dor >pk-al itigma whatever, but lini a long ntiRma pxttnding iliiwa l| 
ouuiJo of each ovuliferous suture of its dicarptllary ovary for n 

Flo. Sil. Vertical HcUan ot ■ pMll nf S<Ui 
tlic tilpiia ilecurnml down to IIio ml'lillo nf Ihi i>v: 
rUw. eXi. VMH of AcUbu rubra, cut acruH, m i 

II acroM to tboir th« plaeenta,Aftfl 

487. As the iilaccntn of n siinplc pistil belongs to tbe two 
united murgins of tlie car|K'llary leaf, Uicrc is nutui-ally n double 
row of ovules, one to eacli margin. If the lenf- 
mai-gins which are tiifDed inward in the ovar^' be- 
low to bear the oiules are tuineil ontwarrt nbove to 
receive the )>ollen (see Fig. 531), then the typical 
stigma slioukt also be double or bilamellar. So it 
is seen to lie in such caqK-ls as those offig. 528, 
031-593. and indeed in veiy many stigmas of this 
class. Such division, or even a greater bifurealion 
of a monocaqiellarj* stigma into two lobes oi' liuU- 
stigmas, is not anomalous. 

488. nie ovary of a simple pistil should be ^^^ 
uniloeutar, tliat is, should have a single cavity j l^j^^j 
or cell (hevliu), although, as will soon be seen, I 1 
tlie converse does not hold true. Yet this cell in \ / 
ccrtniu instances becomes hiloettlatt, being divided \ / 
by a growth or intrusion from the back into two AX 
loeeRi. This ot^ui-a more or less in the lai^er \ I 
number of s|>ecios of the Leguminous genus jj, 
Astragalus, and the mode is shown iu Fig. 534. 

489. Componnd or SjmrArpons Pistil.' This consists of two, 
tJiree. or a greater number of carpels cualesccnt into one bodj'. 
A Into comitound pistil represents a whorl (in the simplest case 
a pair) of carpels united into one body, at least as to the ovani'. 

4'JO. The coalescence of a capitate or spicate mass of car|)els 
or simple pistils of the same Bower, imbricately heape<l on the 
torus, as in Magnolia (Fig. G48) and Liriodendron, cannot 
proi^erly be said to form a compound pistil. This heap of 
pistils may be oAlled a Sokema. 

491. Morphologically, a compound pistil, as to tlie ova r>~. may 
l>e a pair or a circle of eloued carjiels or simiile pistils liniught 
into contact, and the contiguous parts united : this is illustrated 
in Fig. 535-538. Or it maj' be formed of a whorl of o|»eu car- 
pellary leaves, Joined each to each by the contiguous mai^us. 

> The Irrma apamrpouM nnd tgncarpom for pialila, Ilic Srat of Kp*rMe, ihe 
■rcond at combinnl cMrprli, were introdui^ by I.intllc}'. They have Hllle 
sdTanU^ over Ihe tem» giiiiple anil compounil. Moreovvr, the wnnl 
tfmxiiji or •iptfar/iiam had liren appri>prialc(l lo ■ fort of fmll of the clau 
DOW cnlldl multiple, famteil by the voa IcRccnce of U'veral flowen. and alio 
to that of a heap, head, or tpikc of rarprU cnorc or Ie»« cohprine at matn- 
titf, M in a btacklierry, or confluent in the flower, a« in Magnolia. 



in the mnnnpr of Fig. 5J2-5-1J. Between tbese two tlieroV 
every grailntioti. Tlic firet fonns a «>m|)oiiii(J ovarj-, ■ 

4!I2. ffiUi tno or more C«11b and Axll« PluvatB. For it is 
evident that, if tlie ctintiguous parts of a wlioii of two or more 
closed car\Ki\B cohere, tiie resulting wmiwuml ovarishouhl Have 
as many cells as there are car[M;ls in its composition, ami tlu ' 
the plaeentie (one in the inner angk of encli carpel) wil 

bronght together in Uie axis of the compound piatil. And tl 
partitions, tei-med Dissepiments, which divide the com)»at 
ovarj- into wlls, manifestly consist of the unit<x1 contignnus por-- 
tiona of tlie walls of tlie cait>els. These necesaaiil^^- are composed 
of two layers, one belonging to each carpel; and in fniit they 
often split into the two layers. True dissepimenU and the t 
cells must accordingly lie equal in number to the carpels ( 
wliich the compound pistil is fom[K>8ed, That is, the ovary, i 
the resulting fruit, is biloeulnr or 2-ei;lleil. trilocular or 3-celld 
t/nadrllartdnr or 4-ceUed, and so on, according to the number a 
dissepiments or cells. 

4'J3. Tliore may nlso Iw falte di'strpimentt, mostly of the » 
diameter ns tlint whicii in Fig. 534 divides the cell of a singl 
caqx'l. Snch are found in Flax (Fig. 530-o4l), in Amehinchifli 
or .Senioe-berri', in Iliiekleberrj- (Gaylussacia), and in most of J 


I PlutU nr I 
1. V>M^ of e 

otks. TUc uv&ry In a 

Snxtrmgr Dcimrioiioil nr Iwi 
ntiifin 5t- JohniivorL, of II 

IpeHoi nf SI. ■Inhnawflrt IHT|iTrti-nni 
I. IxiweTsr. may iipllla|«rt liiiliv frul 
nr SpMorirnrt, avail Ilin tlirsa MlBinum 
Ihiv tlw Intsrnal lUoclura. 


the American spocics of V'aecinium. In nil these, the false jwir- 
tition is a growth IVom the middle of the buck of each fuqiel. 
ntiicb cli\-ide3 ila cell more or less completctv into two. 

494. On the other hand, even the tnie dUset>imeiUs which 
belong to siii-h a compound ovary may be abortive or evanescent, 
the iilacentne remaining in the axis combined into a column. 
(IDD.) The second mudiBeation of the compound pistil (4ttl) 
normally has an ovar^', 

4'J5. WEth one Ceil and Parietal Placentn. That is, the 
lilaccntic are borne (as the term denotes) on the wall or parielcs 
of the ovarj, a3 in the Puppy, Violet, Sundew, 
Cistus or Helianthemum (Fig. 543).C'leome. Gen- 
tian, and in all or most of the orders from nhieh 
W\ these csumples ore cited. The diagram Fig. 542 
ilhistrntea the morphological conception of a com- 
ponml pistil of this kind. Not that it is ever snp- 
[K>8ed tu i>c formed by the actual combination of once 

seiKirate leaves, any more than a gamo|ihyl]ous calyx or corolla 
is actually so produced. The eonception in all such cases is that 

no. S3I. TnuiHanailUsmumkllcKcIliin of ■ flown of iha omiBinn FlM. ahow- 
lii( Ihii nturir irllli hlie |iartl(lon> exlnnling one ftnin tfav buk of «tcl> i-sll. BIO. S«> 
liim irf* malum rraltHwl m»1i of lliemme, tbn fiilae lAntllnuii nnw pntnj-lMF, illihl- 
InR lh« Dni «1li Into len. each aiH.R«il«l. Ml. Swai ofa *llil Flu lUiiutn ixirenne). 
In whlcli Uia biM |iw1l11im> ivnmlii liiromplnle. 

riU. MI. Plan of »oiw4*l1e>l onry Willi (limpartsUl iur«« br- 
io* 1 Uia Bliper part ibinrliii Uhi lop of tlie Uinw IcaTM n l> tbcunnlcallir coniioml uf, 
•pprnwtlifiig. hut nni nnlieil. 

PIO. M3. Onrr nf KeUanlbiiUBin CMUhlcnta, enl ■■»«>. ■Iiowing iha nialai m 
Uin» larh-tal p1wvn<«. 

FtO, IM Tnu»rnM»elliini>riti«nTU7i>r Hyprrlci-mFnconlenii: lilt tlinisliuin 
pluviiimmaHngltilUscantr*, lHiiiinin>h«>>lii|E H' "' " 
eflbsiuiHi Uic idaoeulB uow •tUsdU)' istlijtiil. 

of a congenital development of ot^ans in union which, in 1 
develoi»ment of a vegetative sUoot. wotilil be leaves. 
JB represented by thtj coubiuBtion of open cnrpellar}' leaves, : 
the prccctliiig one is by that of closed ones. A» the ( 
of the leavea must needs bo turned in, to bear the ov 
a comi>oiind ovai^- witb parii-tnl placentation may be liketu 
to the unoiK-ned calyx of a Clematis, as shovrn in Fig, 
257. Every gradation is found between asile and pai 
placentation. Muniutimes the placentae are stiictly on the pori- 
etee or wall (Fig. 543, 547) ; sometimca borne inwards on 
incomplete disse[)iinent« (Fig. 048) ; and sometimes they are 
brongbt firmly together in the axis, as in Fig. 544, though sepa> . 
rable, and indeed separatctl in the fruiting stage. 

496, A compound ovary with parietal plaeentre is neccssari 
one-celle<l (unilocular) ; except it be divided by an aiiomalot 
partition, such as is found in CruciferiB (Fig. 3'J5) and in n 

497. Normal placentie are necessarily double : when parietalJ 
the two halves belong to different leaves ; when asile, to the si 
leaf. Thcs<j two halves maj' diverge or be widely separate 

sometimes even nt their origin, as in Apbyllon and some other J 
OTObanctmceiB, in which a dicarju'llarj- ovary has four almost I 
equidistant plaoentte ; or in sucli eases the placentie may bsj 
regarded as intra-inarginal instead of marginal. 

498. The plaeenUe of a two-several-cclied ovary, such as In " 
Fig. 536, 537, &c,, may be descrilwd in the plural number, 
being one in each carpel ; or when consolidated into a central 
column, and well covered with ovules, they may be said to fonn 
one (com|x)und) placenta. Then when llie dissopimenta early'j 
disappear, or are aboitivc from tbc lirat, the result is a compouoT 
ovary of this class. 

499. With one Cell and Free Central Placenta. In Corj-o- I 
phyllaceoa (Fig. 549, 550) and PortulacoccEC, this evidently 
results from the obliteration of the dissepiments (as many as 
there are styles or stigmas) , vestiges of which may be sc 

Fin. MS ri|<icnuii (gmuii 
liiriibnrtlniiiif'llnptilmiinu. t 
IIiD pUnciiliD carried limnl u 


detected, while cvrtuin plauU or the same families, of othenrise 
iileniitnl Atnictiin^ retain tlie (lisscpimeDls even in tbo fmit. 

500. Uiit n slioiiar condition may o<|uatly arse 
from a mMlificaiion of ixirictal placenlation, uamely, •" 

with tlie iiiurgiiis of the leaves ovuliferous only al 
iNittom, and tfav plac«Qts there coDspicuously devel- 
oped and coini>letely united. I'hu basal placenta- 
tiun of Diona'a is ututroidably ao explained, itji 
nearest relative, Droscni ^Fig. 553), having parietal 
plaeenlie. And this leads to a ]irol>ul)le explaiialioTi 
of the ease in I*rimulaceiP, where a iargi: ttvc central 
placenta Gils the e«ntrc of the cell, and no trace of 
dlsiM-pimenta can be delected,' 

jwi. The idea lusintoiDed in former clilions is 
Btdl adhered to: namely, that placenta' belong to 
carpels and not to the caullnc axis, in other wunls. ~~ 

that ovules are [iroductions of and borne u[>ou leaves, usually 
upon their mai-gins, not very rarely upon other portions of tbeir 
upper surface, rarely over the trhole of it.' 

5U2. Ovules cover the whole internal face of the carpels in 
Bulomus and its relatives, also of the Water-Lilics (both N}~m- 
phita and Nuphar, Fig. .')51 ) excepting the inner angle, to whioh 
tlicy are uBiially tV8tricte<l in olhcr plants. And in the allied 
Brascnia and Caboniba, where the ovules are redticcil to two or 
three, one or more of them is on the uiidrib, but none on the 

' Tlie jiluvnu in thu anil like caaes U nuber to he n^rdml u wt (m^ 
Smwlli fnim llw b«»e ut the e«ri>elUr7 le«Te«. conibiiiiil orer the Moral 
■xU. Upnn tlii> inlPTprvialioD, ■ cenlnil portion uf tiie ciilumn m^y be 
(■nil (Oinciiine* miut l«| of ■lilc nainn-, }'i't the ofuIo* Iw bomc npan 
foliar |uuia. S«c Van Tl^glicm, in Ann. Sti. Nat. acr G, xii. 3Sl)|IW0}; 
rrUk(iw*kr, ViTgloichende DanicllDng dcr Placeotcn, Ic, ( 1870) ; Warming, 
Id Ann. Sci. Nat. n>r. S. v. 103. 

■ Thi« view wa* flml maintained as a general theory, and on crilieal 
gnron( Brown, in PlantaiJavanine RariorM, 107-lia. StUldden, Enil- 
Iteher, and olhen look llie oppoaile view, i. e., Ihat orulr* arc prvdueliunt of 
ibeaxia.eren in piriciml pUcont«tion, — ao exceedingly f ar fetihtd luppo- 
tiliun. In later day*, the commoner view biu n-ganled oTulea ai o( boih 
origin*. «■ pmductiom of the carpeli in parietal, ut llie axU in at Inut 
*nmc Inv central or ttoilar plaivntalion. But at pretenl the tlieory of 
f-iliar origin willMuil exception, rerinilioateil l)y Van Tiegbcm. anil wpi- 
dall.r by Cvlakowaky and Wnnning. again pwraila. For the iHblingraphy 
anil an abitrBL-i of the varinui riewi. *eo Elchler. HI Qtliendia gramme, spe- 
cially tW note in the prefaw to die necond pari (where he give* lii« entire 
a<lhc«lon to tlili eiini'ta*inn) ; al»a Warming*! meniuir, IX' I'Ovule, In Ann. 
Sei. Sat Kt. 6, ». ieT7-7«. 

F1<1, MS. Vnrlkal lacllnn Uimnili Ihe 
rubra, diawlnx Ibe Cm rastnl plMoiia. 


margins ofllie carixllarv li^af. In many epcdes of Gentian, i 
aLsu in Obuliiiiu and Uartonia. of the s; 
family, the whole internal face of a di 
IK'Uary ovary is thickly ovulifcrous, 

u03. Perlm|i6 the imrietal plac«iit« i 
Parunseia (t'ig- &52) are tioriie i 
inidiibs of the carpels, for they are dire 
_^ under the stigmas, inat^^ad tif i' 

fith tbcm, as they normally should be. The same tiling occnnl 
n Poppies and mniiy other Pa|Mivei-ace«, also in some Crucifene J 
and in some of the CAeee each stigma 
f^ is more or less two-lolH:d. This sng- 
/ \ S^**^^ t^be explanation,^ here probniih 
/ \ the true one, whiub suptx>ses that the 
I ■ placenta; are l>ome on the Icaf-mai^iiH 

^ ^ ill llie normal way. but tliat cacli 
"~~ stigma is two-parted (as if the car]M^l- 
laiy leaf were deeply notched at the 
ajK-s, and so its two stigmatic Icaf- 
mai^us separate, as Drosera illns- 
trates. Fig. 553), and that the two 
lialf-atigmas of a<ijaccnt carpels have 
*" coalesced into one boily, which would 

of course stand over the parietal placent.-e beneath. Each stigi 
in such a case, as well as each paiietal placenta, would oous 
of the united mai'gins of two adjacent carpels. 

§ 2. Ln Gvj 

504. Gtiikospermol's (that is, naked-seeded) plants are BOt J 
named because tbc ovules, or Ixxliea which are to become Becds^ I 
are fertilized by direct application uf tbc pollen, which reachet^J 
and acts upon the nucleus of tbc ovide itself, not through t 
mediation of stigma and style. In the structure of their tk 
these plants are of a low or simplified tyi>c, in some respecta n 
obviously homologous with the Angiosperms which i 
tute tlie Immense majority of phienogam'xis plants. But, up t 
a com (Mira lively late geological period. Gymnospi^rms ap|)ear tl 
have been the only flower- hearing plants. They are representAJ^H 

' Given bv Brown, in Ihc rinniie J«va 

nk» RsriorCT, alinvo rer? lo. J 

oannror Ihe whole IniorlirMirftirB, 

FIG. »2. Pl-UlrfpM™«l«.wl(l. n.Brytr 
Via- CO. PKUIsfDroHnaUforuil*, wltbt 

SymiiliBiii olontln, ttiecnrpeliaTiilltan) 

■TiiirerMly iIIiIiIhI. j 
•Tmrj utniTenoly UlsUril. J 



OTHcBciuu OF onnroBPSBHs. S69 

in the extnnt vcgeUiblc kingdom by three (or four) groups or 
orders, two of them Hinall. ami one comparatively ample and of 
vide itistriltutioii ; and all are so strikingly difTvrent tntm eseh 
other tlinl they cannot bo illuetmted l>y a common deseriptiun. 
The large§t order, Conifene, is familiar, and oontains a good 
eliare of the most important forest trees of temiwrnte olimutca. 
The smallest, Gnetacere, chiefly tropical or of wann regions, 
lies t>etiveen Gymiiospcrms and eommon Dicotyledons. The 
thinl. Cycadaccic. is most remote fVora tliem. and as much so 
fVum Monocotyledons, except that it imitates Palms, as it 
also does the Trce-Fems, in habit, both as to stem aiul foli- 
age. The [larticnlsr Dior|)hology of Gymiiospenns would re- 
quire for its illustration copious <lelails and tlie history of various 
conflicting hi~potheseB. It must be relegatci) In tlic special 
morpholt^y of the natural orders, premising, however, a brief 
sketch of the general itoral structure.' 

505. In Qnetacen, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms almost 
cxime t<^ether. The flowem have a ))erianth (dipliyllous or 
tetraphyllous) ; the stamens have a distinct filament and anther ; 
and the g^ncecium is a sou (presumably of two earjwphylls) 
open at the top and filled nt bottom by a single oiule of the 
simplest hind. t. e, consisting of a nucleus destitute of coats. 
This pistillary body is attenuated and prolonged al>o\c the ovule 
into a 8tyle-shaj>e»I tube, with ojwn and commonly two-cleft 
orifice. In the almost hei-m aphrodite sterile flower of Welwitselua, 
this takes the form of a much dilated stigma, which is even beset 
with seeming stigmatic juipiilfe. If only the pollen were here 
to grow forth into pollen-tubes (with or without a closing of the 
tube), angins|)ermy would be attained. But. in l^ct. the pollen- 
grains boililj- reach the oinile itself through the tube, fertilizing 
it directly.* This interesting grou|) of plants consists of the 

I RrfcrenuM to the liicnitiin.- of Kymninpcnnj- kii>1 to ilic *(C!p> of ilic 
pmlonRr'i controversy over it, (Iw) llie poinia of morpliology »tUl in part 
unwttlnl. iiii-il nol lii-i* ht gireo. Tlic liUlory and ihc lilca of gymnoiponiiy- 
Iwgkn wilh Robrrt Brnwn'a paper on Kinidii, " willi Olwrrvntion* .... on 
tli# Fvniale FIowit »( Cymdne and Coniforc." r^ail before llic linm'an 
Society in tiiv year Ifl36, anil published in Klntc"* Voya^ in 1837 ; snd the 
blbliomitphy liown lo a rvtxnt dale U ^ren by Eiohlrr in Flora IlraaiUencii, 
Gymnoipcrmia. iv. 4%, anil in Bluthendiagr>mmc, I. U-6D1 aloo ii. prpface x. 
Sn alio Alph. DcTanilalle. Pn>dr. xii.* 346. 634. In ihii vohime. Iliv late 
Prof. Parlalnrc ailherv<l to thr ancienl Idea* in hia monngnipli uf the Contf prw. 

■ TIWTieirbvreimpllcttlir adopted ia that of Bvccari, founded on the atudy 
of Gnvtnni. and publi*lie<1 in Nuoro Giornali- Botanlco llaliano, ix. 1877. 
tl wat hrtorv nrarly or qtilte reached in tucCvMivi.- ilpp*, by J. D. Hooker, 
in hia L-las*ieaI mctnoir on Wdoitacliia, in Trans. I.lnn. 8i>c. »iv.; Slna- 
bunier, nUr Conifeicn unl dlo Qneiaceen, 1872; and W. B. McNab, ta 
Tnn*. I.lnn. Sac. xsrlti. 1BT3. 



genus Gnetiim, shrubs or trees, with nearly tlip aspect 
Angiosperme, having broail and pi nnateh- veined leaves; Wd- 
witschia of tropieal W. AIHca, remBrkahle for its persistent 
cotyledons which form the only foliage of a woody and long- 
enduring plant, and for it« Btem or trunk whieh broadens with- 
out lengthening, except in its flower-stalks; also K|ihed) 
much branched shrtibs, mainly of warm-temperate regions, leaflt 
or nearly so, one sjxicics of which inhabits Europe and two 
southern borders of the United States. 

506. The flowers in all Gymnosperms arc diclinous, eitl 
dioxnous or moncedous; except that those of the strange Gnet»>^ 
ceous genus Welwitschia are structurally polygamous, the male 
flowers baling a well formed but sterile g^-ntpcium. 

50( In ConlfkirB, the latest and must important tj^ie, an 

embraced all the famdiar Gymnosperms of temperate regions, 

I'lnes Firs C*dars t\ presses, which 

ir their flowers m catkiu-like clusters 

and their fruit in cone? and also tlie 

ns and albed trees which do not' 

1 pi kIucc cones I erianth being want- *** I 

ii„ and the sexes wholly separate, the floral typO'* 

t so degraded that it becomes doubtful whether 

'j each cluster of anthers or of ovuliferous scales 

r o^-ules con8titut4.s a blossom or an inflores- 

T cence Certain botanists look upon a whole 

' tatkin and othirs uixm a male catkin only, of 

'ine or tir as forming one flower. It is berQ<, 

assumed that oath stamen 

of the one and eath o\u- 

hferous scale of tbt other 

answers to a flower of the 

simplest sort ' The anthers 

*° are CYtrorse the tells or 

pollen sacs belonging to the outtr or lower siili 

1 It will bf Ken tliat, for the firmnle Hnwcn, tliia foUoirB of niurac from 
gtnemlly accepted view ; and, where this ii conceded, aimlogy may cxlcnd il 
toLhcmnlecatkinialio: yclin such caies, whereall thephjIlaDtiiiilndeftnUe 
almplc axil are itameni, ■pirally arranged on it, tliti difference belwe«a . 
Infloreicence and male flower comptetely vanleliei. 




iW, Pooisle flnwBT at ■ Taw. u DTnle in 

-acta. DES.Lant 

ml mois enlarged wcflon ot ■ female flo 

er of Y™ and ol 

beglnnlna of .be dl.k ouUl.le of tli. coa 

.»,. After StM 

GTHCBOnm or bthmobperus. 

connettive : sometimes these sac* or oells arc two. and the orgui 
evidenily homologous with an onliDari' stamen: ofU-n they an 
more numerous (from 
three to twcnlv) and 
variously cIi8|>osed. 

508. The Yew Fam- I 
ily (.Taxinew) is next to ^ 
Onotaceie in structure. 
It iagenerallyrankcdaa 

a subortlerofCouirene, _ 

but it uiay claim to be a distinct onler. The gynoeclum U a 
naked ovule, terminating a stem,' and surrouuded by several 
bracU. After fertilization, nn outgrowth of the 
n.-eeptacle (or a kind of disk, 41)4) makes its 
sppcanince as a ring girdiug its base: this 
grows in height and thit-knoss, and liecomes a 
Bofl^fleshy cup, imitating a hoUuw berry, in 
the bottom of which the stony-coattKl seed 
nestles. (Fig. 454-457.) Very similar is the 
gjnceeinm of Torreya, escejit that the cnp- 
sliai^ed disk develops almost simultaneously 
with the ovules, and as it grows Ivecomes adnate 
to the large seed in the form of a 
fleshy coating. In the Gingko, two 
or mure similar ovules arc naketlly 
develo[>etl on a naked peduncle, nn- 
accompanie)l even hy a bract (Fig, 
558). and one or more of these ripens 
into the Iwrry-like seed. Fig. 559. 
In Podocarpus there are some sub- 
tending bracts, and the naked ovule 

I It duM not iherrfore follow that the orufe it a purl of llic axis, or 1i 
Icriniiul in (lie Kotc at being its direct ranlinuatlon. In ihls rrRanl il niaj 
bt onlj- what the piilil of a Cherry i«, which lo all appearKiicc ■■ equally a 
terminal praduclion, but la really the repreeentative of the latt leaf of lite 
Rxif, It >o, tlutt leaf is her« (upprraieil to the utnwMt. and replai'cd by 
what il ordinarjly it* fliit)[rowth. the ovular nueleiu and ' '~' 

ttmciure of I'odocarpui faTon this interpretation. 

FIO. e 
TonlcU ■Fcllnn. ctlilbiting ibe matnie illik wli 

miL AnerDMlKnc. 

FIO. son. FrmalB llnver o( Po>lncarpq>(ill 
*Bpi>m). (DblaiHleil lij broeri. Ann- FAcUa 

Fia ML M«Blfl«l nrtkal Hctlon of 1 

i coat. Tbe 

w ot Poilourpu. Aftur 



is inverted on a more or less If ngthonetl and stout support, wl 
is conceived to represent tlie caii>el. (t'ig, JGO, 5G1.) 

509, In the IniP Conirene, to whieh Pines, Cypresses, flotl all 
sucli cone-rniiting trees tielong, tlic ovules are twnie on or in 
the axils or scales wliich aiv imbricated on a simple axis. 
8picat« or capitute manner ; and the mole flowers, each a sin 
stamen, ore also similarly spicale or cnpitAt^. Both are 

nioiilj- termed amenta or calkins ; and the feini 
^^^^ ones proiwrlj' so, aeconiitig to tlie |>resunt 
ut/f^^ but the oulj' scales of the male catkins aiv parts 
IKM^P of Uie anther, being a dilat«<l tip of the connective 
^^^r in Pines, and a scale bearing antber-cclls or iH>lten- 

■" sacs on its back in Cj"pre88. 

510. In the Kne tribe the flowering female catkin consists of 
bracts, spirally imbricated on the cauline axis : in tlie axil of 

each bract or sterile scale is developed a scale 
which bears two ovules, and is llierefore regarded 
as of carpellarj- nature. These ovules are pro- 
duced on the lower part of the upper face of 
caritellarj- scale, and arc wholly sdherrat to 
quite to the orillce, which is directed downwi 
(Fig. oG2, Sfl3.) The ovuliferous scale 
becoming fhictiferous usually much and aoon 
grows the bract, which is concealed in the " 
cotiu (or sometimes oblitt^'ratjxt) ; but it rematnv' 

,^fiV^5\, conspicuous in sundry Fir-cones. After fertU- 

^'^l*^^ izntion. the ecnlcs, 8nc(*s9iveiy covering each 

^"^'-^ other in close imbrication, protect tlie growing 

»* 8oe<l8 as etfectually as would a closed ovarj 

Sooner or later after ripening the scales divei'gc. and the 

peel olT the face of the scale with a wing attached, and fall 

are dispersed by the wind.' 

in ft 


' Airning those who admit us wrll s« those wIjo reject g.vmnOBpe 
there Hm been mmrh controTtrey over the morpliology ot Itie p»rl». 
tlie former, ihe dlKUiRJDn turni nn Ihe eliamcter at tlic ovullfcnrat m 
At to llii«, Ihe hypothetia nri([lna11]' propoicd by Mohl, anil mdopted l| 
Braun, is now said lo be asliKfiielorily dcmonst rated by Slcnzel, in Nnv. J 
N«l. Cur. xxiviii. 1878. See note by Enmelmunn in Amer. Jour. S " " 
1870, and also llie pref Ace to the second pari at Eicliler's Bltithendiag 

FIO. K3. 'V'[«rnttlMat>-«r hoeof aorpelUrr iwnteofaldrvli, *lu>*la(tIW(a 

Fia. wa, SliDllu Tliw of a urpillary hi 
BK*. GiTFati.l |<laii at tlia Mmi) In illi^rani. rsT 
at Ih« com. Ihe lower Uis liract, Iba ml'lille or 

arstscixnt or oxhnobfebus, 

511. In iha Arauparia trihc tho oviiliferous or caqwl-st-ale is 
throughout smaller Uiaii th(^ bract, nml is complett.-lj' n(liiat« to 
it, or with only the tip free ; that of Araucaria (Fig. 5Go) hoara 
only one ovule, high on the carpel, the orifice downward as in 
the Kne tril>o. In Taxodium, Sequoia, and the like, the cone- 
scale is equally inferred to Ijc composed of bract and cari>el-Geale 
united ; and indications of this txtmiiosition are to be observed, 
The ovules (IVoni two to several) are at the base of the scnlo, 
erect and free. The cone-scales are alternate and spiral on the 
axis, but indistinctly so in Taxodium, the Bald C',vpreBS or 
so-called Cypress of the Southern United Stales. 

iil2. In the true Cypress tribe (Cupressineie) tlie cone-scales, 
which are never numerous, arc opposite or verticiltatc, t. e. like 
the foliage- leaves, in whorls of twos, threes, or 
sometimes fours ; and the ovules are trom two to 

1879, where il i* SuWy ailDjiUit. It wm inggcMnl by cCTtaln ntlier common 
monatroBiliM. and liy ihe Iwn combined Iftre* of Stiadopitya. 

According to tliit virir, Ihe orulifcroiu scftle In Ihe Fine tribe Ii com- 
posed o( |wu leavct of an arrcai^ and tnoiformed branch from llie kxil of 
Ihe bracTl. which are in Ihe Donnal manner Iranarcrae lo tlie (uliteiidinK 
br»PI, are here earpcllaiy. each bearing an ovale on the domil fai'c ; tlie two 
arc coalMccnt Enio one by ttie union of their pnttcrlur cd^i, and Ihe tnic 
thai formed la Ihoi ikveiojied with dorsal face preicnted to ibc axit of the 
cone, the renlral to tbe bract, ll i» therefore a compoimil open carpel, 
compoMd of two raqmphylU. Tliii character of being fructifeniii* on llic 
back or lower aide of the leaf occnn in no other phwnogamoui plant*, but i* 
■he rule in Perns, from lomething like which Conifcra- may be supposed lo 
have iNivn derived ; the ovulei of tlie chic in tbii regard correaponding lo Ihe 
tpontDgla of Ihe other. 

no. Ml. Verilal imtlnn <ln 'Uagreml of a bnet, adiute earpel-Ksle. anri adnaU 
afHliKiTAriiimrliilnilirlcitB. After Elolilcr. 

riU, MS. Bmicblst aflliD Amfrivau Arlinr-Vlta. Eonaldcrablji Urger Uian In nv 
Inn, villi a fonnlii[ ftrrllla ootid IMT. One of tbe k*1» rvninval ami mors cnUrpnt, 
Uin Inible eipnml tn Tiew. (huirlnga (Mir of naked nnt mnleaaii JIa biuig, 

Fia. DM, FDr111eaawsnortrueCTpn)iiilCuprcwiUKi(ipervlranii).aftarB&Illoti; a 
bmnlnf «oiH, wlUi oi ' ' ' 

HI mis cut awaf , to abow tb 


several at or on the base of each cone-scale, alwaj-s with orij 
upward. Arbor-Vita; (Fig. 5G0, 5G") hasa single pair of ovii 
to the scale ; Juiii|»ers, Bomelimes onlj- one ; tnte Cj-presses (as 
in Fig. 6CH), often a dozen or more. At flowering time, the cone- 
scales mostly appear aa if simple ; but in most genera they soon 
tliicken greatly within ; and they are usually nnderstood to be 
composed of bract anil caqiel-sealo combined, the latter of the 
Bfime conslitution as that of Tines and Spruces, but perfectly 
consolidtited and conHuent with the bract-scnle.* 

513. In Cycadacew, the tyiK! of the llower of Angius]>erma 
almost or quite lost ; yet Uic organs may bo homologized wil 
those of Coniferie, which these plants are wliolty unlike in haUb.^ 

I Thu internal >nd ovaliferous scale may sctm lo be wholly hypothrtl- 
cal, and assumiMl lo homologlze the cuproMineoiu with (lip abi^lineoiu 
ciinc. Without il, we ihould have to eoiuider that, wliile in Abielinwe the 
ovulrs belong lu Icarci of a wcondary axis. In Cuprcuincn they arc borne 
on lliiise of a primary axis, or clac nre nxillnry produetions wilhout c&rp(te. 
But in tho ArauL-nria tribe the inipnial iieale U obvious ; and there are ~ 

FIQ. Mtft-ms. Znmla. chiefly Z. media, alter Rirhaitl. 

M« under Ilia pfltate Inp. Sn. A ftmnle m'klTi, villi a q 
073. A femalB fl.iwpr nr rnrpal, ullb twn onlandne o^nleii ni . 
•esl, «lib the Lhlek d«hy coat cat awaj at a|iax. GiS. Langitodli 
ra enlarEod. 




Their likeness to Palms and other Monocotyledons is conflued lo 
the j)ort of tlii'ir unliraiitlied tniiika and their iiiimatc leaves 
with iMirallel- veined or Biaiple-vcine<l leaflet* ; nov lisve tliey any 
further resemMnnw lo Ferns, exce|)t that in some the lealtete are 
circinat« in vernation. Althongb a tropical type (of small prest-nt 
iinijortance, compared with the jwirt whioh it pla.yetl in the 
Devonian and Cretaceous periods) , it has one small repreeenta- 
tire (Zainia media, the Coontie) at tlic south-eastern extremity of 

the United Slates, and a more striking one (Cycas reioUila. well 
known in enltivation) in the southern parts of Japan. 

514. Following the analogy of Conifenr, eui'li scale (whether 
of the pol1en-t>earlng or the ovule- and atol-lK-aring ament) of 
Zamia (Fig. 6C9-575) is here regarded as a flower. Here the 
phylla. or scales with peltate top and stalk-like base, arc oster- 


drni inilications of limilar composilion in Ihc ciiprretiDPUUi conc-inilM to 
Imlnce the iHoplioo at il by Pftrlalore, who rcjeclwl ihc IiIm of ityTnimsptfrmv ; 
■ml, Anally, ihia Fr>m[H»iIion isiifflrmod hy Slnubargcr (tHc Coniterrn und 
die Gnctncwn, 187S) upon niicroicupical ttudy at tbe devcloptnenL 

Pia. BTn-S7«. Cnr|»[>1iv11ii of Vjcm rcToliilB. mnch rediKwI In •In 878. On* 

(••linfiwulwhelow BiulleafleKiirlMiWi'lwitmrnrilillioiiwi. ST7, A •Imllnroiirio- 
pliyll "lUi Icar-lnhs ndiirwl tn men twCb, uiil orulca In 
Arpoidiyll In mulura fhicUfluMloD, tnulDK 0> 

. Tbt liat two ftOer Hlchknl. 


nallj' much alike id the two sexes, which tbrougboiit tbc fs 
occiipj* wparatf planU, Tbe male flower (Fig, 568) or etamen; 
if it may bo so termwl, bears indefinite pollen-saes on tbc under 
side of tb« peltate [rartion, sometimes extending to the uppor 
part of its stalk. The homol<^oua female flower, or carpophyll, 
bears a susiiendcd ovule on each eidc of the stalk (Fig. 573), 
which becomes a large fleshj-coated seed. In Cjcas tbe male 
ament is not very dissimilar, althougb on a larger scale. But 
the earpophylls arc evident leaves, not condensed into an ament, 
but loose or spreading, of a character and as|»ect intermediate 
between the lax bud-scales which precede and the pinnate fuliago 
Icaves which follow them in development. Along tbe margin 
of what would be leaf-blade they bear ovules in place of leaflets, 
lobes, or teeth (Fig, oHi-olS) ; and these, when fertilized from 
the male Rowers, mature into large and drupaceous naked seeds. 
Even without fertilization, sneh seeds grow to their full siz» 
tlie female plant of tbc common Cycas (or falsely so-called Si 
Palm) , but form no embryo. 

Section VIII. The Ovule.^ 


515. Onles (302) are peculiar outgrowths or productions of 
carpels which, upon the formation of an embryo within, become 
seeds. In the angiospermous gjTia-eiuni (ITfi) they are nor- 
mally produced along the margins, or some part of the raai^ins, 
of the carpellary leaf (478), either immediately, or by tbe in- 
termediation of a placenta (485), which is a more or less evident 
development of the leaf-margius for the support of the ovulefl 
Rarely, yet in a considerable number of eases (501 , 502) , ov\ " 
are developed from the whole internal surface of the ovaiy, e 
fl^m various parts of it. in no definite order, directly from th* 
walls, and without the inten-ention of any tbing which can be 
rcgardc<l as placenta. In nymnospenna (504-514) the ovnles 
are borne on the face of tJie carpellarf scale or at its base ; OI ,| 
on leaf-margins, as in Cjcas : or. when there is no represeoti 
tivc of the caqiel, on tbe caulinc axis, seemingly as a diw 
growth of it. (508, note.) 

516. As to attachment, ovules are either sessile, i. e. stalk- 
leas, or on a stalk of their own (Fig. 582, 584), the FL-sicuMlf 
or PoDosPERM, As to number they are either solitarj-, few, Of 

1 (*'BB)- perlinps firit 

D be 




indefinitely numerous. They may also be iDdodnite or variBblo 
in number when not particularly numerous. 

517. As to situation and direetion wilbiu the ovar}', the terms 
are somewhat speeial. Ovules are ereel, when they rise from 
llie very bottom or the wll, as 
in Fig. 580 ; tucending, wlieu 
attached above its bottom and 
directed upward, us in Fig. 579 ; 
horiiontal, wlien borne on one or 
more sides of the cell and not 
directed either upwanl or down- 
ward, as in Fig. 314, 315, 530; '™ =* "' 
peniiulotu, when more or less hanging or declining from the side 
of the eel! ; lutpeaded, when hanging from the apei of the cell, 
as in Fig. 581. 

518. The body and only essential part of an ovule is its 
Nl'clecs. This in most cases is invested by one or two proper 
coats. The coats are sacs with a narrow orifice, the Foramen. 
In the seed, the closed vestige of this urifiee is termed the 
Mieropglf; wherefore ttiis name is sometimes applied to it in 
the ovule likewise. When Uie ovule has two coats, the foramen 
of the outer oue is callc<l Exostome, of the inner Ekdostoiie ; 
literally the outer and the inner 
oriflee. The coats themsi'lvea Lave 
been name<l Pkimine and Secun- 
DINE, but with an ambiguity in the 
application which renders these 
names unadvisalile : for in their 
formation the coats apixiar later 
tlian the nucleus, the inner coat 
earlier tlian the outer ; and the 
name of primiiie has hy some 
writers been applied to the earlier "" °^ 
formcil, by others lo the e.-ctenial coat. The projier base of the 
<iviile, from which the coats originate and where these and the 
nucleus are confluent, b tlie Cualaza. Tlie att.-icliuient of the 
ovule to its fliniculua or su|)port, which in the seed becomes the 

no sn. Oraryor 
MB. auna of Buckwli 
]Hrul«d otule. 

no. AfiS. rMagrmcunmllc vecUcm at a tn"^! ^ ortlintropmu ftmie (lurh u 
!!(. SK'). (bowing Um ooUr nsC, a, tbs tnn(>r. h. tbo nuclnii. e. rtio cbaliua. o 
^ JancUnti of thcao parti, d. iTha owU ive n«ror m vpantod uhI (be nnrlcm 
dacol In ilM u to iflfinaenud In llilt mm dlacnm,) Cn, An onh iUnRu 
preiMlIng, bnt CBTVtd. « eunprlotroiiuHa. GS4. Au UBpIillropoiu nula 

HtLtm or flcar, takes also tliis name in tbe ovute. In the simp] 
form of ovule (as in l*'ig. o>^2, 580). hilum ami chalaza are o 
So also in caeea wberv llio botly uf tUe uvulo iiicun'es, as ii ~ 
563. lint very commonly tlie jilaee of attaL-liment, wbicb l>eeoio 
the hiUim, is more or lens distant fVouitbi- I'Lulazn ; as ii ~' 
and .JKT, where thi.' hilum is lateral, lint the ehaksa at the lai^;er 
end, the two being connected by a short ridge ; and in Fig. 588 
the tno are separated by the whole length of the ovule- 
all). The simplest and most rudimentary- o\-ule is that with- 
out a coat, aa in Mistletoe and the whole order LorantbaccH.-, and 
in Santalace«e and Gnetaceie. This has been called a naketl 
ovule : hilt long before ovules of such simplicity were known 
this term had been appropriated to those of Gymnosi>«rma, in 
the sense of destitute of ovaiial or pcricarpial covering, i. e. to 
uncovered ovule, not to uncovered nuelrui. The ovulo consist- 
ing only of nuelcns ma)- be termed (after Alph. DeCaudoUc) 
timple, or better ac/ilamydeeut.^ 

520. The tunicated or chlamjdeons ovule is of three principal 
kinds, with one or two subordinate modifications. These t 
the oii/iotropoui, rampylolropowi. and aaatropout, and the i 
dcation called huir-anatro|xins, or amp/iitropout.* 

521. OrUiotrot>oaa (Fig. 580, 582. 5^5), or straight oiiTile,! 
tbe simplest but least common s[)ccics, being that iu which tl 

chnlfiza is at the evident base, and the onftce at the opposit) 
extremity, the whole ovixh straight (as the Hrst part of the nai 
denotes) and symmetrical. Alropoiu^ meaning not turned I 
all, is a later and etyraologically much better name, hut it h 


' An epidermal stratum or Ict^iment may not 

tanning a aurt of adhprcnt covering; but this 
■imilar lo \he ornlar roals. 

' In Latin form. ortSofropa, miBpy/nfrD/io.nnnfrripa.aiir^iAi'fi-opa,. 
hj Mirbol, and referring to the way in wUiih Ihe ovule is Kmtd either 
ilwlf or on it« inpporL Some English botituiata iiiL-ongruously write 
tntpal, campylalropal, dc. 

na. SM. Orlhntrnpniu or Atmpani nrnlo rf Kiirliwbriit. 
— ' '" ~, AmphitrnTmiuoTUIP nfMftllnw. aw. 

a;/, tbefbnunen erarlfion; r, tberliaptaa. 

OVULES. 279 

not como into general use. This omle ia eliaracteristic of 
Poljgoiiacpie, tho proijer Urlieacca;. CislacoiP, &c. 

522. CninpjIotn^DB (Fig. 583, 58fi) is the name of tlio ovulo 
which in the course of its growth is eunetl un itself so as to 
bring the orifice or true apex <lown close to the base, here both 
ehalaza and hilum. This and the orthotroimus ovule begin 
their development on the placenta in the same way, but the 
couipjlotropous develops unequally, one eitlu enlai^ng inilch 
more than the other, esp^eiftlly at tile base, until the oiule 
becomes reniform, and elmlaza and orifice are brought into 
close proximity. Campjlotropous o\-ules are eharactcristic of 
Crueifenc, Capparidacese, Rosedaceie, Caryophyllaceffi, and 

533. AnphHropons (Fig. 584, 587). also termed llelerotntpoui 
and sometimes Haif-amtiropout, is between the preceding and 
the following ; and it passes in various instances cither into the 
one or into the other. The iKxIy of the ovule is straight or 
straightish, but it stands as it were transversely or at right 
angles to the funiculus and hilum ; and it is Used by the middle, 
the ehalaza at one end, the oriflcc at the other. An apparent 
continuation of the funiculus, adherent to the outer coat, extends 
ftxnn the hilum to the chaloza. Compare*! with the preceding 
foiin, the exidanalion is, that the unequal development at its 
formation is confined to the basal half, and the axis remains 
straight, while the whole is half inverted by the very unequal 
growth. Compared with the nest form, the inversion is less 
and the later growth or extension of the apical portion greater. 
The amphitropous ovule is eharact<.'ristic of Primulaceie, and 
is common in Legumiuoste. 

524. Anatropons (Fig. 588, also 579. 581, 697) is tlie name 
of far tho commonest species of ovulo, that in which the organ, 
nndcr the course of its growth, is quite inverted on it« base ; so 
that, instead of standing at right angles with the flinieulus, it is 
parallel witli it, or rather with tho apparent continuation of 
it. which is adherent to its surface aa a sort of ridge or cord 
extending along the whole length of the ovule, Irom hilum to 
chalazia. The latter oceuiiies the seeming apex of the seed ; 
and the oiganic apex or orifice is at the other end, close beside 
the hilum. At maturity, the o\iile is straight, but not wholly 
sjmmetrieal, the attaehment being oblique or somewhat lateral, 
and the ridge or cord on that side not rarely prominent. 

625. The cortl or ridge, which extends along the whole length 
of the anntroi>ous ovule, and for half its length in tlio amphi- 
tropous (Kig. 588, 5H7, r] , Is named the Rhaphe. This is not 




&l all a. scam, as the Greek won) dcDOtea. Its origin, and 
wliolc Blniuture of sutli uviik's will be appivhciided h\ votapat 
vai'ioiis stogca of its gi-owth, 

526. An ovule of any ](ind at the l>eginniug is 
excrescence or outgrontli of the placenta, 
part of the leaf-surface if there is no develoj 
placenta. Tliis incipient orule is the nucleus (olS] 
or the nucleus surmounting a ruiliinentar}' f\inici 
The nucleus is soft cellular tissue only, from first 
/A j Tlic aclilamyilcous ovule (31'J) undergoes no 
\/J I further development except in size or 8lia|}0. Indeed 
\^^y Hunietimes (as in Balanophoreie) this bare nucleua 

is reduced to a few cells of parench) iiia. 
527. In ordioaiy ovules a new giowlli early begins ai 
the base of the nucleus, or is sometimes coctaiieuus with il 
first as a ring (or part of a ring), soon as n cup, at length as 
an enclosing sac or covering, ojwn at the top ; this is the inner 
coat of the ovule when there are two. Tlie outer coat begins and 
goes on in the same waj', and at length grows over and encloses 
tile inner coat us that did the nucleus. (Fig. o9(>-5t)5.) Wh« 
ever tlierc Is a third and more exterior coat it is formed du 
the growth of tlie fertilized ovule into tlie seed, to which tin 
fore it belongs, and in wbidi it takes tiie name of arillus. (597.| 
At the time of fertilization the apex of the nucleus, or a pn>-j 
longntion of it, usually projects Ijeyond the oriUce and Uit 
receives the descending pollen-tube. .Some flbro-vascular tissi 
especially spiral ducts, may be found in the funiculus and 
laza, sometimes extending into the coats. 

!)2S. The development of the orthotro)>ous or atropous (i 
turned) ovtile proceeds syramctricallj-, without distortion, 


ucleua ^^ 

parts keeping their primitive direction. In the campytotro]tou&, 
the wliolc of one side of the ovule greatly outgrows llic other. 

mat n nri'rl nlMtgn- 

mrmall.m r.r llic cnaU and Ilis nhHtrni-y. BOK. Ov 
Sftloc ■ •Bah or two Ut«r. «U, Sitiw ■ few ibtts li 
■rovii nn«dM>nil. SM. S*tn(,iitIiniiiofanI1i»l>.'niH 
tbetdklJIeuf Uwrtutidic 998. CnB^HcUoD afUic 

In the anatropous, the inequalit.v of growth is maiuly confined 

lo tho base or c-halazal region, which cuds by beuuiuing upper- 

inost ; and the lull-grown ovule has Uic a|>- 

pcaraoco of being inverted on and adherent 

to the upiter ix)rliun of ita Ainieuliis, tlie 

rtiHIihe. Fig. u«9-jy7 tllusti'at« the coui«e ^ 

of <levclonment from a eumiiaratively early 


529. The dii'eotion of anatropy or of other 
turning of the ovule in the course of growth 
IB somewhat divei'se. But in general, when- 
ever ovules are in pairs, the two turn from »" 
each other, in the manner of Fig. 315, and bo preseut their 
rhapbe^ back to back. The rhaphe-bearing may therefore be 
called the dorsal aiile of the an&troi>ous ovule. I'lie same is true 
in the case of numerous ovules, viz., those of one half of the 
plaeenU (or one leaf-margin) turn their backs lo those of the 
other. When aueh ovules are solitary or in single rows, and 
either aseeiuling or hanging, the rhaphe is nsnally on the side 
next to the pUccnta or ventral suture, as in Fig. 576 : it is then 
said to be rentral (i. e., ncct the ventral suture), or adMru to 
tlie placenta. In certain cases, mostly in hanging ovules, as in 
Fig. 57tl, the rhaphe looks in the opposite direction, toward the 
dorsal suture or midrib of a simple ovary : it is then said to be 
dortul or acertt from the placenta.^ 

' By cnmiiBrison of Fig. 6TS «Ilh R'fl anr] the like, it rnnj be prrcpived 
that Ilie diRi-rpncc \» explk-mble by ■ ItinJ of n'supiimlion of the ovule of 
the fc>rrncr. Tliat of lUnunculua. If inserted higlicr, oiiuld become Iiori- 
■oniai ; ■nd if tlic inicrtion were transferred to tlie very ■iimmit of tlit^ ™h, 
It would be au^pendtrd and thi^ rlmphe averce, as In Fig. 578. t'pan this 
eoneepllon, Eupliorliia and ite silk's liaa normally soBiicnilcJ ovulei, (he 
rhaphe being next the pUcvntal axis, and Buxui and its allies, resuplnately 
susptniled ovules, the rhaphe avene. The propriety of regardinn llie ad- 
vi'tw rhnplio as the normal condition m conflrmed by the fact that the only 
inslanee we know of Military erect ovules from the base of the eell having 
the rhaphe averse Is that of Rhamnus and its allies : and here It wa* shown 
by Benneii (in I'l. Javnn. Rar 131). and confirmed by the analyses of 
Spragne {Gray, Gen. 111. li. 108, plates lttJ-180), thai the riiaphc of the young 
ovules is ventral, so that the dorsal posilion, when it occurs, is ihe r«>ult 
of torsion. J. G. Agardh (in his Theor. Sysl. PI. 17g, &c.) maintains the 
contrary, but is not sustained by later observers. 

Acconlingly, even if we adopled Agardh's estimate of the botanical 
value of the characlcn here considered, we should prefer lo expreu these 
differences in the phraseology above Indicated, and not lo adopt hie tcnus, 

FIO sar. SameuSOamoremsetiiaHi tIw<)Ulcrc.»t(n).lbelnnBrl»I.Budeiule). 
WHl Hm bouJls of siilrsl dact* (if) In tbc rliaplie (runnliiE (ram plaocnta to dialan) 

530. Origin and Natiire of the Ovule. It has beeo i 
stated in general tcniis tbiiL ovult-s are peculiar outgl-o*n 
or protliit-tions, generally of llie mai^ina of tai"l>ellary lea 
(old) ; that tlii^y aru <.-omi)use<l of iiari'nulij-iiialoua cellular a 
stanue, at least as to Uie nudeua, of wbich the eimplest o\-id 
wholly t-oneists (626) ; tliat tlie costs originati^ subBtHjueiitly | 
the iineleus ; aiicl iJiat the outer eoat ia of laU'r origin than t 
inner one. (518.) The inaiuilifonn iirotul>eruiice of which tid 
forming ovule at firet consists urigiiiates in one or more c-clla < 
a layer directly beneath the epidemilH.' 

5:11. The niorphiili^ical nature of the ovnlf brnt been niu<4 
iliscusaed. Tlie uomnionly [irevalent view was that the ovni 
ia homologous with a Ical'-bud, and that ita nature i 
degree illustrated by eueb buds as those wliieh develop on t 
margina of the leaves of Bryophjllum, as shown in Fig. 88] 
But such buds, and the bulblct» or fleahy buds which ap[M>ar a 
the face of certain leaves, follow the universal order of buddinf 
growth, that is, are centi-iiietal in development, the otitci-moi 
IMrts being the earlier and Ibe inmost the later formed, 
ovule, on the contraiy, is baeipetnl or centrifugal in devclt^ 
ment, the nut-lens being first and the outer coat last fomiedi? 
therefore the coata are not homoli^ous with sheathing leave 
nor the nucleus with a vegetative axis. The ohlcr tiieorj- 1 
a(%ordtngly given way to tho pi'eseut one, in which the o\ii] 
answers to the lobe of a leaf jieculiarlj- transformed, or to ■ 
outgrowth of a leaf, whether t^m its eilges or surface. 

apBlropout, rpitropotu, and *««™in)(«i 
In A new lenK). the more >u §\avt 
thetical I'onaiilerationt and tlie nea 
to Hacendtnfi or lioriEonlHl poaltic 

I {the fint two new, the last einplnM 
the application Is confuied with liy(| 
uily of bringing the nrulea ideallf bi 
It ma; be iMIed, briefly, that Rele 

tmpDHt, in Agardh'B lermlnologj, appliei to the nonnal poiitii 

erat ovulei, with rhaplie« Iwck lo back, in opposite direi-tions on the Iwo 

halTM of llie placenta ; AiiolropoHs, lo an erect or ascending ovale with in 

rhaplie next the placental axis, and a lianffing one hu its rhapht 

from it; ^/lifnofwtu, when an erect oraacendingoviiJe ha« JU rhaphe 

and a hanging one ha< it adverse. 

> tlii/mcistcr'i BiHtemRnt llial the simple otiiIp of Orclds originatM 
Ihc division of a single pptdermal erll land is lliercfiire a trkkom*) la Oi 
trovvrtcd by Slraaburger and by Wnrndng. The latter addi llie nrmailU- 
that even it ll were so in caies of I'xireine simplicity, this would nol invali- 
date the propnaition that the uvulc ia lo l>e rejinnted as llie homologue of the 
lobe of a leaf. Such a lobe ia not rarely redaceil to a tingle bristle. For 
the wliole snhject o( the origin, dcvdopnient, morphology, anil theory of (lie 
ovule. Bee Wartninit'i 'ery elaborate and peripifuouB memoir. Pe rOmllj 
also the papers of Cclakowiky, Van Tieghcm, Sm., referred to hi 
paragraphs 600, 501. 

great advantage of thia view ia that it serves to homol<^e the 
tVucti Heat ion of Flowering Plants with that of the higher Flower- 
less Plants, or tJie Ferns, the sporangia or analogues of the 
ovule being oulgrowtlis of the loaf.' 

532. Orlrlnalloo of the Embryo. The whole process of fer- 
tilization and the resulting prodiic- "~ 
tion of tlie embryo, also the liistorj' 
of the subject, belongs to the suc- 
ceeding volume, involving as tliey 
do questions of minute anatomy and 
of physiology'. But a general idea 
may here be given of Ihe way in 
which the enjbrjo originates. The 
tube which a grain of ix>Uen sends 
forth into tlic stigma (574, o'o) 
penetrates tlie style through loose 
comlueling tissue cbaiged with 
Dourishiiig li(]uid, reaches the cavity 
of the ovary, enters the oriUce of an 
ovule to reach the apex of the nu- 
cleus, although the latter somclimes 
projects to meet the pollen-tube. 
Meanwhile a cavity (the embryo- 
lacy which is formed by the gi-eat 
enlargement of a single cell of tlie 
tissue, or of two or more cells the 
product of a mother cell) forms in 
the nucleus, the upi^er part of it 
eoinmoidy reaching nearly or (|ultc 
lo the ai»ex of the nucleus, which 
the jtollen-tube impinges on or " 
sometimes penetrates. A particular portion of the protoplasm 
containetl in the embrjo-sac forma a globule, and tliia at the time 

> TliE KilvM'alra nf tliii I'iEw natnrmlijr nutintain llint ovules and placcatai 
■!■■■/• Munjc to ieavcg, snd neicr Iruly lo b laiillinc axil ; th«l in the prp- 
centml plni'cntation of Priniulacev, tlic actunl ovuliforous nirfaci.' k an onl- 
growlh iif iliG Uuc> of tlic orpcUuy leavei poaUscent with eauh oilier luid 
Kdnale lo a prolimtpttiun ii( the loriu ; alio that in tho«c GymiHwpmiM wlikh 
liave no i-arpophytl, «ui-h aa Yew. the whole naieent tarjicUary leaf, or rathiT 
tlie papilla wliii-li would oilicrwiae develop aa ■tii-li. ia directly iWveloped into 
ovule. Thla, bring aoMlary and the lait production of the axia, neceaaarily 
appear! to Ivrminate it (500, 601. no lei ) 

PIG. »«. DUgram rtiircionllnii a uaenlflAl iriiUl of ItiHlcwbml. wlITi Inntltiiillnil 
nnairaln itlMlndly ilinwInE Iti liitw.irlik'h hiw prtHitntnl tluxnxl*. rrBi-pmrnl In th* 
avltr at t*» nvmry, nleml tba mnaU) nt tb« taUUkry avail (a), and tmcImU tb* 
lac lixcinbrTonBlVHlilolr). 


of fertilization is found at tlio apex uf the eac, at or adjacent 
tlie pait reached by Uic- [w lion -lube. Kol rartly it aiLiei-es to t 
an on oil an so wall of llic sac exactly 

opposite tlie termination 
of tlio |x>Uen-tul>c. Tliis 
is I'alleil Uio eatbri/oinj 
vcticle. To it Uic 
tents of ttie |>oUeii- 
ai-e in somp maiinei- traus- 
foiTi.'d . L' pon which it 
tjtkcs a more dofiiiitc 
shape, acquires a wall ot, 
ct'lliiluse. and so becoi 
a vegetable cell, 
divides into two, the lo' 
a^in into two, and so on, forming a chain (the MvtpmMor or pi 
emitryo). The tcrtninal cell of tliis divides again and again 
three directions, producing a mass of cells which shajtes i1 
«H m (u OK into the embrj'o, the ir 

f\ (\ (\ /^^^/| plant of a new genei 

** }\ O ri fe Ji^^ ''""■ Ordinarily tJie s 

IK'Hstir aiHin dieupiicara.' 
It is attached to the ra- 
dicular end of the em- 
biyo, which consequently always ixiints to the foninicn or 
mici'opyle of the seed. The process in Gytnnosiierms it 
complex, and has to be scparateU' described. 

533. Polt/embryony, the production of two or more embryos ti 
one seed, is not uncommon in Gynmos])cnns (there lieing a k 
of provision for it), and is of occasional but abnormal occnrreiH 
in Angiosperms, in the seed of Mistletoe, Kantahim, dec. 
these it results from the production and fertilization of i 
than one embrjonal lesiclc. Straslnn^cr has recently i 
tnined that the commoner polyembiyony in the seeds of OnioE 
Oranges, Punkia, &c., results tVom the production of advent 
embryos, which originate in the nucleus outside of the embi]; 
sac and wholly inde|>endent of fertilization-' Two kinds fl 

' StTBBburgpr, Ccbpr Polyembryonie. in ZeiMchr. Kiilurwig, Jem. ; 
1B78 (SFF Amer. Jour. Sci. April. 1B70). It wm found that when, bj eu 
lion of pollen, tho formallon of k normal embrj-o wa< prerenled, no ftdtenth 
Flo. Mil. Dliurrmin nf the iti»|>eniur nml Inefplrnt embiyo at lu citrMnltj. 
p. Kiiri l\\ii Mnliryn a Utile nmtp ilevelnr*''. Wl. Tim WHue 
iiitTlalcins hlntlr Imllcninl at Ilie lower vni. VK. S>di«, i 
la mnm mmilfiwt. sio. Tli» Boihryn ncnriy complPl"!. 
NH-'VMI^ FarniLneniiliTTnrrotdabftir'grDwiiBeedof BuckwlmtflaUirMib 
«, Willi Uw oolxlolatu laXtj dereloped. 


anomalonn reproduction are therefore now known, wbich aro 
intcrniediato lietween sexual and non-sexual, between burtdlag 
and fiiiiting propa^tion, viz., — 

Apogami/, wliieli is bndding giwwtb or proUQcation in place of 
that wliieli shouid subsen'e sexual repi-oduetion. TLLs was ilis- 
covered in Ferns by Prof. Farlow, wbile a pupil of De Eary, by 
wboni our knowloilge of tbe proiresB bas recenlly been extended, 
ami tbis name iin|>Dsc<t.' The production of bulblets in place of 
»w<l or embryo niiswers to tiiis in Flowering jtlants. 

Parthmogtny, the counterpart analogue of ajx^amy, is the 
non-sexunl oiigination of an ombrj'o extraneons to tbe embryonal 
%-c«icle or even tbe embryo-sac. However abnormal, its occur- 
rence ia probably not so rare as has been supposed. 


THE FRcrr. 
Section I. Its STHUCTrrE, Trans PORMATtoNs, and DEHtscENCE. 

534, The Fruit consists of tbe matured iHstil or gyno?cium 
(as tbe case may l)c), including also whatsoever may be joined 
to it. It is a somewhat loose and multifanous term, applicable 
alike to a matured ovary, to a cluster of such ovariee, at least 
when somewhat coberent. to o riijeiied ovarj- witli calj-x and 
otiicr floral pai'ls adnate to it. and even to a rii>ened iaflores- 
cence wbcn the parts are consolidated or compacted. Fruits, 
accordingly, are of larioaa degrees of simplicity or complexity, 
and sliould Iw first studied in the simpler foiTns, namely, those 
which linve result**! ftnm a single pistil. Such a fruit consists 
of Pericarp with whatever may be contained in it and incoriM>- 
rateil wiUi it. 

rmbr^o aiiprarril in ihoKe ircits wlikh hsLitunlly produce Ih^m. To ihli 
CEelebnic;'nc offpr* an pxcpplinn. The ft^male of lliia diiwiou* plniit linbil- 
ualljr niltlnmi fcrllleicfde.withRWell-tunnpd embryo, in Europ«r when tlit're 
■re no mitlc planls in the country. Slr>sbur|{cr aaciTiained that I lie embryo 
Ihua formed Is odrentivc, the ctnbryoniil ve>1de prrlEliing. Parthrnog^nriit, 
of which Calebogytie waa tlie mnit uncqulvnciil case, la thu* conHnned, *nil 
ii ahnwii ta occur In moat pnlytmbryony ; but it ia at llie *ame liuie explaineil 
to be* kind uf prollflcnMnn. 
< See Farlow, in Proc. Am. Acad. ix. 06 ;De Bary,Bot,Zeit.xxKTi.W<M6T. 



535. The Pvrlearp, or Sf«rl-tres$ei, ia the ripened ovary. 
bIiouIiI, tberefurc. occortl in stnicture with the; avary (him n 
it is derived. Yet alterations sonietiiues tjike jilaee during C 
tifleation, either by the abortion or obUterstioii of parts, i 
scoessorj- growth. 

53G. lirt«rul Alterations. Thus, the ovar}- of the OoIe t 
BJBts of tliree eells, with a pair of ottilcs in eacli ; but the fl 
has a single cell, tilled with a eolitarj' tieo<l, unly one ovule h 
m.-itiired, while two eells and Hve ovules are suppressed, 
remains of which [nay be deteeted in the aeoi-n. The o\ni 
of the Chestnut has six or seven eells, and a pair of auspeutk 
ovules in each : but only one of the dozen or fourteen i 
ever develoi« into a seed, eswpl as a rare monstrositj-. 
tliree-TL-lled ovarj' of the IIorBeehestniU ami Ituckeyc is aim 
in stnieture (Fig. 6()«-Gll), and seld 

f than one or two seeds : hut the 

abortiTe seeds and cells are obvious in the rijie fruit, 
ovary of the Birch and of the Elm is two-cclleii, with a single 
ovule iu eaeh cell : the fhiit is one-celled, with a solitan- seed ; 
one of the ovules being uniformly ahoi'ti\'e, while the other in 
enlniging thrusts the disaepinient to one side, and obliterates the 
empty ceil. Similar supiiressiona in the fruit of parta ad 
extant in the ovarj- are not uncommon. 

537. On tlie other hand, there may be more cells in the 
than there are primarily iu the ovary. Thus the fruit of Dal 
is diearijellary and normally two-celled, with a lai^ ptaceal 
projecting from the axis far into tlie cehs. But eat^h cell 
comes hiloeellatt, that is, divided into two, by a false partition 
growing out from the hack of eai'h carpel and cohering with tlie 
middle of the adjacent placenta. So the 5-carpeIlary and nor- 
mally five-celled ovary of common Flax early becomes spuriously* 
ten-celled (morphologically speaking, not 10-Ioc'ular. but If 
loceUaU), by a false partition extending ftum the back of eai 

ui^keye (jGnniliit Pivhi], 

FlQ.flm. I>in|{ltiiiIlnsls«:llnnDfItaeoTnrraf 
th<Ii«lnoraiTU1(«ln cwonf Uiecellf. mo.lnnrt 
Ibree nils ukI ill nvalm. 61D. Sune oflmir-^nw 
tlnoTnle»mti<lab1ltinUiig«ll>. ail. DehJacent iHio.tMiled trult, dlmlaUad y 


csrpcl across its cell (Fig. •^39-541) ; anil the solitaiy cnqx'l 
is similarly diviil^l lengtUwise in many »i>ecic8 of Aslragiiliis. 
as in fig. 534. Transverse tlivieious or lonatrictiotiB across 
o niutiiring ovary (such aa is seen in Fig. G20) are not uncom- 
mon, especially in legumes ami other pods, and arc of little mor- 
Itliological sign ill tan CO. 

53S. External AM-esaioiH may here be rererred to. Tlie wing 
of the pericarp in Maple, Ash, and the like (Fig. G2j-(i27), are 
familiar inetAnces of this ; and of the same nature are lliu im- 
liricatcil scales which cover some Fulm-fruits ; the prickles ou 
the |K>d of Datura, Ricinus, Ac, and the hooketl or barlxnl 
prickles of many small pericarps (as in various Borraginuccii>) , 
which thus become burs and &k disfteminatetl by adhcriug to the 
hair}' coat of cattle. Alt these are of the nature of sniwrficial 
outgrowths, and these especially afiect the j>ericarp ur parta 
connecleil with it. 

539. PfrsUteiire of CoonMled Orpus. An adnate calyx (331), 
being consoliilated nilli the ovan,-, necessarily makes a constit- 
uent part of the fruit, in the jumc (.i'j) doubtless a vef}' large 
part, llie limb or lobes of such ailnale organ may persist, as 
tlic tips of the sepals on an apple or quince, and may l>e turned 
to uscftd account, as is the pappus of ComjKJsitff for dissemina- 
tion. Or, in small pericarps, the style may |>cr3ist as [lurt of the 
fniil, and subserve the some ends, either by liecoming feather)' 
for aerial dissemination, as in Clematis and in one section of 
Geum, or br becoming hooked at Uie tip for adhesion to fleece, 
&c., OS in other species of the latter genus. Or atljacent parts 
which are not actually incorporated with the pericarp may play 
siniilar \tartit in the economy, as the hooks on the calyx-tnbe of 
the ilry calyx of Agrimonia, which at maturity is detadied with 
Iheinchiiled fniit. the fleshy fructiferous calyx of (Saultheria (Fig. 
051 ) and of Mulberry (Fig. G54) ; and the pulpy fructiferous re- 
ceptacle of the strawberry (Fig. G53) : the ultimate utilities in 
botli classes of instances lieing similar, viz., wide dispersion of 
the seed by animab. whether by external carriage, or by l>cing 
devoured and llie voiiled sectb of fleshy fiiiits thus dis3emiuate<l. 

54U. TransfvnnKtloiis In Coosist^nre. In the change from 
ovary to mature |*ericarp. various kin<ls of transformations may 
take place. In some Uie wall of the ovary remains tliin and 
becomes i» fruit fulinceous or leaf-like, as in a pea-iwd. the 
mrpels of Columbine, and Marsh Marigold (Calliia). or the ])0«l 
of Colutea or Bia<)der Senna- In others it thickens and l>ecome« 
at maturitj- either dr)- throughout, as in nuts and capsules; or 
fleshy or pulpy thiougbout, as iu berries ; or hard-riuded with- 

•-UIP. ^^ 

ont bnt soft within, as in a [x'lio : or flesliy or berr^-lifce withoi 
but iiitlurated withto, as in aU stone-fruits, Biifli as the cbes 
and peach. 

54 1 . When the walla of a pericarp consist of two layers of 
Biniilar texture (as in a peach) the outer layer is called £xoc. 
the inner Endocabp, these terms meaning exterior and intei 
parts of a fruit. When the external hiyer is a comparatively 
stratuni or film, it is sometimes termed the EriCAnp. When 
fleshy or jiulpy It is named Sarcocarp. When the endocorp witliin '^ 
a sarcocnrj) is liard and l>ony or crustnceoiis, forming a shell or 
stone, this is termed a I'ivtamen. When three concentric lajers are 
distinguishable in a pericaqi, the middle one is calleil Mesocuif. 

542. Fruits may be divided into two kinds, in reference 
their discharging or retaining the contained seeds. They 
dthiicfiU when they 0[)cn regularly to this end ; indthitcmt 
they remain closed. There ia a somewhat intermediate eoi 
tioD. when they rupture or burst irregularly, as in Datura Mi 
&c. Dry |>ericarps with single seeds are commonlj' indehisoent' 
those with several or many aeetls mostly dehiscent. Seeds pro- 
vided with a wing or coma or any analogous help to dispei-sioD 
ai-e always in dehiscent pericarps. I'ermaneiitly fleshy peri- 
carps are indehiscent, stone-fniits as well as lierriea. But in 
some stone-fruits (t, e., with indurated endocarp and fleshy 
exocarp), such as those of Almond (Fig. 640) and Hickory-, 
the barely fleshy exocnip or sarcoearp dnes or haitlens, instead 
of softening, as maturil,v is approached, and at length separat 
from the putamen by dehiscence. 

543. Dehiscence, the oix-ning of a pericarp for the discbi 
of the contained seeds, is reffular or irreffutar; or, better, 
normal and abnormal. For most of the abnormal or non-typl 
modes are as determinate and uniform in occurrence as the ty 
cfll modes. A good English name for dehiscent pericarpe 
general is that of Pod. 

544. lU'gular or normal dehiscence is that in which a perit 
splits vertically, for its whole or a part of its length, on lii 
which answer to sutures or junctions, that is. along lines wl 
corresiKjnd to the margins or midribs of carpellary leaves, or 
the lines and surfaces (or commissures) of coalescence of 
tigiious carpels. The pieces into which a jwricari) is thus 
dered are termed Valves. 

545. The normal dehiscence of a carpel is by ita inner, 
tral, or ovuliferous suture, that is, by the disjunction of 
leaf-matins, as in Fig, 618. Its only other line of ni 
dehiscence is by the opposite or dorsal suture, that is, di 


the midrib. Logiiraes usually dehisce by liolh sutures {as in 
Kig. ei'J), Iheret'ore inlo two valves. 

,'i46. A dehiscent |»criearj) formed of two or more carpels is 
called a Capsllk. The two leading terms descriptive of capsular 
dehiscence were based ui>on the modes of oiiening of ]K-ncAqM 
having as manj' cells as car|"<^l8 : they are tlie ttptieidal, that is, 
ns the term denotes, cutting through the $9pta or disseiiiments ; 
and the loeidieidal, that is, cutting into the focii/i or cells, 

547. Sfflifidal, the dehiscence tJii-OHgb the dissepiments, is 
the disjunction of a pericarp into its constituent enrpels, these 
then usuallj' themseh'ea dehiscing down their ventral suture, 

as in Fig, 012, illustrated by 

the diagram. Fig. 613. Good 

examples are f\irnished by the 

H\iwricum Family (the i>i8til 

illustrated in Fig. 336, 537), 

where the placenta which 

com[K>se the axis are carried 

away on the edges of the par- 
titions or introflexed valves ; 

also by Rhododendron, Kal- 

uiia, and the lilce, in which 

the placentie remain combined 

into a column in the axis (the 

CdLCMKLLA or column), from 

which the edges of the valves 

548. The aepticidal dis- 
■* junction of the carpels does / 
not of it«etf open the cells. \ 
Such separated carpels ii 
one-seeded not rarely i 
closed, as in Mallow, Ver- *" 

bena, Ac. Or when dehiscent they may ojH-n l)oth by the ventral 
and dorsal sutures ; i. e., the j)ericarii may first divide inlo Its 
constituent carpels, and then each carjiel break up into half 
cflr|>cl8, as in Euphorbia. 

649. Locaiitidal, the dehlsrenec into tlie localammlt, litciili, 
or c«lls of the pericarp (shown in Fig. G14, and the diagram, 
615), is that in which each component caqtel splits down its 

ria. All SxpUnblallj ilebl 
- ■ cBllehtollr d< 

cmrpenarjcaiKuleorElailn Virginia!, eii. U^ 

TendjUUwmhMlB. ( 

it tHatrpt'llftrj eapflult 

290 THE FECIT. ^M 

dorsal suture, as in Tris, Hibiscus. G^notlicrn, &e. In this, IMH 
clJBecpimenU remain intact. If they break away (mm tlie centrrf'* 
tlien Uiey are l)orQe on the middle or the ralvcti, as in the Rgurps 
al)ove cited. If they remain coherent in the axis but break away 
trom the valves, the result is gne form of what is called — 

550. Srptifragal dehiscence, i.e., a breaking away of tlie 
valves from the tepta or iiartitions, as shown in Fig. 616, This 
represents the loeulicidal furm of the septifragal mode, wbiuli is 
less common than that of the accompanying iliagmm, Fig. CI 7. 

Here the {tartitions alternate 
with the valves ; that is, the 
dcliisc-ence of the pericar]> is 
of the septicidal order, as 
near ns may be, but the i>ar- 
titions do not split, wherpfore 
the valves break away at the 
"'" "' common junction. To this 

tlie terra nmrginiridal has been applied. It occurs in the 2-3- 
carpellary capsule of Ipomrea (especially in the common Morning 
GloT^') , iu the 5-cari>ellary capsule of the North Americnn B[>ecics 
of IJergia; likewise in the 2-carpelIarj- pod of Crueiferie (Fig. 
623), with a difTcrcnce that the placentie from which the valves 
break away are here parietal and the partition is abnormal. 

551. The terms septicidal and loculicidal apply equally in plan, 
though not witli etymological correctness, t« oue-oelled capsules 
with either iiarietal (595) or fVeo central (593) plaeentee. When 
the dehiseenoe is of the septicidal tj-pe and the placentaf ion i>ari- 
etal, the (half) placents are borne on the niai^n of the rulvcs, 
oa in the Gentian family and the species of H\'pericnm with ono- 
celled capsule. Wlien the placente am borne on the middle 
of the valves, as in Violets, tlie <tehieceiice is of the loculicidal 
type. In the case of free central piaccnta> with no trace of 
partitions, the character of the deliiscence may usually be ilctcr- 
mined hy the position of the styles or stigmas relative to tlie 

552. Dehiscence may be quile normal althougli veiy partial, 
as when citntiued to the apex of the capsule of C'crastium and 
of I'rimula, and even to the pores under the radiate fitjgmas 
of Poppy. 

55.1, frrfffulnr or abnormal dehiscence is such as has no n 
to the normal sutures ; as where the dehiscence is transvet 


ITS K1SD8. '2'H 

cithor extending partway round, as in the pod of Joflcrsouia^ 
or completely round, so Umt Uie Ujii^er juirt foils ofT like an 
unhinged lid. Thb eireunutimte dcliisix-uc-e occurs in niuiij' 
plants of widely dilTercnt onlers ; such, for example, as I'urslane 
(Fig. r,2l). genuine Amaruiitlis, I'lantaiii, PimiMirnel, and Hen- 
bane. In other cases, as in Atitirriiiuum (Snap-dragon) and 
its allies, the eells bunt by irregular laceration at a deSiiitO 
IHJint, and disohai^ the swkIs through the rn^eil perforation ; 
or one or taotv neat valvular oriflees ore formed ou Bomc i>art« 
of the wall, as in Cam|)anula. 

Secttoh II, The Kikds or Frctt. 

S.H. Fkufts have been minutely clasMfie<l and name<I;' but 
the tetma in ordinar}' use are not very numerous. A rigorously 
exact and particular class iflcation, discriminating lietween the 
(hilts derived from simple and fVom eomix>und pistils, or Itclween 
tlioso with and without an adnate calyx, is too recondite and 
technical, and sometimes too byixithetic'al, for practical pur- 
poses. It is neither convenient nor philosophical to give a 
substantive name to eierj' modiUcation of the same organ. For 
all onlinarj' puriX)ses, both of morpholi^cal and systemulio 
botany, it will suffice to cUaractcrize the principal kinds uuiler 
the four classes of — 

Simp/t fruits, those which result fVom the ripening of a single 
pistil : 

Aygrtgiit*. those of a cluster of carpels of one flower crowded 
Into a mnsB ; 

Arrtmiiy or Anihorarpiu, where the principal mass consista 
of the surroundings or su]ii>ort of eitiier a simple or an aggregnto 

Mubiple or CnUfrtivt, formed by the union or compact a^r(^- 
gatioii of the pistils of several flowers, or of more thim one. 

h'ya. Simple Frnlta may Itc distinguisbed, upon ilttrereuces of 
texture, into Dry Fmilg, Slone Fruiu. and Baceate Fruitt ; or, 
better, into Dry aaA F7ethy ; and lie first may be divided into 

< The ^iviter put cif llie fartj'threc (ulMlanlivc niimn at nraTBUx'«, 
and even of the ihirly-ili ot Dumnrtler'm nnd of lindley'* oUborBtc fUs^ 
ftcationi of frulla hnro hctct fnunil pmpiojnient in (yRtiinBiic lK>l>n^. and 
doubtlpu iipTcr will be iukiI, Vol a il^Mlkit rarpalDgioal cUMiHcaiion hu , 
iM UK« for thp aiuclvnt. Amonit the mori- recent M[ii?ni|>>i arc ilic >ui.-cpulve 
Ann of IMirkHin, )Ii:>iib, nnd Mutpr*. Bve Nature, ir, 347 |aUo tn Trimen'i 
Joor. Bot 18T1, 310). Iv. 4T&, aad t. 0, 




(IchUcoRt nnd indehisoent kinds.' Theoretically, each kind may 

be dividixl inUi lliose of a siiniiti> nnd those of a compound piatil, 
and some would make the iiriinary division on this character. 
Some niso would separate IVitits with adnate or superior caljx 
fiwm those free of all aueh combination. But in practice these 
diflerencee can seldom be iudieatcd by substaotative names. 
The name of berry is equally applicable to the fruit resulting 
ftwin the single cnr|>el of Actica, the ayncarjmua ovary of the 
grape, and the similar ovary with lulnatc calyx of a gooseberr>- 
aml cranlMrrr^'. It should Ite understood that the kiuds shade 
off one into another mi>st freely. 

5^6. DehlHcent Fruits (543), or Poih, arc distinguishable into 
apoearpoiu, or of single carpels, and syncarpottt, of more tban 
one cariK'l, i. e. the first of a simple, the second of a corajwund 
pistil. The first kind is mainly represented by the Follidt and 
the Ltifitnur; the second, by the Capsule and its modifications. 
J 5A7. A Follicle is a pod fbrmeil 

^» of a simple pistil, and dehiscent by 

■SI one suture (this almost always 

flnft the ventral or inner suture) alone ; 
ytm as in the Larkspur, Coliiniliine, 
^r Peony, and Marsh-Marigold (Fig. 

•" 618) ; also in Milkweed and Dog- 

bane. There maj- tie several follicles or only 
one to a flower, even iu the same genus, as in 
Larkspurs, Cimieiniga, &c. In Magnolia 
(Fig- 64«-6oO). fleshy caipels liccome follicles 
dehiscent by tlie dorsal suture. 

558. A Lc^ome is the pod formed of a 
simple pistil whicli is dehiscent by both sut- 
ures (as in the Pea, Fig. CIS), so dividing 
into two pieces or valret. (■i44.) This is the 
fruit of the Pulse Familj, nccowlingly named 
Legumliioste (Leginninous plants): indeed, 
the name of legume is restricteil to the fruits of this familyjil 
and in descriptive botany is e!ctende<l to all the modificatioi 

' Dr. Maaltrs'i modlflcalion of Dickion'a and McNnb'a uliusiScfttion at| 

dmplt^ frulti, at lo jir)miti7 kuidg, is into 

1. iVato, of ArAanocnfpi, dry uid IndchlBcent ; 
3. Podt, or ntpBuinirpt. dry, dchiaccnt ; 

3. Sione^miii, or Pymaearjitjflethy witliout, imlurntoil ivithin.indeb 

4. Brrritt, or SarcocarpM, flcihy throuRliout. indelii scent, 
in piilmtrij. 

m KtnDS. 298 

wU'ivh that onler presents. Some of tbese, in fact, are in- 
dt'liisceut and rcduent to akence ; some break up ut luutuiity 
into one-Boeflcd iiulebisoeDt articulatioos ur Joiuta, wbicli are 
(lispcraed as if tbcy wciv bo many seeds. A legume of the latter 
kin<l takes the spet-ial name of Lomekt, Lat. iMmentutn, (Fig. 
620.) In Klimosa (SeDsUivc-planl, &e.), such artieulations de- 
luHce into two valves. They also fall away fVoni the sutures, 
ur from a. persistent marginal border of them, or in sume cases 
the valves thus fall anay entire. The [lersistent frame nbiili 
i-emains has t>eeQ called a IIeplcm, an architectural word, hei-e 
taken in tiie sense of door-case, 

5.>9. A Cap§ide is the ikhI, or dehiscent fruit, of any comiiound 
pistil. When regulaily and com- 
pletely dehiscent, as already stated 
(J44), the [Kxl Nplita lengthwise into 
pieces or cai(»». The modtis of regular 
dehisccoi.'e are ilhis- 
tnited in Fig. f>12- 
(il7. Two modifica- 
tions of the capsule 
have received distinc- 
tive names which are 
in common nse. \iz. 
the I^xit and the 

5fi0. A PtxIs or Pfxldlam is a dry fhtit which opens h} 
eirailar line, cutting off the upper part aa a lid ; i. e., the dehiscei 
is circumiciui/t. (553, Fig, 621.) In the Purslane, 
I'impemcl, Henbane, and Plantain, the pyxis is | 
a capsule; in Amaranths (Fig. 637) it is a 
utricle ; in Jeffcrsonia (Fig. 62^) it is a modi- 
ficatian of tlie follicle, being of one carpel which 
dehisces transversely, and not all round, so that 
the lid remains attached. '^ 

561. A 8III<tHe is a narrow two-valved capstile. with two pari- 
etal placcntiP, from which the valves se|mml« in dehiscence : os 
in plants of the Cruciferous or Muntard family (Fig. G23). 
to the fruit of which this term is restricted. Usually, a false 
partition is stretched across between the two placcntic. remter- 

. pTtWiniB ftilllnular ftnlt nf JelTvnnnla ill|ita;Ui 


ing tlie pod Iwo-ccUpcI in an anomalous tnanner. A Sinci 
{Silictiiii, diminutive of litiijtia) is nw-'reiy n sliort siliijuf, 1 
length of which does not more than twieu or thrice surpass i 
breiulth; such as that of Shepherd's- Purse (Fig. 624), and 
Ltinaria, Candytuft. &c. 

5G2. IndeUncent Dr; Frttits are almost alnnys one-9Cedc<.t or 
very few-sM.'dt.'d. If numerous, the seeds thus placed would not 
be disjiersed. The ordinarj' kinds are strictly one- 
sec<le<l, and in common language are often can- 
founded with seeds. The ways in which such fVuita 
are dispersed are various. In the following 
the aditptation of the pericarp to dispersion by mud 
distinguishes the spei'ies of tVnit. 

503. The Samara, sometimes called in English 
Kty, is an indehisccnl one-soeded fniit pi-ovidi 
with a wing. In the While Ash 
the wing is terminal (Fig. G'2>'>) ; 
in other species the whole fruit 
is wing-maigincd ; in Birch and 
Elm (Fig. 626) the wing sur- 
rounds the body of the pericarj) ; 
and the Maple fi'iiit is a double 
samara or [Miir of such fniits, cou- 
spicuouslj- winged ftxim the ajwx. 
bf'i. Akenc (Lat. Achenltim) is a general 
one-seeiled, dry and hard, indeliisceut and seed-like small 
such as arc impularly taken for 
seeds. But that they are true 
or ovaries rii>ened, is evident from the 
style or stigma they bear, or from the 
scar left by its fall ; and a section 
brings to i-iew the seed within, provi- 
ded with its own proper intt^uments. 
The name has been i-estrieted to the seed-like fruits of simple 
pistils, such as those of the Buttercup {Fig. 628,629), Anemone, 
Clematis, and Geum, The stile in some species of the latter 
remains on the ftniit as a long and feathery tall, in others as a 
short and hooked one, both being agenta of dissemination. The 
grains ofthe 9lrawt)erry (Fig. 653) arc also akenes. The 
is extended to all one-celleii seed-like fruits resulting tiota 



ITS K1M}8. 

oomponnd ovary, and even when invcfitcd with an adnate calj'x- 

tube. Of the latter ia the fruit of Coinpoditie. (Fig. 630-G35.) 1 

Here tlie tul>c of the calyx is iucorix>- 

ratcd n-ith the surface of the ovary : 

ami its limb or liorder, obsolete in some 

cases (Fig. G30}, in others appears 

as a enitca or cup (Fig. 631), or set of 

twth or of scales (Fig. (132, 633), or aa 

a tutl of bristles or hairs (Fig. 634, 


685), &c., calkil the Pappls. In the Lettuce ami Dandelion 
(Fig. 63<5), the acheiiium ia rotlntie, or lH.'Qkett. ■'. e. its summit 
is extended into a slender beak. An akcne with atluste L'alyx 
has l>iM>ii toriueil a Cvpsela. 

dG5. The tJtiicle is the same as the akene, only with a thin 
and bladdery loose pcricaqi, like that of Goosefoot. 
(F^. 636.) This thin coat sometimes bursts irregu- 
larly, discharging the seed. lu the true Amaraullis, 
the utricle opens bj~ a circular line, and the up|ier 
part falls as a lid, converting the (i-uit into a small 
py^t (O'iO), — a transition form. (Fig. 637.) 

^66. A C«70psls or firain differs fVom the utricle 
or akcne in having the seed completely filling the 
cell, ami its thin coat finnly consolidatetl tlii-uiighuut 
with the very thin pericarp; as in wheat, Indian 
com. and all other cereal grains. Of all fruits this 
is the kind most Hkclj- to be mistaken for a seed, 

567. A Not is a hard, one-celled ami one-seeded, 
fruit, like an aeheniiim, but larger, ami usually produced from 
an ovary of two or more cells with one or more ovules in each, 
all hut a single ovule and cell having disapi>earc<I during its 
growth (536) ; as in the lUzel, Beech, Oak (Fig. C38), Chest- 


ileliisccnt , 


'sns dnliLwwtwg bmnmlng ■ JTil*. 

ysTipiuL tax. Ttial nfcicliorj (lli {■■■[hb • 
nftwn.lert.tnoiuiir»l»l. Bsa OfSno 
w «M. or Snw-TlilMlD. ■ 
1, Uiwring bein* I] 


nut, and the like. The nut is often encloseil or surronndecl ta 
R kind of involucre, termed a CupuU; bqiIi as the cup 
the base or the ac-om, the bur of the chestnut, and the I 
like covering of the hazel-nut. The i: 
(sometimes Gland in English) is technically s 
to Kiieh nuts, this being their classical Latin name. 
508. The fmit of the Walnuts and Hickory is 
apparently a kind of drupaceoui nut, or something 
' intermediate between a stone fruit and a nut. But., 
certain monstrosities give reason for supposing tl 
the seeming exocarp (o41), which in tlickoij 
" hardens and at maturity dehisces in four valval 

is of the nature of an adnate involucre. The coeoanilt is 
of fibro-droijaeeoua nut. 

uG9. Nntlet, or in Latin form Ncccle (Ntteula), is sometim 
8ii|)crfluously employed in a literal sense, as a diminutive nut.* 
Of bite it has acquired a good and fairly legitimate use as the 
name of the seed-like, or rather akene-likc, closed parts or lobes, 
of crustoceons or other hard texture, into which certain biloculac^ 
or plurilocular pericarps separate at maturity, t. «. fur the » 
ments of a schizocsrp, 571, which resemble akenes.* These a 
eometimes carpels, sometimes half-caq)els, as in Verbena, i 
in Borraginaceie and Labiatie (iti which the segments are greatly 
separated in the ovarv), and sometimes, as in Nolana, they ate 
ixirtions of comiMuiided carpels which have been exceedingly 
multiplied by chorisis. 

570. There are complete transitions between dr^' nutlets, with \ 
a thin ond herbaeeous epiearji, and the fn/rena (■>74) or stony ' 
inner portion of such carpels when drupaceous or composing a 
drujie of two or more stones. It is therefore a hardlj' incongru- 
ous and verj- convenient use which extends the term nutlet to 
include these small seed-like stones also, as. for example, to 
those of Holly. Benrherrj', Hawthorn, anil the like. 
TtTl. The pair of achcnium-like or ollen samai-a-Iike carpels 

> Nnl Knd ak^nc, between which there it no fliced dielinotion, irU) cover 
ttiia fcraund. The fruit of CypcnccK, for inRlance, \t Inilj an ftcbeniam. 
if thi» n«ine Is ever to be uied (anci ll imw commonly ia) for «ny other than 
■ monocarpi'llary fnill. It ii often termed a nut, iometimei a natlet, and 
by «. \Mt writer. Bovkler, ■ caryopsia. 

* Cocci {ting. Cocciit. from a Greek wnnl for kernel) is another name for 
fmil.eKrpelB, or lepanktintt lubei of a ilr.v perienrp, as wtll for delil*cent one* 
(of Knphorhia) u for iiideliiiccnt. Heni^e eiieh lobed or partible frulfa 
are bbUI to be rfi'rowoa*, (rimcrou*. 4p., iiccoriiing to the numb«r ol" ' 


nut.» ^^^ 

se ar^^^l 




of Wlilte Oftit, witti ll> eup, oi 


united by their inner fncc biit separating entire at mntiifity, 
which constitute the fhiit of Uinbcllifenc, takes the nuine of 
Ckemocakp (Lai. Cremocarpium) ; and the halves are calleil 
Mekicarps. These names it may sometimes be i-uovenient to 
use ; yet it is not atli'iaahle to liavc special names for the fniita 
of particular families ; and mericarp is here synonymous vith 
carijel. For drj' fruits iu general (or such as Liecome dry) 
which are composed of two or mor« carpels, and which at mata- 
rity split up or otherwise separate into two or more clusetl one- 
see<led portions, an appropriate recent name is that of ScuizocABP. 
The component carpels of such a fruit were long ago named Ctir- 
cerulci (carceruii, little prisons) by Mirlwl. 

572. Fleshf Fmlts, which ftom tlieir texture are natnrally 
Indehiscent, may bo either fleshy throtlghonti or with a firm rind 
or shell, or fleshy externally and hard or stony intemaliy. Of 
the latter, the type is 

573. Tbe Drape or Stone Pmlt pro[>er (Fig. GSO), that of the 
cherry, plum, and peach. True druEWs arc of a single earpeli 
one-ccUeil and onc-secdt-d 

(or at most two-seeded), '" . , ,.,, 

the ripening of which the / ^-'A^f \ r'-^jii 

outer |>ortion of the pericarp 
becomes fleshy or pulpy, and 
the inner stony or cnistace- 
ous, t. e. divides into tnrco- 
ciirp and puiamm. (541.) 
But the name is cxt^ndwl to •* "" 

pericarps of similar texture resulting fl-om & compound jiislil, 
either of a single cell, as in Celtis, aixl (liy abortion) in the olive, 
oroftwoorseveral cells, asinComus.Kliamnus, 4ie. Thesevcral 
pericarps of tlie aggregate blackbcrrj' and rasplwny ore diminu' 
the ilnipes or Dbupelets. 

574. Small (lru[)es are often confounded with berries, and the 
stone or stones taken for seeils. Especially is it so in dniix'S 
or drupaceous fhiits of more than one ccU, ripening into separate 
or separable hard endocarps or stones, each filled by a seed.' 
Bearberries (Ardostaphylos) and Huckleberries (Gaytnssacia) 
are good illustrations of this. The seed-like endocarps of Ibis 

' The term ^c'biu, the orliriii'l name of mch m l>erry ii« a frrape. bat been 
iwed in deicriplivc botany for a (mall iJrupe or ilrupelet, anil the ripened 
earpolior Riibiu liarebnin termed ocn/oranivf. but witiiont dUi^rim ins ting 
Ihem from berrie". 

FIQ. BM. Vritlciil wrMon nf a prarh. Rtn. An alninnil: lii «]ili-h Ibnuorarp. tha 
pontnn of ihe pcrtnujiihat nprMentu the imlpnf the pi-ncb, (smaliujiilniltaa, iai at 
Imgtfa npanln by dchlicence from lbs eudocaip. ot ihcU. 


sort are PntEU^ ; and the fi-uita are dipyrenout, tripj/renoi 
Mraptjrtaout., &c., according as they contaia two, three, or fc 
pjTeiiai. When the Barcotar]> ia thin and dries up at maturity* 
these iiyrenii; pass by gradations into niicuitt (5Ui>) or utillets ; 
hence |)j-renBB are not uncommonly in Eughsh descriptions called 
untUti or niwuUt. 

alb. The Pome (Fig. G41, C42) is the name of tlie apple, pear, 
and (luincc. These are fleshy fhiits, compoaetl of two to 
several car|>ela (rarely by abortion only one), of 
parch men t-like or (in Hawthorns) bony testnr.^, 
enclosed in flesh which morphologically belongs 
to aduat« calyx and receptacle ; as may bo ap- 
prehended by comparing a rose-hip (Fig. 407, in 
llower) with an apple or a pear. Of the quince, the 
whole flesh is calyx or hypanthium (49S) ; in the 
apple and pear, the inner or core-portion of the 
flesh is of the nature of disk, investing the carpels. 
In the fVuit of Ilawtliorns, the cariiels become bony 
pjiTome (574), and so the fruit is drtipaceout, is 
indeed nothing more than a sjiioarpous dnipe. 
In Eriobotrya, or C'umquat, the eurpeb liecwiming 
verj- thin and luembranaceous, the pomaceoua 
ft-uit ia in fact a kind of berry. 

57G. The Pepo, or Gotird-friiit (Fig. C4S), of which the goni 
and squash are the tjpe, and the melon and cucumlier equal 
familiar illustrations, is the chi 
act^ristic fruit of Cueurbil 
fleshy internally and with 
or firm rind, all or part of whieli 
is referable to the ndnate calyx 
completely incorjwrale wilh Ihe 
ovarj-. This is either one-celled 
with three broad and 
parietal placcntie, or 
centiE, borne on thin dissepii 
meet in the axis, enlarge, 
spread, unite with their 
™ *** on each side, and are 

the walls of the jiericarp, next which they bear their 
the (Vuit enlarges, the eeed-Iicaring placenta; usually col 
with the walls, and the partitions are oMiterated, giving 

1. Ml. Piimcor npflo In tr 
>rHwh»n«wprlnKl.i'll ■ ■ 

. OR UUcnwatoneoniai 


appearance of a [wculiar abiionnal plftcentation, which the study 
of the ovar)- readily explains. In the tvaUTtntlon tlie cilible 
piilp all belonga to the greatly developed placentae. Fniila of 
lliie rnmilj' in which the rind also is suft at maturity are ti-ue 

b~7. The Heeperidliin (orange, lemon, and lime) is the fleshy 
ft-iiit of a free many-celled ovaiy with a leather;- innd, and is a 
men- variety of the berry. The name ia 
applied only to fVuits of the Orange tribe. 

o7«. The BeiT7 (Lat. Bacea) comprises 
oil simple fniits in nliieh the iK!riearp is 
fleshy throughout. ITie grajje, gooselwrrj', 
currant, cranberrj- (Fig, 6-15), banana, and 
tumnto are familiar examples. The first 
and last consist of an ovarj' free IVom the 
calyx ; in the others, calyx and ovary are 
combined by adnation. 

579. Aggregate Pmlfai arc those in which 
a cluster of carpels, all belonging to one 
flower, arc crowded on the receptacle into 
one mass, as in tlie raspbeiTj- and black- 
lierry taken as a whole. (Fig. 046.) 'lliey Q 
may be aggregates of any kind of sini|)le 
IVuil^. But when dry and not cuhen-nt, the mass would simply 
and properly he described as a hcail or spike of carpels, m()re 
commonly of akenes, as in RaDunculus, Ane- 
mone, &c. Yet when numerous carpels thus 
compact«d become fleshy, and sometimes more 
or less coherent, the s^igrt^ate may need to be 

taken into account. Tlie best i 
that of SmcARPiLM, or in English 
form SrNOARP. But the t*Tm has 
been applied to multiple fruits as 
well.* Ill n3'<lraatis. the numerous 
car]>ela imbricated on tlic npi^er 
part of the torus are baccate, that 
is. become berries ; in araspberrj% 

? for it is 

the seeminglj' baccate grains are drupacemu (being drupeteU, 573), 

' The 

M/fBrarp wliich \$ n Kynicciuni niiidil b« ili-aittiuilcd a timj-U ayn- 
that which U an inllnrrscrnee, a aimjJrJ: ii/nearjiinm, wlikli maj lie 
paucifloFotu. or multlHiiniua. 



and, slightly cohering togctlior (though without organic 
thcj- fell as one Ixxiy from Ibe conical tlrj- torus at maturity. 
is the same in blackberries or bramble-berries (Fig. ti4G, 647). 
except that the drupelets persist on the torus, which partakes of 
the juiciness.' In the ^gregatc fruit of Magnolia (Fig. 648-650), 
such carpels, imbricated over one another, cohere more or less 
at all contiguous parts, and 
become drupaceous ; nei-er- 
tbeless, at maturity each 
opens dorsftllj-. allowing Uic 
seeds to full out : in age it 
dries and hardens, and also, 
separatuB fl-om its com 
tions, and so 
comes a follicle, 
with the remark- 
able i>eculiarily of 
\ dorsal instead of 
ventral dchisoenoc. 
f (Fig. 650.) In Li- 
rio<lendmn, a tree 
of the same family, 
such carjtels are 
dry and indehiscent throughout ; and they largely consist of long 
and flat styles, imbricated in a cone, but seiiurating from e»ch 
other and from the slender torus at maluritj-, when each becoi 
a samara. 

580. AceosBor; or Aitthocarpons Fralts are those of which 
conspicuous portion of the fructification neither belongs to the 
pistil nor la organically united with it, except by a eonrimon 
insertion. The part thus imitating a fruit, while it is really no 
jmrt of the pericaq>, is sometimes called a Pttudoearp. 
condition may occur either iu sunple, in aggregate, or in niulti] 

e»ch ^^ 

1 Tlie agpre^ntp frull liVi" thitt iif RubuH (named by arinic CojinciifTWBBi, 
by otlirnan .Eleria, Ergllimlomtini. &c.) wb» Icrmcd by Dumorliir a Dnpr- 
lam. A (imilar aggrO(|At)on of ImcL'alo carpola he termixl ■ Bamtam : iit 
follicle*, a FoSialuin. &c. All eucb nimcs may look well in a iy»tein; but 
ihey are both sufierfluoui and unmanageable in phytograpliy. 

I. SU. Aegn^ate frull nf Umbrelli 

aclwl. Rl nilt nutuiily, Jtied u 

loIU Uirhrvllii, ralDCoI In dMtJI 
duraallf (leLbuiul, uixHiug Uw pair of « 

581. Gaultheria procnmbens, the aromatic Wint^rgiveQ (Fig. 
CJl, 65^), affords a good example of the firai. Its sw'tninj 
bciTj- (the checkerberrv ) , with summit irrowoud hy tlie tips of 
the calj'x-lobes, well imitates the true 
berry of a Vaeciniiim, such as that of 
Fig. G4.i. But It comes from a flower 
witli thin calyx, umkmeath and fVec 
IVom the ovary. Ita fruit is really 
a capaiile : in the process of fructi- 
fication, the calyx enlarges, becomes 
Buc-culent, completely encloses the capsule or true fhiit, yet 
without adhering to it, and in n|>ening counterfeits a red 
berrj'. So in Slicplicnlin, or Buffalo Bcrr)-, the seeiiiiiig sarco* 
cai'p of a dnipe is really a free caljTi, accrescent and suctnilcnti 
enclosing an akene. So, also, the apparent achcnium or nut of 
Mirabilis, or Four-o*clock, nml of its allies, 
is the thickened and indurated base of the 
tube of a free calyx, wiiich contracts at the 
ai>cx and encloses the true pericarp (a utricle 
or thin akeue), but does not cohere with it. 

382. Likewise the torus, although not con- 
spicuous, may be said to be an accessor)' jiart 
of the aggregate fruit of the Ulackbcrr}- or 
Bramble ("fT!)) : it Incomes the solely con- 
8i)icuoU8 and Uie aole edible part of a straw- 
berry (38!), Fig. 40(5. C53), the akenes or 
true IVinla dispersed over the surface being 
apparently insignillcant. Equally in many 
tnulliplc fruits the conspicuous flesh belongs to recepUicIo (cither ' 
torus or rhachis) , to calj-x, or even in pait to bracts, or to all 
these parts combined, as in a pine-apple. 

583. Multiple or CollectlTe Frolts ' are those which restdt fhini 
the aggregation of several Howers into one mass. The simplest 
of these are those of the Porlridge-Beny (Mitchella, Fig. 4G5, 

' Calltflin i* the pretorabk imme. Tile rertn nulii/Jt wt> »ppllcil by 
DcCanJollc (□ ohai are here (rollnwinR Lindlcfl catlcil o^rrryiln fnlili ; 
ami ibe ag^nyaie tmit» o! IJeCwidolle are liore CAlk'd malliiilr m nJIrrilif. 
Moreover, the Jiitinetian between accManrv or Anllincarpoiu nml enUi-ctiva 
or mallSple fruh* wm not rocogniicil by I.inJlej', who combiner] tlie Iwo I 
in liii original " Iniroiliu^tiiin (n Botany." In thU work four elaase* ■ 
giTim: 1. Fruit limple. AFOCtani % Frail agp^gale, Aoosi 

FIO. Ml, FntlolliK 


4GG) and of some species of Iloncvsuckle, formed of the ovartiM 
of two blusMJiuH unitwl into unt fleshj' fhiit. The more usual 
sorts arc suuli as tlie pioe-npplc, mulben'y, and the Hg. These 
arc, ill fact, dense forms of inflorescence, with the fruits or floral 
envelopes m»ttcd togetlier or coherent with eaeli oilier ; ami hH 
or some of the parts succulent. The grains of the mulberry 
(Fig. G&i-G^tO) arc not the ovaries of a single flower, like those 

of the blackberrv. wliich it suiTcrficially resembles : they belong 
to as many seiwrate flowers : ami tlie pulp i>ertains to tlie ealyx. 
not to tile pericarp, whii'h is an akene. So tliat this, like most 
multiple fVnits. is anthoeanmus as well as multiple. Similarly, 
the mostly indefinite ft'uetifei'oHs masses of Strawbern' Btite may 
resemble strawberries ; bnt the pnlpy part is the calys of many 
flowers, not the succulent receptacle of one. In the pine-applp. 
the flowers are spicale or capitate on a simple axis, which grows 
on beyond them into leaf^' stem ; this when rooted as a cutting 

3, Fruit compound (ovaria coirpoun<1), Sybcarpi ; 4. 

Later, in hi* " Element* of Boliiny," I.indley rodiici 
two; I. Simpl' Fraiin. thoBC pnicwllnft from a ainglc flower; 2. J/i 
^fivlli, (liote foriui'd out at aprerat fioven. 

no. B 

A mall tllce, magnUed, tbowtni » 

rrs sxsvB. SOS 

bears another pine-apple, and so on : the constituent flowers have 
througli immemorial propagation in this way beeome storilf and 
seedless, and nil its parts, along with the hraets and tlie axis of 
the stem, blend in rii»ening into one fleshy and juit,v mass. Few 
fruits of this class have ever been technically named, at least 
with names which have come into use. But the two following 
deserve special appellations, although only the latter is familiar 
either in onlinary language or in ilescriptive botany. 

584. The Sfconlnni or Hfpanttaodliim, the Fig nuit. (Fig. 6o7- 
Giiil.) This results from a multitude of flowers concealed in a 
hollow flower-stalk, if it may t>e so called, which Ix-eomes pulpy 
and edible when rii» ; and thus the frail seems to grow directly 
from the axil of a leaf, without Ix'ing preceded by a blossom. 
Tlie minute flowers witliin, or some of them, ripen their ovaries 
into very small akenes. which are commonly taken for 9ec<ls. 
The fig is to the mulben^- what a rose-hip is to a strawberry. 
(its9. Fig. 406, 41)7.) It is f\irther ciqilaiued by a comparison 
with a near relative of the Fig-tree, Dorstenia, in which similar 
flowers cover the upper suiface of a flat peltate disk. This disk 
or plate sometimes Incomes sancer-shaped by an elevation or 
incurvation of the margin. A greater degree of this would 
render it cup-shaped, or even pitcher-shapetl ; from wliich it is 
a short step to the conti'aetion of the mouth down to the small 
orillee which is found in the fig. 

58.J. The Strobile or f«ne (Fig. 660) is a scaly muUiple fniit, 
resnlting fVom the ripening of certain sorts of catki 
is applie<l to the fruit of the Hop, where 
the laTgc and thin scales are bracts ; 
but it more csi)ecially Itelongs to the 
Pine or Fir cone, the peculiar fruit of 
Conifene (507), in which naked seeds 
arc liome on the upper face of each 
fructiferous scale (Fig. 6G1). or some- 
times in their axils. 
Sueli a cone when 
spherical, and of 
thickened senles 
with narrow iiase, as 
til at of Cypresses, 
lias been temietl a "" 

^LBiM^s. an nnnecessary name. The gajlinlus of Juni]>cr if 


remarkable transrormatJon into a seeming berry ; the few scales 
cohering with each other as they grow and becoming fleshy at 
maturity, completely enclosing a few Iwny-coated seeds. 

5fiG. A Syno[jsi8 of the kinds of I'niit, aa chai-aeterized in 
this chapter, is appended. The analysis extends only to simple 
ft'tiits. For there are no commonly used special names of 
kinds of Aggregate (579), Accessory (580), or Multiple (583) 
ftnits, except that of Strobile. 


Dry ■□<] ilpliiicent, monncarpclkry, ^^^^| 

Opening liy one (chiefly tlic rcntral) lulure ToLLtCtK^^^ 

Opening by both aucmvi Leqitme. 

Or lr«n»ver»cly ]i>mtct], Iximest. 

Dry and dehlgctnt, bi-pluri-carpcllary, CApacLK. 

When itB dehisi'Micc i» eirpunnfiasile, . I'riia, 

Wlien dehiicent by iwo valTes from two p«rietal placenUc, , . Siliqcs. 

A «horc and broad lilique, StLiCLa. 

Dry u)d bi-pluri*arpcll»ry,«p|[ttlng iolo one-«ceded carpeli, . Scrizocakk 

The dJmimai ichizovarp at VmMliteTs CaBuociju^,^^— 

Each of iu halve! or enrpela Hehicarp or Mbricai^^^H 

The akenc-likc or nul-like parts into which SehiKocarpi gencraUy ~^^^| 

diviile Nl-culbs or NirrLBi|^^^| 

Dry and lndehi«cent, one'Cclled, ane-two-teeded, ^^^H 

Winged ^'*^4^i^^l 

WingleM. anil with the ^^^1 

Thin pericarp conaolidaled with the iced, Cji*tom0^^H 

Thin pericarp looic and not filled by the lecd VtsicU^^^^I 

Thick or hard pericarp free from the seed, 
Small, from a one-celled onc-twn-o ruled orary, AaEiiEorAcsKl'lDll. 
Larger, mostly from a two-aercral-celled and ovtiled ovary, . Scr. 

Nut borne in a cupule or involucre Gi-***.^^ 

Fle>hy and Indehlicent, ^^^^ 

Heterogeneout In texture, having ^^^| 

A ilone (putamen) or nutlets within an exterior Mrcoearp. ■ '^"'*4^| 

Papery or cartllaglnoua cHTpeU in an inferior carcocarp, . . PonT^^I 

A harder or Arm rind or exterior, and auft Interior. 

From an inferior ovary {oanSned to (iourd Family), . . . Pepo. 

From a auperinr ovary (confined to Orange Family), Eesferidiuh. 

uB, fiethy thraDgbout Bbki 



587. The Seed is the fertilizw! ovule (")15), with embiro 
formed wUIiiii it. It consists, like the ovnili-, of a nucleus or 
kernel, encloBeil by lutein tnviiU. The seeU-euata are tiiose of 
the ovule, viz. two. or sometimeB onl^- one. in certaiu plants 
noue. OccaBionallj- nn accessor}- coat sppcnrs ndfr Tertiliza- 
tion ; and certain 8pi)ct«lage8 may be produocil, as outgrowths 
from some part of its surface or from iU base. Tlie iincleus or 
kernel i§ i-oniiMMetl either of the embryo alone, or of a nutritive 
i]r|>osit in addition. (19-41.) All the parts of a seed are in- 
dicaUd in Fig. 603. 

SMH. The Seed-stalk or I'onusrEUM, when there is one. i* 
the/«ntru/w of tlic ovule (JIO). an<l retains this nnnie. So 
also do the Cualaza. Buaphe, and Ilii-lM ; the latter Iving tbe 
scar left liy the »t'i»aratiori of the eoed from 
its (linlcidus or directly IVom Uie placenta. 
The foramen or ovule, now closed, is tlie 
MicBoPTLE of the seeil. 

589. The terms which denote the char- 
acter of the ovule, such as orthotropnut, ""' *" 
campylolropoui, antfihitrnpout. and analropout, apply equally to 
the resnlting seed. 

590, Secd-C'oals. The integuraenu of the seed answer to the 
primtiie and secniidine of the ovnle. The main secd-ennt is the 
exterior integument of the ovule when there is more than one. 
Being the most firm coat, and not rarelj' enifttaceoiis in texture, 
it takes the name of Testa, which ia cc^nivulent to seed-Bhell. 
It has also Ivcn nnmed SrEtuiODEKU (seed-skin), and sometimes 
£pi»ptrm. The latter name (meaning upon the seed) is best 
applicl to the pelU<'le or outer layer, sometimes a thick one, 
whii-li the testa of certain seeds forms. The testa is extremely 
various in form and texture, is either close and conformed to 

ni*«nlBt*l •ccttnn •< Ibc ('■iwEr" 

isrlHD Un- 

dcDH, wltk IU fimlcHlu, a. 

806 THE SEED. 

the nucleus, or loose and wlliilar (aa in PiTola- seeds ) , c 

ously apiwuiluged. 

Sill. The ioiier eoat, called Tgomes and sometimes Bkdo- 
rLEintA, wbeu present is a1nai>'a cunfunned to the duiIcub, and 
is thin or soft and delicate. Sometimes it Is inconspicnous 
through cohesion with the nucleus or with the inner surface of 
the tt-sta. In ovules of one c'oat it is necessarily- wanting. 

yji. Ap|M!nilKges or outgrowths of the t^sta generally liare 
reference to ilisseminution. Two characteristic kinds of such 
appendnires arc tlio wing anil the eoma, 
Imtb t^itaining only to the seeds of dehis- 
cent fruits and calculated, by rendering 
seeds buoyant, to facilitate disitorsion by 
the wind. The wing of a Pinc-sccd (Fig. 
CGI. 662) is a jwrt of the cnrpcllary scale 
upon which the two orules grew. In 
Tnimiwt Creeper (Fig, 605), an entire 
wing surrounds the iKKly of the seed. 
In the rclatctl Cataliia (Fig. C60), it is 
mainly extended fixim the two ends, snd 
almost dissolved into a etmia, the name 
given tn the tuft of soft hairs lihn that 
which foims the down at one end of the 
seed of Sliifcwecd tFig. CC7). and of 
Epilobium, and at both ends in several 
ApocynaocK. In the Cotton-plant, vcrj- 
long and sett hairs, admirably ndapl«d for 
spinning, tliickly cover the whole sceil- 
"• coat. The wing and coma of seeds are 
fiinctionally identical with tlie wing and the pappus of the pcri« 
in the samara and the akenes of Comimaitie (583, 564), 
morphologically quite unlike them. 

5113. Tliere are other (mainly microscopic) strticlures on some 
soed-coats which come nsef^iUy into play in arresting farther 
<lis])ersion at a propitious time or place. In many but nut all 
PoletnonUceit^ (notably in CoUomia), in certain Acnnlhacefe. 
such 08 Rueliia tnbcrosa (and eqnally in certain Com]H>ait« of 
the Senecio tril>e and in Salvias, &c., among Lahiatie. where 
this fttnictnrc is transferred to akenes and nutlets), the testa fsa 
coated with slioil hairs, which when wetted burst or othcn 
ojten and discliarge along with nnicilage one or more very att 



nntol long threads {tjiin'clei) wliicU were coiled within. Tbosi-, 
prutniding in all ilireciioiis and in tminen»c nuinlH'rs. form a 
limbus of considerable size nruuud the setd, and evidently must 
Borve a useful end in fixing the^c email 
and light seeds to the soil in time of 
rain, or to moist ground, favorable to 
gonnination, to which they may be 
carried by the wind. Thu niiicilage so 
largely developed upon tlie seeds of 
Flax, Cress, ic, when wetted 
19 probably of similar use. 
594. While the testa it 
many seeds is hard and 
cnistaeeous or liony, imitat- 
ing the pcncarp of n nut motbtrs (such as Pteonia) it becomes 
berry like (bawnte), and in Magnolia drupaceous* (Fig bf.H- 
G71.) Tbest ma\ also be regarded as adapUtiona for di'wemi- 


nation, here bj- the agency of birds, attracted by bright coloring 
and ctlible pulp. 

59.). The riinphc of an nnatropons see<i (shown in Fig. GHI. 
6S5) is sometimes so salit.'nt as to form a conspicnons npiH'ii- 
dage, as in Sarraccnia, Fig. 672. Again it may lie wlnilly 

' See arlii'le On the Siruclurc of the Ovule anil Seeil'CiMta nt Mn^iilia. 
in Jnur, I.inn. Sw, il. 100, fram nliicli the Bccompan^lng Sgiires and Fig. 
fi«l>-607 nrc reproducFfl. 

no Ml>. Ffirmlng (ml (ntM rttfilb nT i 
rtwr>^ Unrinl tin •jb. net. MacnlBeil <'<"• 
tlia riiafiliei tlHf <Hit«r nm. n. bvtflnnlnff 1i 

Ttti- ftm A nearlj fii11.|fmwn mrA, t 
onlaroBl, atHiwIiig >he cruMuwiu or slo 
th* put! laUHwlu In »■.«•». wn. A. 

h'li il Indiana (lie am] 
I. Ixin0lHdlniil •cctinn 


inconspicnous, as in the ri|>e seed of Magnolia, where h is at 
longtb etiiiipletcty inergvil mid inil>vddiil iu tbe Hesby drupai 
testa, OS sLovrn in Fig. 670-G72. 

bM, Crest-like or other apiwnilagpB are not un< 
on tlie rhapho or at the hilnra. These are outgniwtha pnKli 
duriug the development of the ovule into tbe st'ed. In Saugui- 
naria, auuh a crest develops trwa the whole lengili of the rliapbe 


(Fig. 073) ; in Dieentra, Corvdalis (Fig. 674), &o.. fmm some 
part or it, mostly fVom its base next the hiliim, or JVom ilia 
liiluni itself, or even from just below it. Such an api)endage, 
especially when attaiJied to the base of the seed, is named a 
STRoniioLE. A similar and commonly a wart-Bhai>e<l appendage 
in Euphorbia, Kicimis (Fig. 675), &e., is proiluced bv an out- 
growtli of the external orifice of the orule, the micropyle of the 
seed. Tliis properly takes the name of CABfscLK. But the 
two terms are not always discriminated. By flirther di 
ment, either of these ma.>give rise, in certain seeds, to an ai 
Bor)- covering called 

597. The Aril or Arlllas. This terra, rather vngncly employett' 

by Lmnu;us, was first well defined by Gwrtner. The tnie arilliis 

•-ft is an accessory seed-covering, more or less incom- 

/ |! plete, fonned between the time of fertilization and 

I i^l ^^^ ripening of the seed, by a growth from the apex 

\l ll ^^ *'"^ fiiniMiliis (when there Is any) at or just be- 

Uj/ low the hiliiin, in a manner similar to tliat in wliioh 

v*'/ the coat or coats of the ovule are formed. That 

** ofNympbica (Fig. 67.5) isat^iticnl example: only 

the arilhis is develo|)e(I fl'om the Ainicnlus at a point distinctly 

Iwlow its apex : here a ring forms, which grows into a cnp, and 

tills is soon extended into a sac, loosely enclosing the seed, and 

open at the top. This is membranaceous ; commonly it is fleshy. 

"When there is absolutely no funiculus, the aril may originate 

from the placenta, as it <loe9 in I'odophylUim. in which most of 

t Uie 


FIO. «T! 

f S»nwpnl» 


wllh v«r 

KUlknl rh 






■una, wiUi crest n 


tlio lilliim. 



( KlDlniu. with tt* 



8«d u( V,-Ut« WUar-LU)-, KjmpluBa aaunU,lnlli luou ud UiluailUM. 



the pulp of Iho horri' consisU of these fleshy aiils, much coiu- 
P»iUhI. (Kig. (177, tt7«.) 

itltrt. The lucinJBte aril of the nutmeg {mum) oihI. it is aald, 
the Ijiight red and pulpy aril of Euonymus aud C«Insti'ii9 Itegin 
in the manner of a ea- 
rn ncle, and are formed 
(mainly if not vlioUy) 
of an outgron-tb at or 
around the micropyle. So 
tJiitt. if an ortliotropouB 
seed ever developed an 
ni-il of this sort, it would 
In- Bfvn lo begin at the npex of the aeetl and cover it ft-oni aliove 
donuniutl. I'lanehon. who distinguished this fhum the true aril, 
gave to it the name of AiitLi.oi>B (AriUodium) or False Aiillus. 

oil!>. The NucleBs, or kernel of the seed, eonsiets of Uic Alhu- 
nien, when this sul>stanee is present, and tlie F.mlir\-o. 

GitU. The Ubumen, as(te8cril>('<l in the second chapter (26. Ac), 
is the name generally employed by systematic botanists for a 
store of nutritive matter in the seed outside of the emhrjo. 
whatever its ehemical com |M>si lion. It is not here the namo 
of n chemital sulistauci' {nlbumen or aibumin), hut of n cellidar 
struelure. the cells of which arc loa<le<l cummnnly with staivh- 
groins (as in the Cerenlia), more or less mingled with other 
matters, or else nile<l with an cncrnsting deposit of some equiva- 
lent substance, as in the oocoaniit, coffee-grain, Stc. The l-cIIs 
in which this de[»08it is mode lielong either to tbc original tissue 
of tlie nucleus, or to a new formation within tlic emhtyo-aac, 
mostly lo the latter. (503.) 

GOl. Albumen may lie said to belong to all seeds in the grow- 
ing stage. In wtist arc called aibuminout sec<la it pei-sists aud 
forms cither almost the whole kernel, the embryo remaining 
minnle (as in Fig. 23, .'i4. fiSO). or forms a large portion of it (Fig. 
13. 17. 19. 2t. 48, 663. 664), or. by the grwwth of the embryo 
(lisplacing it, it may in the ripe seed )>c reduced to a thin stratum 
or mere lining to tlie contiguous seed-coat : or it may i)isnp|)ear 
altogether, as in the seeds of SLapIe, Almond, S<[unah, IVa, nnd 
tlie like, which arc therefore said lo bo txalhuminou». The 
iliirerfuce Wtwcen alhumiiions and exalhiiminoiis seeiU ia that 
the mutemal nutritive dciKrsil is transferred to tlio embryo in 

no err. tix-iixn <.t \>ttu 

Un( Pinlniihylliim prlUIDI 

c Imlrr niiliilt ••r The iiiiion uf itrlllai. Iniollnic Ui> wikIi. mn. 
Bl ilgtwbtil atxl enkisxl, dlTtded langibirlH, iIiDirliig Uie xnl s I 


I llif latter during IhD groi 

the former diinitg ^ 
of the sttil 

G02 Ihe albumen was named Perixprrm by Jusaieu, 
Endotperm b) RiLlmrd (25, not«) ; but neither naiae lun 
8j3t«mitic butaDj dHplaeed the earlier one of (irew and tite 
ner But both names have recently T<eeu brought into u 
dialini^ul^h between two kinds of albumen, that forraeil within 
theemlirto-sat, nbiih isspc^iHcally ternieil Knuospeoii, and that 
formed without, nhith takes the name of PEiuer^asf. This uae , 
oompoita with the etj mologj- of the two wonU, the former r 
nng tu a cumpamtn el> internal and the latter to an exi 
portion of till need or kernel. 

G\)i In must seeds the albumen la endosperm: iaCanmiil 
la all ptnsiienn In >i>'m[ihiea and its allies (except 1 

im, which has none) mostof itisperi^pemiy 
but a thin and condensed layer of endosperm 
-rounds the cmbrjo, where with the [wr- 
I si'itent embryo-sac (or the apex of it) it 
foims the fleshy sac in which the embrjo is ,, 
enclosed. It is the same in the Pepper Fai 
(Fig 67£l),cxi^pt that there is alargerqtu 
IT tit\ of endosperm or inner albumen. 

C(I4 When the niKlcus of a ripe seed is hollow, as in the 
oocoanut and nux ^omlCfl, tlte formation of endosperm, which 
nsiinll^ begins nc^t the wall of the embrro-soc, has not proceeded 
so as to fill the ca\1t,^. The embryo-sac in the eocoaintt attaiMIJ 
enoi-muua size, and the cavity is filled by the milky fluid. 

(iO.>. The texture or consistence of the albumen ditl^rs greatli 

It is fixriaaeeout or mtt^jf when, consisting mainly of starch- ' 

grains, it mat readilj be broken dow n into a powder, 

as in wheat buikwheat &c , oily when saturated 

with a flsed oil, as in jwppj seed: fir*fiy, wbeiv 

more comiMitt but readilj cut with a knife, i 

the seed of BiilH?rn mnnlagttiovt when Boft » 

iiimcwliat pulpf , as in Morning Glor^- and Malloi 

but when dry it becomes fleshy or hanler; 

*" when of the t«xture of horn, as in coffee and % 

seed of Caiiloph>llum ; and even hony. as in the vegelable 

the seed of Phytelephas. It is mostly uniform -, but in the nutm 

PIG. GTll. I^ngituillnul maRnllliMl xvtl^ nf n 

ner refei^^H 


lie [wr- 
■ it) it 
brjo is .^_ 

n the 

will) ruminated ■! 

n»ll uiiilewiKirni In tUg per»lBirri 
tnrllnil iwctlnn nf ■ Hal at tlie so-i: 


in tliG seeds of Asiuiina (Fig. G80) and all the Custard-Apple 
family, it ia niarkeil by trantiversc lines or divbions (caused by 
iiill(.'\iiius or growths of the iimur sevd-t-onl), giving a sectioc 
of it L-itlier a marbled apitearance. or as if it bad been slit by 
iiR'isii.'iir^ : it is Uivii ^aid tu l>e ruminated. 

cue. The Eubrjo,' biding an initial plantlet or uidividual of a 
new generation, is uf course tbe most important part of the seed. 
To its pnKliietioQ, protection, and supijorl, all the other parts of 
thi- (Vuit and flower are subservient. 

007. In an embryo of full development, namely, one in which 
all the parts aiv manifest antecedent tu germination, these paits 
are the Caulide, otherwise called Radicle, the Colylfduiis, and 
the Plumule. (80, SU.) The Srst is the initial 
axis or stem, a primary internodc ; the second 
con.siats of the leaves of the priniarj' node ; the 
tliinl is a l>cginning of a farther growth which 
is to develop more stem and leaves. Such an 
enibr}'o is usually unaccompanied by albumen, 
having in the course of its growth taken into 
it8eir(mostly into the cotjledons) the provision •" <» 

which in other Si-Cfls is inaiuly accumulated external to it imtil it 
is drawn upon in genuination. 

' The word Kmbi'i/o nr EmhrifoH w»« iipplk-d to llils hiiHy in iiUnta lijr 
B>innei|C»n*ifl(^raiinn*Bur Uii(.'iirp*ur((iini<i<i-a).in 1762, and wiiainlr<Hliii.-vil 
inV> (^'■lematir' Uitiny at >U>ut the lamc time (17(13) b; Ailnnann: h wh 
taken up by Gartiii-r in 1*88, Junlcu In tlie Gcmtk PUnioruiii 11'^) livid 
to the term CurrWiin (llie mr Hniflii) irtiich cante down from CvMlplnui. 

Being tlie germbal pan of llie teed, the embiyo nf the plant, like that of 
the animal, ii in genontl language oflcm calle«l the Grrm. 

pi<i,wi. swinr 


vlih hni 

m or «»r lai. rha|.t« 

lcal*l. BKi. V-nl«l « 


■hnwlni tiM ilnlibt 



FtO. <Via. Vcrtln 

Kcilun "f ll>« (orthntropoui.) 

Ml nf Ba 

bryn MM r«in<l 1 


FKI. «M. VarHwl 

HCIIon ot the (MllHrqpqui 




i|.M<l> aillna Um 


rwl: IbB bnoRi. Ih* 

T>l»!a(Hlltwd<»]iittl«t*».lulnn( «l. 


lan. *. the i«eio«ii,/, ih. 




COS. The opposite extreme is an embryo (as in Fig. 681 
whifb apijears as a mere f\>eck in the albumen, but in whii 
close microscopieat insjieetion may eommonly reveal some (lifibr- 
cntiation, sucli as a slight notch at ont^ end (that farthest re- 
moved from the micropjle) of a dicotyledonous embryo, indicatjog 
the future cotj ledons. Indeed, in Moiiotropes, Orobanchaeei 
and some other parasitic dicotyledonous plants, and in OreliEi 
among the inonocotyle<loDoiis, the embryo is a globular or obloi 
particle, with no adumbration of organs wlmtever antecedent tO 
germination. There are all grailcs between the most rudii 
lary and tlie moat dcveIo|)ed einhrjoa. 

609. Under the circumstances of its formation (532), the 
radicular end of the embryo is always near to and points towai 
the mieropyle of the seetl, viz. to what was the oriHoe of 
ovule ; and if the embrj-o be straight, or merely partakes of 
curvature of the seed, the cotyledons point to the op[)osil 
extremity, that is. to the chataza. 

GIO. The position of the radicle as respects the hilum v. 
with tlie different kinds of seed. In the orthotroiwus form, as In 
Heliunthemutn (Fig. 664) and Pcptwr (Fig. 679), (he rudicio 
necessarily points directly away from the hiluni.' In the anatro- 
pous form, as in Fig. 663, 68l', and 61H-6S6, the extremity 
of the mdlele is brought to the immediate vicinity of the hilum ; 
and so it is, although in a different way 
in the campylotropous seed ( Fig. G89, 
690) ; while in the ampliitrojj 
radicle points away from tlie hihim lal 
» «» ally. As the nature of the ovule and 

mr.y usually be ascertained by external inspection, bo the silualioO'' 

1 Tvro technical lernn, csrly introduced by Rithard to indiente tlie dii 
tlon nf the mdklc (I'sulicle), or ratlirr ill rclnlion In the hili 

A»titropmii, when the embrjo direct* iti radicle away (rom llic hilum, 
i[ niu*t in atl orthotropoua seeds; 

OrtAutnywu, alan homolnpoat, when directed to the hilum (mare alrielly 
Ihe mlL-mpyle eloic to the liiluo)). as in anatnipous seeds. Tliese two ten 
arc Btltt employrd by many Imtonista, although superfluoua wlicn the i 
or iced li stated to he anatropnus or nrthalropout, te. And the 
orlhotrupoas. so used, ii liable to be confused with orthoiropous as •]; 
to the ovule. 

Itit'hard, moreover, termed Ihc embryo am/Jti'm^u when curved ori 
Ai In Chlchweed (Fi);. C8II) and all such campy lolrnpous seeds : and 
tropaat when neither radicle nor cotyledons point to the hilum, < 
in the semi-iinairopom or amphltropous ovule. Many bolanisls 
the last by the expreeaion " radicle vnpii'," or, letter. " embryo trantv ontk' 

FI(t, wo. Ciunpyl'rtriipnn« Kwl of conimnii Clilclimwl, magnlOBd. 
* ' ' :ailed lulu a ling aiDUnd the Blbunhiii. 

the ^^ 

Bin ^ 




im ; 




, and of its ports, may on<>n be iiircrR'd 
But tbe dissection of seeds is not gooeraUy 

of the eml 
witliuiit dissectiou. 

fill. The direction of the rndiclc with respect to the jicricarp 
ii also noticed by sjateiimtii; writers; who employ the tt'niis 
rutlicU tttperior or oMcmdiag when this points to tbe npex of tbe 
fruit ; radicit inferior or d»Kmdi'iiff when It iwints to it« base ; 
rinlripelal, ffhcn turu^ toward tlie axis of llie tru\X ; centrifugal 
(or peritropou*), when turned towaixl Uie sides; mid vngue, 
wlten it boars no evident or uniform relation of tbe kind to the 

012. The position of tlie emlirjo as rea[>ect» the nlbumen, 
when that is present, is vnrious. Although more eoniuionly in 
the axis, it is often excenirir. or even external to the albumen, 
as iu all Grasses and een'al Grains (Fig. 5G-6I), in I'olyguniim, 
&l: When external or ueHrly so, and curved eiretdarly xround 
the albumen, as in Cbickwewl (Pig. 690) and Mirabilis (Fig. 
17). it is said to be ptrtphtric. 

fil.H. The embrj'o may Ite verj' variously folded or coiled in 
the seed. The two cotyledons, insleail of plane and straight, 
may be cnimplwl ; or tbej- may hv simply convolute or rolled up 
fVom one edge, as in CalycAUthus (Fig. 691) ; or rircinately con- 



in Bnnias ; or else doubled up and Ihns 

in Sugar Maple. Fig. 2. Twn niodi- 

aiul (ire of such class ifl eat orj* tnipor- 

d special reference. Namelj-, when 

rolnle from the a|)es, 
biplicatelt/ coHvoliile, 
Ileal ions aie more 
tance in Cruciferst 
colyk'dons are 

incumbent (as iu Fig. 692, 093) , being so folded that the back 
of one is laid against the side of tbe radicle ; and 

Aceiimbfnt (Fig. G94. 095), when the edges of the pair of 
cotyledons arc longitudinally applied to tlie rudirle. These 
dtfTerences were first employed in the classi deal ion Cruciferic by 

iriinfCklT<->ii>tlin*, llHiiiiitwrhBir ratawRjr. 

FIO. tOl. Seta lit a Cnu'itcrouB |>liiiit [Slaymbrluto). wiib Incunilvnl cMyloduia, 
U>l<laL <n3. EmhrynafllismnMilcuicbeilcnUm 

FI(i. K>t. BbbI of h Crndforoui plut (B»tb«r««J wtib ■ccumbcDt cotrlodinu 
TO. Tin cnititfD Bitlra. 



Robprt Brown, and were adoptetl as [trimary and tiibaJ char 
lij DeCandolle. 

C14. As to Dumber of cotyleduns, llie two types of e 
arc the 

JUimoeotj/ltdonnm, with a single cotyletlon, i.e. leaves at t 
first nodt's alternate (3'3) ; and 

Ditotyitdonoui, with a pair of cotyledons, i'. e. leaves of C 
first node in the most ainiplc whorl, a pair, in other words, ojip 
site (21) ; with its moditleation of 

Puljfeutyleiionous (S8), the loaves of the first node in whorla o 
three, four, or more, Tliis ocmra with constancy iii a majoriH 
of Coniferu: (Fig. 48,49), occasionally and abnonnallyin sundi 
ordinai'y dicotyledonous si^ccics. 

C15. There are several embryos of the cotyledonoua type I 
which one cotyledon is smaller than the other, viz. the intM 
one when the embiyo ia colled or folded. And in all the si^e 
of Abronia (a genus allied to Mirabihs, Fig. 18) this cotyk 
is wanting, so that the embryo becomes technically monocotyla 
donous. In another genus, the Dodder (Fig. 78, 79), botii ' 
cotyledons are constantly wanting ; and tlic plumule shows only 
minute scales, the bomologues of succeeding leaves re<luced 
alinuBt to nothing. 

GIG. Sometimes the two cotyledons are consolidated into o 
body by tlie coalescence of tlieir contiguous faces; ( ' 
arc said to be eonferruiniaate. This occurs more or less in i 
Ilorsechestnut and Buckeye (Pig. 41, 42), and is striking 1 
the seed of the Live Oak. Qtiercus virens. 

617. The general morphology of llie embryo and its devete 
mcnt in germination were descnltcd at the commencement of tb!8 '' 
volume. And so the completion of this account of |ilnnt, flower, 
(Vnit, seed, and einbr^'o brings the history round to tlie stalling 
point. (12-lU, &c.) Having mastered the morphology and 
general structure of the higher grade of plants, the pu 
go on to the mor|>hot(^y and structure of cells (or Vej 
Anatomy or Histology), and to the study of CrypI 
Plants in aU their grades. 




Sectios I, TnE PmxapLEs or Classii 


G18. Taxosomt, from twoGreek wonis whkh signify an-aDge- 
ineiit ni»I law, is tlie study of (.■lusBificntiou. This is uf utmost 
iiu[iiirtaii(.-c in Natural History, on account of the vast Dumber 
of kinds to L)c set in order, and of relations (of agreement and 
diffei-ence) to be noted. Botanical classification, nlien con]i>lele 
ami correct, will be an iii>ituriic of our knowle^lge of [>laiits. 
Arrangement accoitUng to kinds, and of B|)ecial kinds under 
the more general, is common to all subjects of study. But the 
classiflcation in Biological Natural llistorj', that is in Botany and 
Zoology, lias a foundation of its own. 

611). The peculiarity of iilaiits and animals is that they exist 
as individuals, proi>agatiug their like from ecueration to genera- 
tion in a series. Of such scries of individuab there are very 
many kinds, and the kinds have extremely various and nnequal 
degrees of rescmhtancc. There arc various gradations, but not 
all gi-adations of resemblance. Between some, the difference is 
so wide that it can be said only that they belong to the same 
kiitzdom : U-tween iithera, the resemblance is so close that it 
may ho questiontnl whether or not they came IVom eoiumon 
parents or near ancestors. 

Crlit. The recognition of the perennial succession of similar 
individuols gives the idea of Species. The recognition of un- 
equal degrees of likeness among the species is the foundation 
of Gknera, Ohrebs, Classes, and other groups of species. 

621. iBdlvldnah arc the luiiU of the series which constitute 
species. The idea of individunlily which we rt^cognizc through- 
out the animal and vegetable kingiloms is <icrived from ourselves, 
conscious individuals, and from our corporeal structure and 
that of the higher brute animals. This structure is a whole, 
from which no part can be ulistracliil withont mntihition. Each 
individual is an independent organism, of which the component 
parts are reciprocally means aud ends. Individuality is a main 

distinction between beings nnd tilings ; but, although the tend- 
ency to indtvidiiatiuii bi^ius witli lili; itself, it is tumpletdj'. 
realized only in the higher animals. 

C22, In plants, as also in some of the lower animals, indi' 
ality is mciged in community. No plant (esfept one re<lu« 
to the simplirity of a single cell, of circumseiilK-tl growth, and 
without oi-gaus) is on individual in the sense that a mau or a 
d<^ is. (16, 1^6.) The herb, shrub, and tree arc neither 
ui.iivi^ible nor or definite limitation. Whether their sueeesnw^ 
growths ai-e to renmin imrts <»r the prt'vions j>lftut, or to he tn( 
Itenileiit plants, di'[H;nds ui»oii ciivumstAnees ; and there is 
known UmiL to hudilhig propagation. 

623. There is, however, n kind of social or coqxiratc indi- 
viduality in those anhnata, or communities (whiehever we tall 
them) of the lower grade wliidi are multiplied by buds or off- 
shoots as well as by ova, and in wliieh the offspring remains, or 
may i-enmiii, oi'gauieally connected with the stock. The poly- 
pidom or iKilypariiim commonly 1ms a certain limitation and a 
dethiite form ; and cortnin iioly[)s may become oi'gans 
8|x'cial ninctions suboiilinatc to the common weul. This 
more largely true in the vegetable kingdom. So that for 
Bcriptive purix>scs, and in a just although somewhat loose sci 
the herb, shrub, or tree is taken as an iiulividual. But 
while it forms one connected body. Offshoots when separat 
established arc equally individuals in this sense, 

1)24. What it is in plants which pliilosopliically answers to tbe 
individual in the higher animals is another question, to which 
various answers have been given.' Some insist that llie whole 
Yi^etative product of one seed makes one individual, whetlicr 
connected or separated (as moy happen) into a million of plants. 
But a common nnd less strained view restricts the individual 
to such pro<iuct only while oi^anicaily unitctt. Otliers (of 
which Thouars at the beginning and Brnun at the middle of the 
present century are leading examples) take each axis or shoot 
with its foliage to represent the individual, of which the leaves 
and tlieir homologucs are organs, the branches Iwing usi 
implanted upon the |)arent axis as this is implanted in the 
but also etjuatly capable of produdng roots by which Uicy 
make their own connection with the soil. Still othere, on 



It a 


' Fnr tlio liietoiy of opinion upon nnil n [uU presentation of thi« ti 
tee Alexander Brnun'« Memoir (orifcinally piihllalioil in llie Abliandl. i 
WiBsi.-n><('1iiiflcn zii Rcrlln, 180-t|, Das Inilivliluuni iLr Pflance. &c, >nd j 
tranalatlon by C. V. Stone in Amer. Jour. Sci. ler. 2, xix. xx. 1BS5. 


ciscly Bitniliir groiimls, carrj' the analysis a step farther, kikI 
n-gaiil uadi jjliytomer (10) as the imlivuUial. Finally, some, in 
view or Uieii' [loU'iitially indepeuilvnt lire, take the lvIIs, or anit« 
Qf HnutoiQicul structure, ta be the true individuals ; and tliis 
with sufHcient reason us regards the sim|>Icst ciyptogamoiis 
])lunt8. Upon the view liere adopted, that plants do not rise 
high onougli in llie scale o( l)ciiig to reach true individuality, 
the question is not niietlier it is the cell, tlic phytomer, the shoot, 
the tree, or llie whole vegetative pi'otluct of a seed whicli answers 
to the animal individual, but only whii-li is most analogous to it. 
In our view, its anati^ue is tlic cell in tlie lowest grades of vege- 
table life, the phytomer in the higher.' But, in botanical dc- 
seriplion and elassitlcatiou, by the individual is meant the herb, 
shnib, or tree, unless otherwise s[>ecifie(l. 

tiiH. SpeciM in biological natural history is a chain or aeries 
of organisms of which the links or component individuals are 
])aivnt and oITspring. Objectively, a species is the totality of 
beings wtiich have come fVom one stock, in virtue of that most 
general fad that likeness is trauaniitted from parent to progeny. 
Among the many definitions, that of A. L. Jussieu is one of tlie 
briefest and best, siuce it oxprcases the fiindamental conception 
of a species, i'. e. the perennial succession of similar individuals 
perpetuated by generation. 

G2C, The two elements of species are r 1, community of origin ; 
and, 'i, similarity of the component individuals. But tlie dcgitie 
of similaritj' is variable, nnd the fact of genetic relationship can 
seldom l>e cstabtiBhed by obsen'ation or historical evidence. It 
is flY>m the likeness that the naturahst ordinarily decides that 
such and such individuals 1>clong to one species. Still the like- 
ness is a consequence of llie genetic relationship ; so that the 
latter is the real foundation of species. 

' For jiial a* tucccuivc hrancliM nrc n^tpritinng and prnp-ii)' (it the 
pnrcnl bmnoh or aitrm, the pliyiomcn of tlie brsnfli hiv repetition* «nil 
pmgi>ny each of the preceding one, to forming ■ aeriii of vegetiilive 
genvratiotit ; nnU tlie ufhole tree mi([ht ■Imoil as well roprcsi'iil the inilirid- 
iial an one of ii* lirnnehes. The phrlomor. u well ni tlie hraneh, ii capalilc 
ot (.-nmplellng ll»e!f hy prnducHni; root*, but 1* il«?tf indivitililt oxeept by 
nmtilaiion. Tx'ii*i tenable of all ii Ibc i.'onL-epiinti that ilie whole pRMljct 
ot a *cei\ niaj- lie taken to reprpM'nt the vep^'lnblc indlTiiliial Fur tlien 
Iiiili vidua Is incn-MMil by buili nnil diriilon arc wholly unUini1e>I butii In ex- 
lenl anil in duration, lo far ai obcerraiion can bIiow. and a nmltiludlnotu 
mx, not only of ihc pretenl and pail, but perhapi in perpetuity, t 
■ift ot a (Ingle [ndlriilual. There are. indeed, dicori'ikal reannns for infer- 
ring that a bud-propagalcd race may not lait ■<> long at a feed-propagated 
ipeclei ; bat tber* 1( no proof ot it. See Darwloiana, Art- xii. 

027. No two individuals nrc exactly alike ; and oOspnng 
the same stock may difTer (or in llifii' progeny may come to dii 
Btrikingly in some imrtieulara. 80 two or more forms 
would have been regarded as wholly distinct are soinetii 
proved to be of one s|jccics liy evidence of tiieir common orif 
or more commonly are inferred to be so ftom the oliserv 
a series of intermedials forms n'hi;.-h bridge over tlie different 
Only olwcn'ation can inform ns how much difference is 
Ible with a common origin. The genenil result of o)>servation 
is that plants and animals bT«c^ true rw>m generation to genera- 
tion within certnin somewhat indeterminate limits of variation ; 
tliat those individuals which resemble enuU other within such 
limits interbreoil freely, while tliosc with wiiler differences do 
not. Hence, on the one han<l, the naturalist i-ecogntzes Varieties 
or difll?n.>nees within the s|)ocies, and on the other Genera and 
other superior associations, indicative of remoter relationship 
the species themselves. 

fiSf*. Varieties are forms of species marked by eharactcrs 
less fixity or imi>ortancc than are the spei-lcs Ihemselves. 
may be of all grades of iliffercnci^ ftorn tlie slightest to the 
notable : they al>onnd in fh-c nntui'o, but assume partiouIsT^I 
imi>ortanco under domestication and cultivation ; under whidi 
variations arc moat pi-one to originate.-, and desirable ones «re 
preserved, led on to flirther development, and relatively fixed. 

G2!). If Iwo seeds flwm the same jhkI are sown in different 
soils, and submitter] to different conditions as rcs])cet8 beat, light, 
and moistiu'i', the plants that spring from tliem will show marks 
of this different treatment in their ajjiienrance. Snch differences 
arc continually arising in the natui-al course of thingg, and to 
produce ami increase them artifleially is one of the objects of 
cultivation. Striking as they often are (especially in annuals 
and biennials) , they are of small scientiBe consequence. Whea 
siwntaneous they are transient, the plant either outlasting 
motllfying cause or else auceunibing to its continued an<l grai 
operntion. But, in the more marked larieties which alone 
serve the name, the cause is occult and constitutional; tbe 
deviation occurs wc know not why, and continues throughout 
the existence and gtowtli of the herb, shrub, or tree, and con- 
sequently through all that piTxvcds fl'om it by propagation 
buds, as by oHWts, layers, cuttings, grafts, &c. 

G30. Some varieties of cultivation originate in comparati' 
slight de^^ations from the type, and are led on to greater 
ences by strict selection of the most marked individuals 
bi'eed IVom. Most appear as it were fuU-fledged, except 

an d 

hea ^_ 


luxnriance or dovelo|)inpnt, more or less under the control of 
conditions, tlieir origin being wholly iinneeoun table. They urise 
in the swfl-lted, or eutnctimes from buds, which as the gai-denera 
Huy " ipori." ' That is, some sccdluigs, or sonic shoots, aiv 
unlike the rest in cert»in partieulars.* 

6;tl. ittoat varieties originate in the seed, and therefore tlic 
founilnlion for them, whatever it may be, is hiid in sexuul repro- 
duction. But Bttd-variitiion, or the "sporting" of certain buds 
into characters in brunch, flower, or fruit unlike those of the 
stock, is known In a good nutnltcr of plauts.' It might also 
o-eur in corals, lydras, and other compound animals propagated 
by budding. Once originated, tliese varieties mostly i>er3ist, 
like seedling varieties, tlirottgh all the generations of budding 
growth, but are not transmitted to the seed. 

082. l'|K)n the general principle tliat progeny inherits or tends 
to inherit the whole character of the parent, all varieties must 
have a tendency to be reproduced by seed. But the inheritance 
of the new features of the immediate parent will commonly be 
overborne by atB\ism, i. e. tlie tendency to inherit from grand- 
parents, grest-grand-parcnts. &c. Atavism, acting through a long 
line of Bncestn,', is generally more powerful than the heredity 
of B single generation. But when tlie offspring docs inherit the 
peculiarities of tlie immediate parent, or a part of them, its off- 
spring has a redoubled tendency t« do the same, and the next 
generation still mow ; for the tendency to be like parent, grand- 
parent, and great-grand- parent now all conspire to tliis result 
and overpower the influence of remoter ancestry. Close-breed- 
ing (.t9H) is requisite to this result. In the natural wild state, 
varieties — many and conspicuous as they oflen are — must be 
much repressed by the prevalent cross- fertilization which takes 
[ilnce among the individuals of almost all species. Cultivators and 
breeders in fixing varieties are carefVd to secure close breeding 
as far as this is possible. This has fixed the particular sorts of 
Indion Com, Rye, Cabbage, Lettuce. Radishes, Peas, &c., and 

' Bolh Ihc li-chiiiuil Engliah tenn. Spnrt, and it> litin ^uivoknl. Tmuu, 
■Tc t<imi>timc9 ui«il tor bu<l-vArintiun only, yel u commonl/ tot vuMmg 

> Ihirwlu auumpa lh>t variaiion !i of Itaelf lodeflnilc or vague, tMiding 
fn no pMtiraUr dlrvvtion, bul (hat direction i« wholly gjvm by the elimina- 
tion in the ilrugglc for life of all bul the fltlMt for the condition!. But 
nhat wc otncrvc in the ■ocd-bnl Aoei not «afC|Ktl this view. Nicgeli, Braun. 
and Enywlf incline to tlie opinion iliat each plant hot an inlivrcnt (cnclriicy 
to variation in certain general directions. 

' A liat of known bud-varieije* ia given in Darwin'* Variation of Animal* 
•nd Plants luidcr DoraeaticaUun, Cliaiiter xL 



indeed of nearly all our varieties of cultivated annual and biennial 
esculent plants, as well as of several iM-roniiials, many of which 
have been fixed thruHgb centuries of douiestkalion, while others 
Kre of rcLHint establishment. What is now taking place with 
the l*each in this country may convince us that heritable varieties 
may be developed in trees as well as in herbs, and in the same 
manner; and that the reason why most races are annuals or 
biennials is because these can be i>eriietuated in no other way, 
and bec&use the desired result is obtainable in fewer years than 
in shrubs or trees. Varieties of tliis fixity of character are called 

(!33. B««« (Lat. Prolet). A race, in this technical sense of 
the U-rm, is a variety which is perpetuated with considerable 
certainty by scsuol propagation. This distinction of varieties 
pertains chiefly to botany. In the animal kingdom all permanent 
varieties must be races. So are all indigenous varieties of 
plants.' In most of these, the ixtsition of species and variety is 
more or less arbitrary or accidental, and eaimblc of interchange. 
What is called the B|>ccie8 may be only a commoner or better- 
known form, or the one Brst recognized and named by l)otani3ts ; 
whence tlie other forms as they come to l>e recognizeii are mode 
to rank in the books as varieties. Instead of one varjing IVom 
tlie other, all the fonus have probably varied ages ^o from a 
common type. 

634. These varieties of the highest order and most marked 
characteristics, lieing iierjietuahle by ace<l, have the principal 
attributes of sjxKries. 'i'hej- are a kind of subordinate derivative 
species. Hence they are sometimes called Sabapecirs. We 
Judge them not to t>e so many s|>ccie8, either because in the case 
of cnltivatefl races we know something of their origin or histoid', 
and more of the grave changes which long domestication maj- 
bring to pass ; or l>ecaHse the forms, however stable, differ 
among themselves less than recognized species generally do ; or 
because very striking differences in the extremes ore connected 
liy intermediate forms. And our conclnstons, it must be under- 
stood, " are not facts, but judgments, and largely fallible jndg- 
menls.'" For while some varieties ap|jcar strikingly diffei 
some species are verj- much alike.* 

' The HnrBiTBdisli nnc] a. tew other planlB of »pniit»iicoai groirth, wl 
ihrougli long (ippcmli'iife on bud-propiiBation seem to Ijbvc lost the 
of leliing ii-cd. cnn Imrcify be called yarielie*. 

' DnrwInlBim, 36. 

■ Wlierctore, since wp hardly need Ihe term race in the restricled 
of ■eed-propaBniml variply, it is soiDeliines craiTenicnl to use il io ihc man- 
ner propoMHl by Belli ham (Aunivenmry AddreB) to Ilie Linncan Sodetj', 



635. One distinction between varictioa anil sjjccies is note- 
worthy and important, oven if it mav not eerie as a criterion. 
The individuals of dilTerent varieties in plunis interbreed as frt'tly 
as do those of the eame variety and are equally prolific. Their 
union produces 

fiSG. Cross-breeds.* In nature, cross-breeding doubtless re- 
presses variation or prevents the segregation of varieties into 
what would he ranked as sjMM-les. In cultivation and domesti- 
cation, it is turned to important account in producing intermediate 
new varieties (cross-breeds) variously combining the difTerent 
excellencies of two parent individuals or two varieties. Thus 
the great number of forms produced by variation (eeiwcially as 
to flowers and ihdts) have been ftirther diversiflcd, and selected 
forms improved for special uses l)y Judicious combination. 

037. In general, the individuals of distinct species do not 
interbreed, although many are capable of it. There is great 
diversity in this regard among plants, some (such as Willows, 
Verbascums, and Verbenas) interbreeding ftvely anrt reciprocally ; 
some interbreeding in one direction, hnt not reciprocally ; others, 
even when very similar, refhsing to unite. But, on the whole, 
there seems to be few nearly related species in which the pollen 
of the one cannot be made to act iiiwn the ovules of the other 
by persistent and proper management. Such crossing is an 
important resource in horticulture. Crossing of species, when 
successful, produces 

638. Hybrids. In these, the characteristics of the two species 
are combined, sometimes in equal proportions, sometimes with 
great prp|>ondcrancc of one or the other parent ; and there is 
often a difference in the result in reciprocal fertilizations. Hy- 
brids do not play a very prominent part in nature, apart from 
cultivation, although the limits of some 6i>ecies may be obscured 
by them, i>08sihlj' nf more than is generally supimscd. In the 
animal kingdom, all the roost familiar hybrids are sterile: in the 
vegetable kingdom, a majority may have a certain but veri,' low 
degree of fertility ; but this is also the case in many unions 

Mii.v, I960. 6| u the common ilptipiation of «ny group or collection of indi- 
viduals vrlioK ctmrai'tcn are continued through KULivetive grneralions, 
whether It be pprniitnent variety, ■ubipeclet. ap^M, or group L-onafaling 
nf very timilar ip^L-ieB, the term not implying any dt^eision of this qneslion- 
If this use of the term race prevails. Sabipeciri will probably tike iu placo 
as the il»i|nialion of the hlgh(4l gredc of vRriely. The objection (o tlili I* 
that th« subapeeiSc and speciflc names would tic more liable to \ie confused. 
■ Ilalt-lireed is a common equivalent tenn in the animal kingdom : Latia, 
MiUia or MiitoM : French, ifi^i'i, 



within the species, and especially in the application of the pollen 
to tlie stigma of the same blossom. Conimonly the sterility' of 
Iijbrids ia owing to tlie iin|Kitence of tlie stamens, wliich |K-ifect 
no pollen ; and most siich liybriils may be fertilized by tlie pollen 
of the one or the other parent. Tlieu the offspring ciiher in 
the llr^t or sct-ond generation rcveils to the fcrtiliziug si>ecie9. 
Moreover, certain hybrids, eiieh as tiiose of Datum, which are 
flllly ftrtile per »', divide in the offspring, partly in the first gen- 
eration, and completely in two or Ihi'ec sneeetnling generations, 
into the two component species, even when close-fertilizwl.' (In 
part this may come (Vom advenlive embryo-formalion, 533. ) 

639. There appears, therefore, to be a real ground in nature 
for 8i>ecies, notwithstanding the dilBcully and even impussibility 
in many cases of defining and limiting them. 

640. SpeeitM is iokvxi as the unit in zootc^ical and l>otanioal 
classification. Important as varieties arc in some i'e8i)ecis, 
especially imdcr domestication and cultivation, they figure in 
scientiHc arrangi-ment only as fractions of species. M]>ccies 
arc the true subjects of classificatton. The aim of systeinalic 
natural history is to ex])ress tlieir relationship to each otlier. 

G41. The whole ground in nature for the clnssiHcation of spe- 
cies is the obvious fact that species i-esemble or differ from each 
other unequally and in extremely various degrees. If this were 
not so, if related species differed one fi-om snotlier by a constant 
quantity, so that, when arranged accoi'ding to their ivsemblnncea, 
the first differed from the second nlmut as much as the second 
fh>m the third, and the thii-d trom tlie fourth, and ao on. — or if 
the species blended as do the colors of the rainbow, — then, with 
all the diversity in the vegetable kingdom there nctuolly is, tliere 
could be no natural foundation for tlteir classification. The mul- 
titude of si>edcs wouhl reniler it necessarj' to ctassifk' Ihcm. but 
the classification would Iw wholly artificial and arbitrary. The 
actual constitution of the vegetable kingdom, however, as ap- 
pears ftom obsen-ation. is that some s|>ecieB resemble each other 
very closely indeed, others differ as widely as )X)Ssible. anci be- 
tween these tlie most numerous and the most various gradi 

1 Ai^t-orHiriK 10 Nnudin fn Compm Remlui. xlix. \9im. L 1*. 1863. 
■lao K>u<lin'B nH?m(]ir on liybrMit.r in planla In Ann. 8i-<. N>t. wr. < xlib 
1803, pp. 180-2ai, & In Mem. Ai-nd, Si-i. . . . Fur ihc liunlurp on *pgetabl« 
liybrid*. Ke Eielrcilter, Nruhriuhl, &e., 1701, and Appendici-a, ITOS-lTaS: 
Herbert, on AmHrylliilsc^oa!. 183T : C, F. (Jiertner, Versutlic uml BiM)b«chIll». 
gen iii'Wr ille BnBlBrtlerKFUirung in Pflmiienreit^b. IMO; Wichur*, 
BasIardWfrui'blunfC itn IflHiizenreidi. (.TlBUtrrterl an tlen Buunlea 
Wcidcn : anil the nipoioir of Kaudin referred to. 



reflcmbbince or iliiTercnco an- prt'sciittil, but alwnys with a inaiii- 
fL'st t«iiilencv to coni|K)se groiiijs oi' associutions of rt-'at'itibling 
e|KH.n('B. — groups the more numerous tuul appHri'iiMy the k-ss 
(lofinilu in proiwrtiou to tlie Diiint>er ami the ncarnfas of iJie 
points of rraemblaiicc. These vaiious associations the naturaUst 
endeavors to express, as fai- as la necessary or praotifRble, bv n 
s4.-ries of gCDemlizations, tlie lower or [lartitulur included in Ibc 
higher or more comprehensive. All kinds of (lifTcrenees are 
tflki^n into aceoiitiL, but only tbc most constant and definite ones 
are relied on for rharadtrt, i. e. distinguisliiiig marks. Linuft-ua 
and the naturalists of his day used names fur oidy tlireo grades 
of ossodntiou, or groups au|>erior to tpccie*, viz. tbo Genu*, the 
Order, and tbo CUi*s ; and these arc still the priucijtal UL'mbers 
of class! lication. 

04^. Ofioer* (plural of Gmiis) are the more particular or 
special groups of related siiecles. They are grou|is of 8|>0(.-ie8 
(rhieli ai'e much alike in all or most res(iecta, — whit-li are con- 
structed, so to say, npou the same particular model, witli only 
circnmstantial dilTerenecs in the details. They are nut ueccs- 
sarily nor generally tlio lowest definable groups of spc-cles, but 
are the lowett mosi dearlif definabU groups which the botanist 
recognizes and accounts worthy to bear the generic name ; for 
the name of the (^enus with thai of the species added to it is the 
BcientiHc Appellation of the plant or animal. Constituted as llie 
vepetahic and animal kingdoms are. the rocf^n'tion of genera, or 
grotips of kindred species, is as natural an operation of the mind 
as is the conception of species fVom the association of like iii<li- 
viduals. This is l>ecanse many genera are so strongly marked, 
at least so far as ordinar}- obsen-ation extends. Every one 
knows the Hose genns, composed of the various species of Roses 
and Sweet briers ; the Bramble genus, comprising Raspberries, 
lllnckberriea, &c,.is iwpularl^'distinguisheil to a eertain extent : 
the Oak genus is distlnguishe)! from the Chestnut and the Beech 
genus ; each is a group of sixties whose mutual resemblance is 
greater than that of any one of titom to any other plants. The 
nunilter of species in such a group is immaterial, and in fact is 
vcrj- diverse. A gcnns may l>e represented by a single known 
species, when its peculiarities ore equivalent in degree to those 
which cbarnctcriKe other genera. This case often occurs ; al- 
tho)igh. if this were universally so. genns ami st>ecies wonid be 
cqnivali'nt terms. If only one 8|>ccies of Oak wore known, the 
Oak genus would have l>een as explicitly lUseemed as it is now 
that tbc spedes amount to three hundred : and better dcRne<l. 
for now there are fonns quite intcrmtidiatt^ between Oak and 

Clicstniit. Familiar illustrations of genera in the animal king- 
dom arc rnmiaheil ly tbe Cat kind, to whii-h belong the domestic 
Cat, the Catamoiiuti tlie Panlbei', Ibe Lion, the Tiger, the Lcoj^ 
ard, &c. ; and hy the Dog kind, wbii-h includes witli the Dog 
tlic different species of Fosea and Wolves, the Jaekal, &c. The 
languages of the most Itarbai'uus as well as of civilized pcoikle 
fveiywlicro sliow that they lia*t.' recognized such groups. Natu- 
mlists raci-ely give to tlicm a greater degree of precision, and 
indicate what tlie [xiiiits of agreement are. 

643. If most genyra were as conspicuously marked as those 
fi-o:n which these illustrations are taken, genus would l>e as deli- 
tiilcly groundcil in nature as sjiecies. Bnt jx>pularly recognized 
genera, rightly based, arc com[)aratively few. Popular nomen- 
clature, embodying the common ideas of |jeopIe, nierelj- shows 
that generic grouiM are recognizable in a considerable number 
of cases, but not that the whole v^elable or the whole animal 
kingdom is divisilile into a dcGnitc number of such groups of 
equally or somewhat equally related species. The naturalist 
discerns the ground of genera in cbaiacters which the easustl and 
oniinarj- obsener overlooks; and, taking the idea of genera 
IVoDi the numerous well-marked instAuoes as the norm. njipUes 
it as well as possible to the less obvious or less natural cases, and 
groups all known species under genera. Resemblances among 
the si>ecies when riglitly gniui)eil into genera, though nsal, are 
often so unequal in degree, that certain species may be abont as 
nearly related to neighboring genera. 80 that tlie recognition of 
genera even more than of species is a matter of judgment, and 
even of conventional agreement as to how and where a certain 
genus simll be limilc<l, and what |>arlicular association of sjwcies 
shall hold the position of genus. All the species of a genus must 
acconl in every imiiortaut stnicture ; but extended observation 
only can settle the question as to what are important and wliat 
oi-o incidental characters. For example, the pinnati8d or sinu- 
ate leaf might have been thought as essential to the Oak genns 
as the acom-ciip ; lint many Oaks are now known with entire 
leaves, resembling those of Willow or Laurel. An open aeom- 
cup beset with imbiicatcd scales is a character common to all 
European and American Oaks ; but in numerous Asiatic species 
the cup liears concentric or spiral lamellae instead, and in others 
the cup takes the fomi of a naked and closed sac. Maples ba^-e 
palmately-veineii and lolied leaves ; but one species has undi- 
vided and pinnately-velned leaves. The Apple and the ] 
imder one \iew are of the same genus, under another they f 
resent different genera. 


644. The gcniiB must be bnscd on close relationship of species, 
but not necessarily on the closest. Uas|ibemea diffiT fi«ra 
Blackberries, but must be ranked in the same genua ; and so of 
Plums and Cherries. For the grouijs wliicli are to licar tliu 
generic name must be as distinct and definite as i)ossiblc. 

64ii. Orders are to genera what genera are to species. Thej- 
are groups uf a higher rank and wider compreliension, expressive 
of more general re sera bla noes, or, in other language, of remoter 
relationship. As all s|>ecie8 must be rankeil in genera, so all 
genera mnst be ranked in orders. Family in botany is Bjnony- 
inous with order : nt least natural orders and families (however 
distinguished in zoology) have always in botany been inter- 
changeable terms, and will probably so continue' 

G4n. As examples of onlers in the vegetable kingdom take 
the Oak fkmily. com|K>9ed of Oaks, Chestnuts, Beeches, &v. ; 
the Rne family, of Pines, Spruces. Larches, Cedars, Arani^nria. 
Cj-presses, and their allies ; the Rose family, in which Brambles, 
Strawberries, Plums and Cherries. Apples anil Fears arc asso- 
ciated with the Rose in one somewhat multifarious onlei'. 

C47. Classes arc to orders what these are to genera. They 
express still more comprehensive relations of species ; each class 
embracing all those species which are framed upon the same 
broait [ihin of structure, however differently that plan may be 
carried out in particulars. 

618, Kingdom mnst be added, to represent tltc highest gener- 
alization. Alt subjects of biological class inottUon belong either 
to the vegetalile or animal kingdom. Mineralogy, Chemistry, 
&c., may use the same terms (genus, apedes, Ac.) in an analo- 
gous way: but the classification of substances rests on other 
foundations thim that of beings. 

64». The sequence of grou|>B. rising from particular to univer- 
sal, is Speciet, Grunt, Order. Ctau, AVny/um ; or, iu descending 
ii'om the universal to the particular, 




1 Onlcr k the older lerra, sod that w)ili*h himk-IiiIm IimI with the lechnli'al 
Lalin tisniM. Furiiil; a k happjr ipmi. wlilch Btrodatet irwlf well wilh 
En^liih nameB. But lis uw ic Hiiemletl witli Dils incnnicTuily. that ihe Irlbt 
(Oo-I) in mnuiil tiialury cUwiRi^alion U aubonHnate to llie family. Id 
loulntty, order u dUlinguIched froni family as ihe next higher ip-adu. 


f)'i(\. This is tlio common frnmywoik of natnral histoir classi- 
ticjilion. AH [itants ami all nniinals bcloDg to some species; 
cverj- species to some genus ; everj' geuua to some oiilcr or 
fiimily ; ererj- order to some class ; every class to one or llie 
other kingdom.* But tliis fVamework, altbough all tbnt ia re- 
quisite iu some parts of natural history, does not express all Oic 
observable gradations of relationship among s])ec*ies. And even 
gradations below s|)ecies have sometimes to be classified. The 
seiies is capable of extension ; and extension is oHeo retjnisite 
on account of the largt; ntmilter uf objects to be arranged, and 
the vnrions d^rees of relationship which nia^' come into view. 

651. This is efH?cted by the intcrcalutioii of iutci'mcdiato 
grades, to bo introduced into tlic system only wbcu there is 
occasion for them. And in botany one or more grades sii|>orior 
to the classes are needRit; for first and foremast is the great 
division of all plants into a higher and a lower KnmES ' (or sub- 
kingdom), the Pbajnogaraons and the Crvptogamoiis. 

Cioi. The grades intercalated into the long-cstublishcd sequence 
of Class, Onier, Genus, and S|jccies, with new names, are mainly 
two, Tribf and Cuhurt. 

(i53, Trllw lias been for n generation or two thoroughly estalt- 
lisbed iu butii kingdoms, as a grade iufenor tu order and supe- 
rior to genus. In botanical classification, much usi' is mode of 
this grade, genera 1>ciug gruupeil into trilx^s. 

6i>4. Cohort (Lat. thhon) is of more recent introduction, at 
least in Bolnny, but is Incoming established for u grade next 
aiwve that of order. Orders are grouped intc cohorts. Limllcy 
hit npon a gooil English nnme for tills grade, tliat of A/lianrt. 
But this word hns no available Latin equivalent ; while cohort 
takes cquallj' well a Latin or an Knglish form. 

655. F'innlty, each grade is capable of l)eing doubled by the 
recognition of one like it and inime<Iiately subordinate to it, and 
witli designation directly expressive of the sulwrdinittion. For 

' Nol n 

* Aniwpring lo Ihe French Emhmiirhnnnii in inolnBy. For litis il U pro- 
piiwil Iu U!ic llie word Dlrlnion [Dh'Uin) : sec Lnw« of Britank'iil Xomrncla- 
ture ailoptpil by the InltTtiotlnnnl Bntanii-xl Congrpas lieltl n[ Parii in' 
AujtnM. 1807 : toirelherwitlialliBtorit'Bllntrcirluclionnnila Com in en I nry, by 
Alph. DK'^nilDlle. — Eng;)1>h trannUlion. tendon, mt8; the orltiinnl Freni4i 
edition, Purl!, 1867. Pcrhspa no bettor name L-an be found : but tlic eldvc 
DeCandolle limiight Dirisio into conunnn use for a fTMiv siiluinliiwta ■ 
Irlbe. Endlielier employed Ibc term Regio. We bave used Herirt, I 
mueh prefer it. 

BiNoiPLSs or ( 

example, if Dicot}'lc(loneB and Monocotyletlones be the two 
classes of PbtPDo^amiit, tlio former (:iDil only the formci*) is 
divided tii>on very im|xiitant cUai-attera into two branches, of fur 
liiglK^r rank than the c-uluiits. \iz. Um Augiospennu? and tlic 
Gyranos|»eniiie, wliich tidie the oamc of Sibclasses, Onlcra. 
cs|)<>cially the more eonipR'hcnsive ones, often comprise two or 
nioro groups so distinct that it may faii'ly be a question whether 
they are not orunlinul rank : sueh take tlie name of SunoRnERs. 
Tribes in like manner may comprise groups of similar ri'lative 
value : these are iSt btribes. (jenera may comprise sections of 
8|x-eies which might almost as well rank as geni'ia themselves : 
to murk their iuiitortanw and pretension (which may come tu 
be allowed), tlmy arc termed !)t'B(iE>~ERA. Finally, forms which 
are ranked a» varieties, but which may establish a claim to he 
ilistinct species, are sometimes termed Suskpecies. Even wliat 
wu regard us u variety inuy comprise more or less divergent 
forms, to In; distinguished as Subvarieties. 

GttG. Some of Iho lai^r and most diversified oi-ders, tribes, 
genera, or species may require all these annlytical ap|)liBnces, 
and even more, for their complete elucidation : while others, 
comparatively homogeneous, offer no ground for them. But 
when these grades, or some of Ihera, come into use, they are 
alwaj^B in the following sequence : — 

SuRtKB or Division, or Sub-kingduui, 


Okder or Fmnily. 


Subspecin or Rftce, 


657. Satire uid Meaning of Aniltr- These grades, the higher 
inchuling the lower, denote d^rees of likeness or difference. 
PhintA belonging respectively to tlie two great series or primarj* 
di\ision8 may ucconl only in the moat general nspccta, in thol 
which iimkes tUein pUints rather thun uuiniala. Plants of the 
same variety ore generally as much alike uu if they were of the 


same immediate parentage. All plants of Uie 
90 mofh alike that tliey are inrerml to have descended fr 
a euimnon stoclc, and tbeir difTerences, however grave, are sup- 
jjoaixl lo have arisen from eubaequent variation, and the more 
mai'ked ditfexences to have become Axed through heredity. This 
i^ included in the idea of species. Descent from a common 
origin explains the likeness, and is the only explanation of it. 

6^8. But what is tlie explanation of the likeness between the 
a;>eeiea themselves? As respects nearly related ajieuies, the answer 
is clear. Except for practical piiriraees and in sn arbitrary 
way, no certain anci unfailing distinction can be drawn lietween 
varieties of the highest gra<le and si>ecieB of elosest resemblance. 
It cannot reasonably be doubted that they are of similar or^ 
nation. Then there are all gradations lietween very ckwely 
less closely related s|>eciM of tUe same genus of plants. 

65!). The Thrar; of Descent, that is, of the diversification of the 
speities of a genus through \'ui'iation in the lai)sc of time, nifurds 
the only nntnnil explanation of their likeness which Itas j'et been 
eonceivetl. The ulternutive 8iip|K>8ition. that all tlie existing, 
species and forms were originally created as they are, and ban 
come down essentially unelianged fVom the beginning, offers 
explanation of the likeness, anil even assumes tliat there is 
BcientiQc explanation of it. The hypothesis that the species of 
a genus have become what they are by di versification thruiigli 
variation ia a very oltl one in botany, and has from time to tune 
been put forward. But nntil recenttj- it has had little inflnenoc 
niH>n Ihe science, because no clear idea had been formed of any 
natural process wliich might lead to such result. Doubtless, if 
variation, such as botanists have to i-ew^ize within the siiecies, 
be aasnmcd as equally or even more oi)erative through long 
nor periods, tills wouhl account for the diicrsiQ cation t 
origiiml species of a genus into several or many forma as di 
eut as tliose whicli we rcc<^nize as sijccies. But this wouM 
account for the limitation of species, which is the usual (1 
not universal) characteristic, and is an essential part of 
idea of s|wciea. Just Ibis is accounted for by 

GGO. Hatnral Scle<^ion. This now familiar term, proposed 
Charles Darwin, was suggested by the o|)CrationB of breeders 
the development and fixation of races for man's use or Taucy 
in animals by breetling from selected parents, and selecting 
breeding in each generation those indiriduals only in which 
desired points arc apparent and predominant ; in the seed-I 
b}- rigidly destro^Wng all plants which do not show some desii 
variation, breeding in and in from these, with strict 



log ,_ 


the most variant form in the particular line or liues, until it Ixs 
iijnica flseil bj' lieretlity uiid us iliirvrent fi'om the priinal st<K'k 
as the coiiditious of the vase alluw. In nature, tbe analogous 
selection, througU innumerable generations, of the exceedingly 
sinali percentage or imtividtuils (as ova or §ce<U) which onli- 
narilj' are to purvive and propngnle, is made by comj>etition for 
food or room, the attacks of aiiimnb, tiic vicissitudes of elimate. 
and in liue by all llie luauifold cooditioiiB to wliicb tlicy are 
es|K>scd. In tlie StruggU far Life to which they are thus iueri- 
tubly expoMHl, only the individiiaU best adapunl to liie eircutn- 
Htances can survive to maturity and propagate their lilte. This 
Survival of the J-'ifteet, uietaiihorically espix-saed liy thu [ihrase 
natural selection, is in fai-t the di'stnittion of all weaker com- 
petitors, or of all which, however they might be favored I>y other 
conditions, are not the moat favureil under the actual cirt-um- 
stAnws. But sewllings varj uig, some in one direction, somo in 
another, are thereby adapted to difTereut conditions, some to one 
kind of soil or espoeure. some to another, thus lessening the com- 
])etilion between the two most divergent forms, and favoring their 
preservation ami farther separation, while the intermediate forms 
])erish. Thus an ancestral type would become diversified into 
races and species. Earlier variation under terrestrial changes 
and vicissitudes, prolonged and various in geological times since 
the apiK-arance of tlie main types of vegetation, and the attendant 
extinctions, are held to account for genera, tribes, orders, &<:., 
and to explain their actual alHnities. Affinity under this view 
ia consanguinity ; and classification, so far as it is natural, ex- 
presses real relationship. Classes, Orders, Tribes, &c.. are the 
eailier or main and successful brandies of the genealogical tree, 
genera are later branches, species tlie latest definitely developed 
ramifications, varieties the developing buds.' 

GiSl . Ivxcept as to those changes in size, luxuriance, or depaU' 
[X'ration and the like, in which plants, C8|>ecially seedlings, 
re3|>ond promptly to extfimal influences, as to heat or cukl, 

' For ihc initptiun uf tliia Ihmiry of doaccnE in Ihe furai whlcli lias wllliin 
tlie iMt tmi-ni; year* iirofoundly >ileci^ nalunl hUtory. tnd ilevvloiKil i 
cupiniu lilcnnin.', lev > ihort pnpcr On the Vmiatlan of Organlv BiHngi in 
■ Htale of Nkture; On the Natural Moans of Selcclinn; and On ihc Com- 
parison of Domcstii.- liacn and True Sprclra, bjr CliaHc* Darwin, also On 
Ilie Trndency of Variflin lo depart indeHnilely from Ihc Original Typo, bj 
Alfred Ranelj Wnllaep, both read (o the Linnean Society. July 1. ItUMI, and 
pabll»hcd lo ita Journal of Ihe Pnxeetlin^. ili. (Zoulogy) 4lr-li2. Vot the 
development of tlie doctrine, tec Iterwln's "Orij^n uf Spvriea by Meant of 
Natural Selection." "The Varialion of Animals and rianls under !>oniei- 
ticatinn," and vaHnus other worltt; Wallaee't "Oeograpliieal Ditiribution 
of Animals," &c For some cxiKMitioiu, vx Oray's " Darwbilana." 

moisture or drj'nees (which are tmnsient and compflrativi 
Uuimi>ortant) , vaiiation, ur llic iinliki.'ni'ss of prof^ny to 
u occult aud iuexplicablc. If auincliiiK-a called out by tlie 
external conditions, it is hy way of internal iveiMnec to them, 
la Darwin's coDcei)tion, vurialiou of itm'lf docs tiot tend in auy 
one i>arUculm' iHretaiou : \tv a[iiMai'8 to attiibiitu all iulai)tii! ~ 
to the sorting wliich results from tlic struggle for L-xistcnc-e 
the snn-i^al of the Attest. We have supposeil, and Na^di 
a similar view,' that caeli plant has an internal tendency o 
dis]K>aition to vary in some diivctions rather than others : 
whldi, un<ler natural aelet-tioii, the actual dilfen.<nliaIions 
ulaptations have i»roc»>edL'<l. Under tliia assumjition, and 
as a working hypothesis, lh« doctrine of the derivation of s 
senes well for the c-u-ordiiiation of all the facta in botany 
aUbiils a probable anil reasonable answer to a long aeries 
qaestiona which without it are totally unanswerable. It is 
|K)rted by vegetable paheontology, which aAsives lis tliat 
plants of tlie later geological piiriods are the ancestors of 
actual Uora of the woild. In aeoordauce with it we may cxplall 
in a good degree, tiie present ilistribution of species and other 
gronjis over the world. It nttionalLy connetrts the order of tho 
api)eamnce of vegetable ty|«s iu time with the grades of dill^ 
entiatiou kikI complexity, Itoth proceeding fi-oni tlie simpler, 
tower and more geoeral. to tho higher and more iliffcn^ntial 
or special ; it explains by inheritance the existence of I\iucti( _ 
less parts ; throws light upon tlio anomalies of parasitic plants in 
their vaiioUB gradations, u|K>n tlie assumption of tliu most vniious 
Ainetions by nioi'])liologically identical organs, and imleed illumi- 
nates the whole field of mor|)bology with which this volume " 
been occnpi»l. It loilows that sixrcies are not *' simple curiuul 
of nature," to Iw catalogued anci ilestriljetl merely, hut that 
have a liistoiy, the records of which arc impressed upon 
structure as well as traceable in tlieir geographical and 
tological distribution. This view, moreover, explains th» 
markablc fact that the cliaracters in which the atlinitics 
plants are mainly discerned (and which therefore 9er>'o 
for ordei-B, tribes, and other principal groups) are commonly 
as are e\iilcntly of small if anj- imiwrtance to the plant's 
being, and that they run like threads through a series of s] 
of tlie greatest diversity in habit, mmic of life, and pai 
adaptations to conditions.* 

' EntBtdiung luiJ llegriil ilcr iialurliuloriicbeii Art Zwijlc Auflage,!! 

* Tliii i« a ouruUary uf natural wlocliuii. which i-uti lake effl'tft a 

npoD tucful cluinicter*, 1. 1. upon itruccurea wliluli pla/ son 


C62. Tho flxi^ of Bpccica und«-r this \U-w is luil absolute and 
universal, but relative. Not, however, that spt-citic i-luiugea ore 
nix«seitutc(l iii virtue of any fixed or all-conti'olliug n&luml law. 
Some or the lowest Tonus have exisUil eBSenlittlly iinetiikngcd 
through immense geolt^cal i>eriode ilovrn to the present time ; 
some Hiwoies even of trees are apparently unchangwl in tho l&i>se 
or time and eltni^ of conditions between the later tertiary [wriud 
and our own day, during which most others have undrrgone 
spccilii! modiHcation. Such modiflcatioiis are too slow lo efleet 
in any wise tlie stability and prauticol application of botouioal 

Sectio II. Botanical Classifhation. 

GH:). FJatural and Artifloial ('IftsslflcatioBS may be distinguished. 
A nntural elnsHitleation in botany auns to arrange all known [liants 
into groui)3 in a scries of grades according to their n.-semblancos, 
and their degrees of resemlilance, in all respects, so that cath 
Bjtecics, genus, tribe, order, &c., shall stand next to those which 
it most resembles in all respects, or rather in the whole plan of 
structure. For two plants may be very much alike in extenial 
appearance, yet ver}' dilfcreut in their principal structure. Arti- 
ficial classifications single out one or more j)oints of resemblance 
or (litference and arrange by those, without reference to other 
cunsi derations, convenience and facility being the controlling 
principles. The alpha)«tical Rrrangeraent of words in a dic- 
tionary, and the sexual system in botany by Linnaeus (or ratltor 
a jmrt of it), — in which plants are arranged in chisses upon the 
numlrar of their stamens, and in orders tijiun the ntiraltcr of 
pistils, — are examples of artificial classification. The arrange- 
incTit of the words of a language under their root«, and with the 
derivntive under the more primitive forms, would answer to a 
natural classification. 

in ihp life of the pUot, ■nd which llivrefore undrrgo mudiflcBiIon ondw 
changing cDOditions. Unoueolial itrncturtu aL-conlingly »re left unaltered 
or are imly incidentally mudi&cd. Anil ao ihne biologicailjr uimwnlUl 
pi)int« of (tructuiv, pcraiallng through all adsplirc change*, are the dew* 
lu rciationBliip. Thui, Itubincea: arc known hy InalgniScant itipulca, Ano- 
naecB hy ruminated albnrocn, RharnnBcea by a valvate calyi anil ■lanicn* 
brtnrc the pctala, &c. Panwlnxieal si il may leeRi. it it not alilxiugli, hut 
became, they are of anull biuloKical iniportanue that they aiv uf high i'la»- 
■IHcalory (i.e. of gcncal<^ical| value. 

On coruidemiionii lilce ihcae, chsraeien are lUilded into adapiirt or bio- 
loginl nn the one haml. and fjtnrrdariiail or griirlie on the oliicT. Tlie aaga- 
cinua naturaligl wlipa npon the latter far order* and the like; while the 
fonnvr are prominent in genera, &c. 

064. No Brtifldftl ckssififation of plantB could TaXi to 1 
natural in Home [wrtiona ami some n-spccts ; Ijocause plants 
which agree in any [xiinl of structure likely to Ik; used for i 
[>uriK>9e will commonly agme in other and i>oriia|>s mo 
tant characlere. On tlie other hand, no natural clossifi cation c 
diBpense with artificial hcljia ; nor can it express in lineal ortler^ 
or ill anj' other way, all the various relation8hij>8 of plants, ci'CiU 
if these were fully detomiincii and rightly subordinated. 
ralista now endeavor to make classification as natural as possible f[ 
that is, to base it in every giwlu upon real relationships, 
real relation sliii>9 are, and how to express them in a genen 
system and throughout its parts, has been the task of the leadei 
in botany from the l>ogiuning of the science until now ; and t 
work is by no means completed. 

GGi}. LinnaiUB was perhaps the first botanist to distinguia 
clearly between a natural and an artificial classification, 
labored ineffectually u|x>n a natural classification of the genen 
of plants into orders ; and he devised an effective artiRcial clai 
ficntiun, which became so popular that it practically snpersedoc 
all others for more than half a century, and hus left a ijermaneitl 
impression npon the science. The last generation of botanist 
who were trained under it has not quite passed away. 

GGG. Anie-Ltnnean C'lasslfleation. Linnteus, in his Philosophic 
Bota.nica, divided systcmatists into hetenxlox and ortliodox^ 
the former, those who classify plants by their roots, herbage, 1 
of flowering, place of growth, medical and economical uses, a 
the like ; the latter, by the organs of fructification. It is romail 
able that all the orthotlox or scienUfic clossifiealions anterior b 
Linnams made a primary division of the vegetable kingdom inM 
Trees and Herlia, referring the larger shrubs to the former i 
the under-shnil>8 to the latter. — an arrangement which l>egai 
with Tbeophrastus and was continued by Ray and Toumefort, 

6C7. The tliree most imjxirtjint names in botanical taxonom^ 
anterior to LinniEus arc those of Cesalpini, Ray, and Tonniefort 
Scientific botany commenced witli the former, in Italy, in ttM 
latt«r half of the sixteenth centurj-. He first used the cmbr3-o tu 
its cotyledons In class ificution. distinguished difTei'enees In the in- 
sertion offioral parts, and. indeed (excepting the primary- divisioi 
into trees and lierbs), founded all prineijKiI characters upon t" 
organs of fnictification, especially uptm the fruit and seedfl 
Conrad (IJosner of Zurich had somewhat earlier recognized f" * 
principle, but Cesalpini first applied it. 

GC8. A («ntun- later {IC!I(>-!I9) this principle was carrieti int^ 
practice by Rivinus (a name latinized from BachmanD), I 


Loipsic. in a wholly nrtificinl classiflcition fouixloil on the coroUa. 
Hie ttjntemporan in Knglniul, Hobert Morison, aomenliat, earlier 
began the publication of his great work, the L'nirL-rHal History 
of Plants. In this wns llrst attx^mpted a grouping of plants into 
niiat are now callnl natural onlers ; and these were cletiuvd, some- 
what looaely. some by tlicir tVuit. inflorescence, and flowers, others 
by their stems, the nature of their juiee, &c. Hut the two great 
syetematista of the lime, who together laii] the foundations of 
modern scientillc botany, were John Ray in Knghind and Joseph 
Pitlon de Toumefort in France. 

COS. Bay's method of classification was sketched in 1C82, and 
was anterior to Touriiefort's, )>iit was ameniled and compleUnt in 
I7U3. Tlio leading fault of both was the primary division into 
iR-es and herbs. The great merit of Ray wns his division of 
herbs into Flowerless anil Flowering, and the latter into Dicotyle- 
donous and Monocotyledonoua. These great classes he divided 
and subdivided, by cliaractcrs taken from the or|;flns of fnK-ti- 
flcntion, into what wc should call natural orders or families, but 
which he unfortunately called genera. He noted the coincidence 
of nerved leaves with the monocotylcdonous embryo, altliough 
he did not notice that his first division of arborescent plants waa 
monoi-otylc<lonous ; and he had a clear apprehension of genera. 

liTO. Tuurnefort's mcllio<l was published in Frenith in the 
year WJi, in Latin in \70i). It is more definite liut more arti- 
ficial than that of Itay, being founded like that of Rivinus almost 
wholly u[)0ii modiflcations of the corolla, and it overlooked the dis- 
tinction bt'tweim monocotylcdonous and dicot)lcdonous cmbrj'os. 
Its great merit is titat here genera, as wc now understand them, 
are Hrst established and defined, and all the species then known 
referreil to them ; so that Toiirnofort was justlysaid by Linnteus 
to be the founder of genera. Rny may be snid to have indicated 
the primary classes, jussieu (in the nesl century) to have estalv 
lishcil natural orders, and Tournefort to have given to botany 
the first Genera Plantanim. 

671. LIbdmui ClusiRMtlaii. Linnieus. the great reformer of 
botany in the eighteenth centurr, thoroughly revised the principles 
of classification, established genera and species upon a more scien- 
tific basis, and. in designating spedes by a word instead of a 
descriptive phrase, introduced binomial nomenclature. (704.) 
He likewise established for the stamens, and indeed for the 
pistils also, tlieir supreme imi>ortance in classification (probably 
without knowleflge of the clear suggestion to tliis effect mtulc 
by Iturckhard in a letter to Leibnitz, printcil in 1702) : their 
functions, so long overlooked) being now ascertained. He also 



drew n clear and practical dialinction lietween natural and i 
Rcinl elassilicatioDB (GG3). and deferring all endeavors to a 
the former availa)>le, except f«r genera, he devised a practie 
Bubstitutc for it, as a key to the genera, viz. his celebrated 

GT2. Sexnal SjBtcm, ur arran>n-nient of the genera under art 
fieial classes and orders, founded u|K)n the stamens and pistils. 
Although now out of use, this artificial class! fii-ation lias Iveen ao 
|)o]mlar and iuRufiitial, and baa left ao deep an impression uimh 
tlie science and especially iijion thtt language of Imtanj*. that it 
needs to be prescnte<l. Tlie primary divisions are the classes, 
twenty-four in number. But ihe 24th class, Crypti^uiia, con- 
sists of plants which have not stamens and pistils and conse- 
quently uo proper flowers, and is therefore the counterpart of tbe _ 
remaining twenty-three classes, to wliieh tbe corresponding n 
of I'haneif^amia or, in shorter form, I'hienogamia ( IliKnc^amom J 
plants', has since \n'en applied. These twentv-tliree clasaes v^M 
chnrnctcriKcd liy («rtnin mud ill cations and associations of tbsj 
Btamena, and have substantive names, of Greek derivation, e& 
prcssivo of their character. The first eleven compriao alt plants 1 
with perfect (•'. e. hermaphrodite) flowers, and witli a delinita'l 
nnmIxT of equal and unconnected stamens. They are diatin* t 
guished by the absolute numl)er of ttiesc ot^ns, and are dosi^ J 
natt^'d by names compounded of Greek numerals and the wordlJ 
andria (from Kr(;(i), which is used mctapborically for stamen, i 
follows : — 

Clau 1. MoxAMDKiA Ini^ladd *tl auch plant) wiih one slamcn to the flowi 
a* In Ilippuri*. 
a. PuNi>Ru, thcwc- with two RtumoTu. «B in Ihc Ulao, 
8. TaiARDRiA. wilh thrvc >IMi[ivns, us in tlie VHlcrian and Irii. 
4. Tetrakpuii. with four itiinieiu. m In the Sroliioiu, 
r>. PuKTAXmiu, with five sumcns. tlie moat fr«|iicnl case. 

6. IlKXANi.KiA, with rix ilameni. ■■ In the Lily Faniil.v, &c 

7. Ilerr ANURIA, wilh seven »tamena. as in HurHTliirstniit. 

8. OcTAtrDaiA.wIthHghEitBmi'iif.Hi in EvcnlnnPrimnMeand Fvcha 
0. EmiBAiiuau. with nine ■lamrnB. as in tlie Khulmrb. 

10. DacANtiaiA. wilh ten Btnmens. at in lihodndenilnm nnd Kalmia. 

11. UonECAHDAiA, wilti iwelvv itnmcnt, ai In Asnnim anil the V, 

nette : extcniliil alio to include those with from thineen l« Ji 

fi73. The two 8uccee<ling classes include plants w 
flowers having twenty or more unconnectetl Btanicns, which, in j 

12. IcosANSRiA. arr Inaerted nn the calyx (perigynous), u in the R«l 

Family; nnd in 

13, Poi.vAKuaiA. on the receptacle (lij-pogynous), ■« in ibe Butt(TCU||| 

Anemnne. &c. 


674. Their essential charaeters are not intlicnted by tlieir 
natnos : tlie Tonntir niL'rely denoting tliat tliv slHuieiis nn tneiity 
in niiinltcr; t!ie latter, tliut they are numerous. — The two fol- 
lowing classes deix>nd' upon thu relative length of the stamens, 
namelj' : — 

1 J. DiDTyAMiA. induding tboie wUh two \ang and twn short •umcna, 

■■ Id the nmjorlt; of Howera wiili bilAhinli? torolla. 
15. Tetrahtnahia. ilio«e with four luii^t >n<l two eliuri alanieni, » in 
flu wen IT i 111 cruciferous corolla. 

_ G75. These names signify in the former that two stamens, and 

in the latter that Tour stamens, ore most powerfiil. — Tlic four 

succeeding are foundeti ou the connection of the stamens, viz. ; — 

Id. MoNAUEu-MiA (meaning a lingle fratemity ), wllh Ilie fitanivnta 

uiiilcd ill a single tet, tube, or column, ■* in tlw Malliiir, 
n. IliABELMHA (two fnlcmilii'a). with tlic flUments united in two 

gets or psrccli, as in Corydalis and In msn.r IjcgumiiiosK. 
18. roLTADELFHiA {msn^ fra 107111110 1, wilh llie fllami'nt* uiiiletl in 

more ihan two sets or parcels, as in Hypericum. 
10. SrxcEKKsiA (from Greek word* signifying to grow together), 
with the anlhen unltml in n ring or lube, as in the Sunflower 
and all Coiuposlin. 

fl'G. The next class, as its name denotes, is founded on the 
union of the stamens to the style : — 

20. GvKtNnRiA, with the ntamens and Mylei consolidated, as in Cypri- 
peiliutn and all the Orchis Family. 

C77. In the three following classes, the stamens and pistils 
occupy separate blossoms : — 

31. MoxiEcii (one household) include* all plania where the stamens 
and pistil* aK in separate lluwen on the same individual ; as in 
the Oak and Cheslnnl. 
33. PicKciA (two liou»chold>). where they occupy feparale flowers on 

different indirldDala ; as in tlic Willow. Poplar. Monnseed. &c. 

23, PoLTOAMiA. where the slameni and pistils ar« separate in some 

Howem and associated In oiherv. either on ilie same or two or 

three illRerciit plants ; as in most Maples. 

Ct~ft. Thcremainingclassiscsscnliallyflowerless; orratberits 

organs of reproiluction are more or less analot^niis to. lint not 

homologous with, stamens and pistils. But, althoiigli Linnteiis 

suspected a sexuality in Ferns, Mosses. Algte. Ac, there was no 

proof of it in his day. So lie nuineil the cbss, containing these, 

679. The characters of the classes may be presented at t 
view, as in the subjoined table : — 









flfi ^ -^ s 



H ^ H 

u u u 



< M ^ 

A »-■« ^ 

■O 40 t* 00 0) O 

a — a 

as J 



5 -^ - « 





C at 

— N« "^lO «et- 

• M 

o o 

o ■ 



s S 



5| "^^S 



5 2 

•a "5 

•r s 

0m mm 

e 5 



S M 

CCS • 

c s e C 

« C/ 9 S 

CSS 3 

b b b h 

^^ ^^ 

• •*» c • 


•c5 C** 

2-il ' 

^s £ -2 

OB 9 ^ . 


















jr. > 



CSO. The orders, in tlio first thji1*en classes of the Llnnsan 
anificial system, Hqtenil im tlip number of aljles, or of the 
stigmas when the styles are wnntiug ; ami are immed by Greek 
niimerula iircfixetl to the woitl ffynia, used metnphoricaUy for 
Ijistil, as follows : — 
Order I. HoMOOTNiA, those with one »ly}e or scaiilp aiigma to the flower. 

2. DioTHiA, Ihose with two ilylea or smile Migliiu, 

3. TttinvsiJi, (hoK with three »i;le*. 
i. TBtBAtlTKiA, lho«c with four Ityla, 
& Pkntagima, Ihoic with flfc atylei. 

0. IIkxaothia, tlioae with ilx ityle*. 

7. HBi-TAOrm*, those with ieren itj-let. 

8, OcTooYKiA, those with eight Myles. 
ft. Ennraotmia, thoM wilh uinF Sljlll'l. 

10. OBCAOYUtA, those wiih ten ilylM. 

11. DnoKCAOTHiA, thow with eleven or Iwelrc *tj\e*. 

12. PoLYCVMiA. thoK with iDore Itun twelve iivlei. 

(iSI. The onlers of class 14, Dulynamia. are only tiro anil are 
founite<I on the pericarj), namely: — 

1. Gtmhospkhmia, meaning Beeds ntLlced, the achenialike (ruila of ■ 

4-pnrlnl perit'arp having been taken for naked seedn. 

2. Al(i)li»fenHlA. with the lecda evidently in ■ leed-vesael or peri* 

carp, i. t, the pericarp undivided. 

682. The I5th class, Tctradyiiamia, is also divided into 
twn ordera, which arc distinguished tDcr«ly by the form of the 
pod: — 

1. Silicui^osa; thefmit aiillele (501). orihort pod. 

2. BiLiQUOSA ; fmit a silique (5111 ). or more or leu elongnted pod. 

G83. The orders of the IGth, ITlh. 18th. 2Uth, 21st. and 22rt 
classes depend merely on the niimWr of stamens ; Ihat is. on the 
characters of the Urst thiitoen classes, whose names they likewise 
War; as Monasdria, with one stamen, Dumdria, with two 
slumeiis : and so on. 

684. Theordcrsof the 13th class. Syngeno.sia, arc six. namely: 

1. PoLTfltMiA xqcAUs, wheTe the flower* are in heads (ihc go^-aJled 

computindilawerl.and all hermaphrodite 

2. PuLTiiAMiA st'i-aarLUA, the lamc »i the last, except that the ray<, 

or marginal flowers of the head, are pisrillale otdy. 

3. PoLYOAHiA PKU8TBAKBA, thiwe Willi ilie marginal flowere neutral, 

the other* perfect. 
i PoLTaAMiA KKCKssARu, where the marginal flower* are pistillate 

and fertile, and ilie central stamlnate and uTeHIc 
6. PoLTOAiaiA tEORKOATA. whcfc cach floweT of ihe head [or glom- 

erule] has It* own proper invnlucre. 
0. HoitooAMiA, where loMtary flowers (thai U.nol united Uito ahead) 

hava united anlLcn, as in LoUUa. 

685. The S3d class. Polygamic, has three orders, two ot tbcm 
founHcd on the chaiacters of the two preceding elussea 
bearing their names, and the thifd named upon the same 
ciple, u&mely : — 

1. MoNtELiA, where bolh Bepantted »nd perfect Oonen 

2. DitECiA, wlH're tliey ocoopy iwo different plania. 

where unc indiviilual luiirstliepi^rfeut, another llic 
a third ihe jiietiUiite dowers. 

I. Tail 

>r tbetn 
ea and 




686. The orders of the 24th class. Crjptognraia, the Flower- 
less I'laute, are so many natural onlers, and are not definable 
liy a single eharact«r. They are : — 

1. FiLicBS, the Fomi. 

2. MvKM, the Muwes. 
3 ALGf . which, OB left by Linneus, coinpris<>d the Ilepatieip. Lii 

&(.'., ■■ welt ■■ Ihe tcaweeds. 
i. FliHQl, Mushroomi, &c. 

687. In its day. this artificial system well fullillci] 
and was iirvferrcd to all others on the score ul' I'acihly and 
niU-'ncss. Now no botantst would think of employing it, nor 
would it be chosen for a key to genera, which was its only legiti- 
mate use. 

Cttfi. The Natoral Srstem was rightlj' nppreeinteil by Linnsiis, 
who pronounced it to be the first and last desideratum in sj-ste- 
matic Ifotany; and he early attempted to collocate most knows 
geuera under natural onlers (e. g. Piperita, Palmx, Sdtamina, 
Orehidra, Amtntaera. &c., sixty-seven in numljer. including his 
four cryptogamic orders) , but without definition or arrangement. 
In his later icars, he was unable to acconiplisli any thing more. 
The difficult problem was taken up by LinniFus's contemporoiy 
and correspondent, Bernard de Jussieu, who jilant^d the Itotanio 
garden at Trianon with plants gron])ed into natural onlet^. but 
published nothing. His pupil. Ailanson, who when a young 
man lived for several years in Senegal, and who was as remark- 
able for eccentricity as for erudition and ability, published in 
1763. in his Families des Plantes, the first complete s^-steni of 
natural ortlcra. But he seems to have taken little from Ins 
teacher, and with all his genius to have contributed little to the 
advancement of the natural system. 

C89. Antoine Laurent de Jussicii, nephew of Bernard, 
been called the founder of the natural system nf botany, and 
him more than to any other one person this honor may 
ascribed. In his Genera I'lantanim secundum Onlii 
rales dlsposita, 1789, natural orders of plants, one hni 


in numlwr. were first pstjililishetl and (Ifflnod by proper eliar- 
ai-tera, nntl nearly all known (genera arrangol under llieni. His 
primary division of the Vegetable kingilom was intu Acoii/ledotitt, 
MimorotgledoHtt, and Dirulykdonfi, a(io[ib^l fVom Ray, with a 
change whieh was no improvement. For his Acotyledones, the 
t'ryptogamia of Linntena, are the "plants without flowers" of 
Ruy : tliey are, to Ite sure, destitute of (vtyledons (t)iinigh not in 
the manner of Cuscuta), because destitute of embryo altogether. 
The Acotjiedoncs forming his Bret class, Jusnieu divided the 
Monoeotyledones into three eloescs upon single and nrtifipial 
c4ianict«-rs, namely n[>on the insertion of the stamens, wliether 
hj-pogynous, jM-rigyDous. or epigynous ; and the DieotjliHlunos, 
into elt!ven classes on similar charactere, pre<.-e(ted by a division 
into Aprtaitr, Monoptlafa, Polt/ptlnlx, and D\clint$ irrrgulartt, \. e. 
first n[K>n the charact^'r of the perianth, then npon the insertion 
of the stamens or in Moiio|)ctala; of Iht^ curuUa. The following 
is lite scheme ; — 

ArnryMonci Clxii L 

(Btanirni hypo^nou* II. 
pt-rieynoiu III. 
cpigynoui IV. 

I S(iin<.-n> cpiwnou. V. 

'taloua . . 4 i>cr1)E.viioui VI. 

I liypogyiMiuB VII. 

iCurolla hjpoKrnoiu VIII. 
|vrig3-iioiu IX. 
(■piKynoM : anlhen ronnatc X. 
cplmrioiu : snilitn H-]>itraIe XL 

rwUloui . { liy|H>K;»iiu* .... XIII. 
I periBjnou. XIV. 

Dk'linom (nlio Apclaloail XV. 

C90. Augnste P;vramc DeCaodolle was the next great syste- 
matist. Heversing tht' onler of Jnesieu, who procfcdwl IVom the 
lower or simpler to the higher or more complex forms, DeC'an- 
dollo licgan with the latter, the phntiogaroous or flowering plants, 
and with those ha\ing lji)i«dly complete flowers. On a<'coinil 
of its ponvenienco and the great^-r faeililies for studying Ihe higlier 
plants, this onler has l)eeii commonly followed ever since. His 
primaty division on anatomical structure, into Vascular and 
Cellular plants, was a backwant step, eouAising a jwrtion of the 
lower series with the higher; and the duplicate names of B^o- 
g«nee and Endogena, apiwndcd to IhcotyleduncK and Uotioco* 

^lodonee. as it now api>ears shoiilil have been omitted. Tlie 
gradca of the CandoUean syslein superior to the orders, in their 
final form, arc mainlj- these : — ^H 

Div. I. VASCfLAR (more properly PE-EXOGAMOUS) PLANTS. ^ 
Class L Dicottledondus or ExooENors. 

Subclass I. TKALAHiFLonocTR : ptuls (rluiiDcI) atiil sUtmeas on the 

II. Caltcif 

m, CoBOLLiFLOBocB : ppuls (moBllj' coalcicent) not ad- 

nale to c»lyx, bearing tlie itamiriii. 
IV. Modoc H LAJt V D BOU« : p^Uli vraniing, 
Cla«« II. MojrocoTTi.BDOKoiis or Espocbhodb. (Xu Bubclaisea.) 

Div. n. CELLULAR (more properly CRYPTOGAMOCS) PLANTS. 

Clabi I. ^TilEOOAaocB: with boiubI iippiirutuB. and 
VaS(.'ularlilBUI>. iKqiiUelocta-Fil'cei.) 
Only cellular liBBUe. ( Af 'isn' and ftrpatiar.) 

Cl.ASt tl. AurnioAUolTs : deslilulo of sexual organi and of other 
tfllular lisiue. [Lichaui, Funiji, Abja ) 


091. Crjptoganious plants of all orders are now known to be 
provided with soses; and tlic Jussiiean divisions of t lie Dico- 
lylcdones into Apetala (including Dit-lines), Monopeta'a, and 
Pulyi>elalrt, are generally prtft^rred to those of DeCandolIe. Into 
lite present views of the elassiflealiun of tiie Crypt^^amia it is 
iinnecpssarj' liero to enter. Their general arrBugemeitt into 
clasBCB, &c.. is not yet well settled, and the whole taxonomy 
of tlio lower CryptogAtns is at present in a state of transition. 

lj'J-2. John Lindley in anccessive altompta (between 1«30 and 
ia4.>) variously modified, and in some few respects improved, 
the CandoUean arrangement. But, as neither hia groupings of the 
natural orders nor the new classes which he adnplcd liave been 
approved, his schemes need not be here presented. He mtist be 
credited, however, with tlio first attempt to carrj- into effect a 
suggestion ma<ie by Brown, that the orders sliould theraBelvea 
be <lisiK>9ed as far as possible into superior and strictly natural 
groups. In Lindley's first attempt, such groups of two grades 
were proposed, the lower called nixut (tendencies), tlie Itigher 
eo/torii. In his later and largest work. The Vegetable Kil^- 
dom, these were reducwl to one, and llie name of alliance was 
coined. But this word has no good Latin equivalent, and the 
term cohort {cohort) is preferred. 



C93. Robert Brown, nesl to Jiissicu, tlid morp than any other 
botanist for tbc pruiHT (.■atablUhmcnt ami uorrec't ^'liaracterization 
of natural ordure. Huving iu the year 1H2T publislicd his dis- 
covery or tlie gymnospermy of Conifeiw and Cycadacciu, it 
was in Linulej'*ti works tbat tliis was lirst turned to proper 
svHtc-nmtic account by dividing the claas or Dicotylcdones into 
two subclasses, the Aitpiotpermm nnd the Ggmiwsptrma. Tlie 
latter has been elevated by the vegetable pal!eoutoli:^8ts to the 
rank or a class. 

GU4. Stephen Ladialaus Endlicbcr, of Vienna, a contempo- 
rarj' of Lindley, of less botanical genius, but of great erudition 
and aptness for elassi Beat ion. brought out his complete Genera 
Plantaruin secundum Ordines Naturatcs diajiostta, between the 
years ltt36 and 1S40. This eUboratv work follows that of lis 
predecessor, Jussieu, in beginning with the lower aeries of j>lant6 
and ending with the higher. Its primary division is into two 
n^ons: 1. ThaUuphgta, plants without pro|)er axis of growth 
(developing upward as stem and downward as root), no other 
tissue tluin parenchyma, and (as was thought) no proper seses. 
This answers to the lower or Amphigamoua Cellular plants of 
DeCandoUe. 2. Cbrmo/jAytn, plants with an asis (stem and root), 
with fulinge. Ac, The Connophjta, or plants of the liigher 
region. Endliuher divided into three great aeelioua : 1. Acro- 
bn/a, answering to tlic higher ^theogamoua Cr^ptogamia of 
DeCandoUe. with which was wrongly associatcil a group of root- 
purnaitie flowering plants (the Rhizanthes) which were fnncieil 
to bear apores instoad of embiyo in their aeeil ; 2. Amphibrga. 
which answer to Monocotyledonea ; and, 3. Arramphibiya, which 
anawer to Dicotyledons. These last contain live mhorts : 1. 
Cifmnotptrmetp ; 2, Apetaia ; 3. Gamoptlata (the Monopetalie 
of Jussieu better named) ; 4. Dialt/pelnite (the I'olypetaltu of 
Jussieu, &c.). The cohort in Endlicher's classillcation. it will 
be seen, ia a higher grade than that to which this name was 
applied by Lindlej' in tlie more recent use. For the latter, i". t. 
for the grade between these and the order, Endlicher employed 
tlic name of class. 

6it5. Finally, tlie Genera Plantamm, now in course of pub- 
lication by George Bentham and Joseph Dalton Hooker, adopts 
in a general way the Candollean sequence of orders, with vari- 
ous emendations : diviiles (he class of Dicotyledons into two sub- 
clasaes, Angiospermous and Gymnoapennous ; the former into 
the Folypetatuus. Gamopelalous. and Apetalous divisions; and 
the first of these into Ibe Thalamifloroua, Dlscifloroua, and Caly- 
ciOorous " aeries " (the middle one composed of the latter i>art 

of DeCandoUe's Tlialaniitlonc witli some of bis Calj'i-ifloni 
and undiT Uiese Ihe ordt-ra are arranged in cohorts,— 
cohorts in the Poljpetala;, ami ten undci- three "Beries" in th? 
GamopctaliE. The reniEtinder of this [uirticular classification 
has not yel appeared in print, Allboiigh partly skctdied hy its 
authors. It will generallj' be adopted in this cuuntrj-, with some 
occasional minor motlilicatiuns. 

G9G. Various modiQcntious have been froni time to time pro- 
posi-d. t)iie of the best of tbeni in i>rinei|)le is llmt initialed liy 
Adoljihe Brongniai't und adopted by many £uro[iean botanistf^, 
which, reiiognizing that most a[>etalous flowers nrc reductions or 
dcy;radalioU9 of jwlyiietaluus I.i'pes. intercalates the ApetaliC or 
Monoehlamj dete among the Polyi»tHl». But this has never yet 
been done in a satisfactorj' manner, or witlioul sundering urdera 
which should stand in contiguity. 

Cidl. It should be borne in mind thai the natural system of 
botany is natural only in the constitution of its genera, tribes, 
orders, &c., and in its grand divisions ; thai its cohorts and tbe 
like are as jet only tentative groupings ; and that the putting 
together of any or all these parts in a s)'stcm, and es|)ecially 
in a lineal order, necessnry as a lineal arrangement is, must 
needs l)e lat^ely artificial. So that even the best jtei-feeted 
arrangements must always fail to give of thcmselveB more than 
an imperfect and considerably disturteil reflection of the pLui of 
the vegetable kingdom, or even of our knowledge of It.' 

> In Ihr Bnl pintv. Ihi' rclaliundiipB of >ny group cnnnol nlwnyi be 
rightly ('(tiinBii-d bcfon- uU iit mcinticn are knoxm and ihdr whole «iruct- 
uru undtr»IouJ : «u lliat llic viewi lit liulaiilatt arc liable lo be Tnoilifleil wilh 
Ihe diH-'Dverlu* at fvery year. Tht diicovi'ry ol a tingle plant, or at a point 
ot itruL-turc before iniBundcnlood. Iiai lornelimes i^bangcd inalerially ihe 
poutlun of a mniidcrable p'nap in Ihe Byilcni, an<t minor aUcmlioiia arv 
conlinnally made by our increaaing knowledge- Then the RTau|u which we 
rpCDgnizc, and dialinguith ai genera, tribes, orders. &c., arc not alwaya, and 
perliapg not generally, conipletely eircumscritic<1 in nature, a* we arc obligril 
to assume tliem to lie In our classiflcalion. Thi* might be eiipeeied from 
(lie niture of the case. For the naturallal'i gronpt, ot whatever grade, are 
not mtUtlei, but ideal. Their conaideraliim involves qaealians, not of iMiny, 
Iwlneen which absolute diitinctiont might be drawn, but of diyrtn 0/ rfrai- 
Uiinet, wiiich may be cupecied to present inflnile gradationi. Beaidea, ai- 
though llie grades of afflnity among spet'ies are must vinous, if not wholly 
inik-tinite, Ihe naturalist reduce* tliem all to a ft'w. and treats his genera, 
tribes. &«.' . as i^ual unilf , or as distinguished by ehHraclera of about equal 
value Ihrnughnul, — wiiii:b is far from being the eate. And in his works 
lie Is obligpd lo flTTHnge the gronpa he recngnixca In a lineal series; Iml 
eaeh gcniu or order. Ai: , Is very often about equally related to three or fotir 
niliers : so that only a, part of the relationship of phtnta can in any way b« 
indicated by a lineal arrangement. 


('.9». Even the great classes cannot be arranged in a single 
line, begiiiiiiiig with the higlicst l^wnogauis uiid leuv'tng the 
lowest in eontiguity with the liigbcr Crj plogams. The Dlootj- 
Kiluns take iircceUence of the Monocotyledons in rank. Ytit a 
part of them, the CiymnoBperms, are inudi the lowest of all 
knoirn Phsnogams as roganls eimpUcity of floral structure ; 
and thrungli llieni only is a connection with the higher Crjp- 
lo^ms to be traced. The Monocotyledons stand u[>on an iao- 
late<l side line, and hare no such simpliRcd representatives. 
In phicing the latter class between tlio Dicotyledons and the 
Acr<^ns, the chain of affinities is widely sundered. If, yield- 
ing to a recctit tendency, we raise the Gymnosperais to the 
rank of a class, and plac« it between the Monocotyledons and 
the Acrf^ens, then the nincli nearer relatioiisliip of G^'itino- 
spemis to Angios))errns through GueUtceo: and Lorantbaceie is 
not respected. (GUG, &c.) 

eai). Nor can the angiospennous Dicotyle(lt)Hs be disposed 
lineally according to rank. The aiHitaious and aehlaniydeous 
must be the lowest. Some are evidently reduced forms of Poly- 
petalie or even of Gamo]Wtal(e : the greater part cannot without 
violence be thrust into their ranks. The Catno|>etalie. especially 
tliose with much floral ailnalion, should represent the highest 
tj1)e, tlie organs l>eing at the same time complete and most dif- 
ferentiated from the foliar state. If a natural scries could be 
fonne<l, these would claim the highest pUce, with the Comimsits 
pcrhajM at their head. In tlie Candollean sequence, they occupy 
the middle : and the series begins, not without plausible reason, 
with orders having generally complete blossoms, and such as 
most fVcely and obviously manifest the homology of their organs 
with leaves, then rises to those of greater and greater combi- 
nation and complexity, and ends with those plants which, with 
all their known relatives, are most degraded or simplified by 
nliorliiiiis and suppressions of parts which are represented in the 
complete flower. These are low in structure, equally whether 
we regard them as reduced forms of higher types, or as forms 
which ha^e never attjtined the full development and diversifica- 
tion wliich distinguish the nobler ortlcrs. 

700. Actual classillcations, in their leading features and in 
their extension to the cohorts, orders, &c.. must )>e studied in 
the systematic works where they are brought into use. In 
these are the applications of the principles which are here 
outlined. A separate voliiine of this text-book should illustrate 
the structure, relations, and most important proilucts of the 
ptuenogamous natural orders, as another is to illustrate the 


cr}i)togamou8 orders. A sjnoptical view of the great divi- 
Bions only, as at present received and named, is appended. 
Definitions and characters may be sought in the present and 
precetling clia2)ters. 





l)iv. 2. Gamopetalous. {Mimopelahus.) 
iJio 3. Apetaloub. 


Jjir. 1. Spadiceous. 
1)1 r. 2. Petaloideous. 
Div. 3. Glumaceous. 



/>//.' 1. Vasctlar. (Ferns and their allies.) 
Div. 2. Cellular. (Mosses and Liverworts.) 






701. PnTTOGRAnir ia the department of IxiUiny which rclalcsto 
the (IcHLfiiitioii of plants. Tliis includes names ami tenus. also 
figiirea and signs, as well as diaracters and detailed descriptions. 
It compriiies two sorts of names, one used to designate oi^ans 
or niiMlifit/ations of organs, the other to distinguish plants or 
groups of plants. Th<: former is Glouoiugg or (to use the more 
common but less proper word) Terminology. The latter is proi>- 
crly A'oirtencl<ilare. 

702. Kunes of Plante vere at first only generic namoB. The 
language of botany being Latin, and tlie plants wliieh the old 
herbalists knew being mostly Euro|>ean, their scientifle names 
werv mainly Adopt4Hl fKim the ancient Romans or, througli Lstin 
literature, fiom the Greeks, Ex. Qurreus. Prunut. Rosa. Uubut, 
Trifaliunt ; and of Latinized Greek names, Agroitit, Aritloloehia, 
CulMcum, MtUlotut. To the classical names others wore 
added (Vom time to time ; as, from the Latin, Bidena, Qtnvailan'a, 
Dtntaria ; from the Greek, Anacardium, Glsryrrhiia, Lornnlhua. 
Ac. Some barbarous or outlandish names were early adopt«d, 
such OS Alhagi from the Arabs, and Ad/iatoda and Nelumbo from 
India. Tbese are mostly such as were or could be conformed to 
Latin ; as Datura and Sibet trora the Arabic, and later 7'hiea and 
Coffiea. Of American aboriginal names, Ilara, Guaiacum, and 
Yucca are examples. Some ancient names of plants commem- 
orated distinguished men. Ex. Aicltpias, Euphorbia, Li/timachia, 
Paonia. Toumefort and his contemixirariea resumed this 
practice, and named plants in memory or in honor of distin- 
guished botanists. Ex. Jhgonia. Bignonia, Ctftalpinia, Fuchtia, 
Grrardin, Lobtlia, Lonierra, Magnolia. 

70.1. When among plants of the same name or kind different 
6|>ecics were known, these were distinguished by annexed qii- 
thels. For example, among the I'ines tliere were: Pinut tyl- 
rettrit, Fulgarit ; Pinui tylvettrit. moiUana altera ; PinUM tylp^ltrit, 
nwalana Irrtia ,* PinuM lylitHrit marilima, conit firmitrr ramit 
cuOiarentibHt ; Pitiui marilima minor ; Pinut marilima allera, &C. 


^, SO did ^^^1 
leir discrimiql^^l 

Ami as the number of known species increased. 

hngtii iif tlie plirasoB niiidi were needed for their c 

tion. These " diirereiilia-," tJius ustd us epccifie names (tbe 
iiomina Mpecifica of Linnieua), lx!cume extremely cumbrous. It 
was ubont in tiie middle of hie career tlial Liiinieua suggested 
wliat lie called trivial names (tiamirta triitalia) for tlie six^cific 
name, consisting of a flingle wonl ; and in the S{)ecies I'lan- 
tnrum, in IT^S. he carried thi» idea into full effect in Botany, 
'i'lie step was a simple one, but most important; anil Lianieus 
himself, who generally did not underrate his 8en,'iceB to science, 
ficems hanlly to have appivciated it« practical value.' 

7U4. The BlDemlal NoraeDClatore in Natural liistory. thus 
cBtahlished, flrst sei>arat«d the name of a plant or of on animal 
f\-ota its (lingnosis, deaeriplive phrase, or chaimctcr, and reduced 
the appellation to two words, the flrst that of its genus, tlie sec- 
ond tJiat of its species. The generic name very nearly answers to 
tlie surname ef a person, as liroirn or Jontt ; tbe specifie answers 
to the baptismal name, as John or James. Thus, Qucrcm albn 19 
the liotanical appellation of the White Oak 1 Qaercut being that 
of the genus, und alba (white) that of a particular species ; white 
the Ited Oak is nameil Querent rubra ; the Scarlet Oak, Qaerettt 
eoetinea; the Live Oak, Quemu* virtHt; the Bur Oak, Querout 
maeroeiirpa : Magnolia tf ran dt'fiora ia Large-flowered Magnolia; 
M. manrnphylla. Long-leaved Magnolia, and so on. The name of 
the genus is a substantive, or at least is a word taken as a substan- 
tive. That of a species is mostly an adjective adjunct, alwaj's 
following the generic name and in the same gender.' This com- 
bination of generic and speciflo name is tlie name of the plant.* 

70.1. By this system, not only is the name of the plant reduced 
to two wonls. but a comparatively moderate iiumt)er of words 
scnes for the complete designation of more than 1 20,000 plants,* 

> Moreover, he taty be lald to lutve adopteil ralher tlian oiisina 
iili.'>; for liiigle-wonkii ipccitlu nanicH were uwd half a centtuypre' 
\>y Baulimaiin, aliut Rlvinus. 

■ It ia to be nolecl Iliftl the rUesicnl latin namea of trees are kU fem! 
therefore Qumaialba, Pwui riy'du. Lc. 

' The name of a subgenus U unrncliineB written in between the ti 
of llie planl'i name, as Pnmv (^nrfui) VirjiniaM. This Is the nnai 
plant and lometlilng morp. In nditiiiiiii In tlie name of the speciet, t 
(lie variety or even mlivarlety is someifme* mlileil. 

< Alpbonw DeCanilnlle several yean ago estiinalEKl llic known s} 
Flowering Plant! at between 100,000 ani] ]3n,000. The larjter n 
perliapt incliiiie the hl(rher onlen of the Flnvrerlesi sprieg, Jn 
state of our knowte'ltrc of the lower onli-rs of Cryjilogams, no close ei 
cat) be welt fornicil of the actual number of ipcciei. 



in n mannpr whii-h nvoiiU conrusion ami need not overbuixlon the 
mt^mory. The generic part o( the name is pctiuliar to each 
genus. The speuitic mljunet is not available for more than one 
ft|}ecic3 of the same genus, but may be used in any other genna. 
They arc so widely thus enipluyed that the number of Bj>ccific 
may not exceed tliat of goncrie apix-llations. 

706. To render this sjatem of nomenclature most serviceible 
for tho ready identiliiiatiun uf soeh nuiubcrs of plants or groui>8, ' 
aiul for the clear an<l anccincl presentation of or reference t« 
what is known and recorded of them, rules aic indispensable, 
ond iwnformity to admitted rules is a manifest dutj'. Such rales 
were systematically formulateil first by Linna>us, in his Fuiida- 
menta, Critica, an<l PUilosopliia Botsnica, chiefly for generic 
names, some of them being of the nature of htws, some rather of 
recommendations. The most imiwrtant of thcro remain in full 
force, while many of the more particular rules restricting the 
clioice of names have been abandonetl. The code was judi- 
ciously rcviseil (in his Thoorie Elementaire) by DcCandolIc 
" who was ruletl by the idea of Imviitg the luw of iiriorily pi'O])- 
erly resiwctetl," was criticailj' considered by Liudley in his In- 
troduction to Botany, and has of late been reformulated by 
Alphonse DeCandolIc imder the saucliDii of a Botanical Congress 
held at I'aris in ISO".' 

707. BnlM for NamloK Plants. These '-should neither be 
arbitrary nor imiKised by authority. They must Iw founded on 
considerations clear and forcible enough for every one to com- 
prehend and be disposed to accept. The essential point in 
nomenclature is to avoid or to reject the use of fonns or names 

' LnU i\e la NompDi'lature Bolaniqup. cte , Gprpta tni Pnris. ISnT. In 
Iho Eii^Iah r<lili<ii). IrantlBlcd l),v Wedilt^ll : Lawaor Rolanical N'ompscUlure 
atlnptcd by the InttrmAriunul BuUinlcal Cnngn^t held nt farii In Auicihi. 
1807. tnjtpihfr with an Hlttorlral Introduction and a Cnmnifntary. Iiondnn. 
Rw»e & Co.. 1888, The Law*, simplr, were reprinted in the Anwrti'an Journal 
of Sfleniv and Art*, July. 1868. A few iperUI pnintj have been more reeenily 
dl*ruu(Hl by vartoni critic*, e«peelall; in the Bulletin of the Bitlanital Sm-lcty 
nf France, and in lliat <if the Royat BoUnical ScKlety of Delitlain. 8ee llke- 
wiw Amerirsn Jonmal of Bcienocand Arti f nr Seplenilier, 18Tn, and Au)ciut. 
1877 ; alio, Benlham In Journal ot tlie Llnnean Society. xvlL 180-108, In which 
a just di>tinMlon i* indienlnl between ehnnnrng a well-nlablislied name and 
telling a new name to a new plant See American Jnumal of Science for 
April, IBTtl. 

Mcnlion ihould sImi Iw made of Slricklinira Report of a Commillee on 
NohirnclalunrtotheBriiich Aaindatifln in 1&12. of Apa»tix'»cUMiral preface 
on the nomenclature of (teitrra In hi» Somenclator Zoolopcun. and of Dall'* 
thorouftb and weli-ilienled Report ot tlie Cotnmiltee on Zonlntci'''! N'limen- 
claiun to the American AMociatiim far tlie Advancetnent of Science, 1877, 
— theac tlealing piimarilf with (ooIok;, 

that may create error or antliiguitj-, or throw confbsioa ii 
soiencG. Next in importaDcc is llie avoidance of anj- 
iotroductioD of new uoines. Other considerations, such as 
abeotute gramnialical coiTeetnesB, regularity or euphony of 
names, a more or less iirerailing eustom, respect for persons, 
&c., nutwi til 3 landing titeir undeniable importance, arc relatively 
accessorj," (Alpli. DeCandolle, 1. e.) 

708. The following are universal rules .in scientific norocn- 
elature : — 

1. Names must be in Latin or be Latinized. Those from tlie 
Greek (which are more and more abundant, owing to the facility 
of this language for com|Niundiug) take Latin form and terraina- 
tion.' Those (hjm modem or other than classical languages 
should at least have a Latin termination.* Hybrid names, 
namely, those formcti by the combination of two languages (i 
least of Latin and Greek), should not be made' 

2. For each plant or group there can be only one valid oi 
and that alna.\s the must ancient, if it is tenable. 

3. Consequently, no new name should Ik given to an old p 
ov group, except for necessity. That a name may bo Ijettci 
is no valid reason fur changing it. 

TOO. 5wae8 of Genera are substantive and singular, 
word ; and the same name cannot be used for two genera of 
plants.* They may be derived trom any source whatever, (Vom 

B (at 


' Tliue, wonta ending wilh llic Greek m generally change it to hi, anil wiih 
en lo NM. A ruk no! alw»j» oltwrvwl ; for while we havB Spidfuitrum ru-.d 
Ozi/dftt4rum, LiniiKIU liimsplf variouily vrotc Uriodaulrum and Uriodrndnn. 
liliadndcndnim and TOiadadfndnm ; and the lini'lt form now pri'vaili. 

' In rlilj ai tn olher caiM, »onie exceptiuiu arc wt-U nlablialioil liy 
cusloni, but th?y ouglit not lo be rxtcnded. Tl;e rule as lu Laliuiratinn ia 
rc»tricted u, reipcct* nrlhographj by Ihu netwsily of prp«crring raodeni 
Dammcmflraiive names in a rccognizabli' turm. 

' But we cannni eliangc numemua old name* for lliit fault, sucli a 
pairulo'di-t. fimitirtoidn. Tttnanailoidrt. and ffiifioida (lllougli they ought | 
have lieen roavalrttHaa, Tauimadina. anil leirjn'na) ; and moOi'm botanlala I 
not lerupled lo append llic cxpreralvc and convenient Greek temi Vrffv (■ 
nifjing likencM) lo generio nanwc not of clauicnl origin. Ex. aim 
h'TO'det.dntiJh'oidn./Hi^ioidn.i/raUamHdnJohclloidei.lounir/arliaiAtt 1 

? hvliridt will perpetuate tbemielTe 

txnlimHrr. mllimrlrc, Wunjcnif*, inc. 

' Very many. Inilwd, are adjectiTPB u«nl 
Clamria, Sapmaria, laifmli'^; Trienlulii. and c 

Some two-wonled gencrie name* (Hislerior lo 

g for instance U 

. When 11 

a Pimorit. 

n torn 
? confluent ir 
I (commemotaiiDg Charlei L«nisii, Candia j 



liromiiicnt or ppcuHar charaoLcr or )i(ii>earance, from localitioa, 
IVora llie names of pi'iraons (espetiallj- of cliBtovewrs), IVoni 
iniligi^nous or vulgar names, or even (Vom arbitrarj- (xmibina- 
tions of letters. L'nmoaning names, if not in principle the best, 
are nuver misleading. The main requisite b that they should 
l>e eupbonioue, not too long, and that thej- should be a«la[ilal>le 
tu the Latin tongue. Characterietie names, wlieii possible, aie 
among the best ; such aa Savguiuarin for an herb with red juice, 
Hvmaloxyhn for the Logwood tree, Liihofpermum for a plant 
with stony aeevia (or seeming seeds) , Mgmurus for a plant with 
gyniFcium resembling the tail of a mouse. Names of this sort 
do not always hold out well ; for Chrytanthtmum, bo oalletl (Vom 
its gulden yellow blossoms, now has many whitc-flowerwl s)>ecics, 
Pulffffola is wholly destitute of milk, and many species of Con- 
votenliu do not twine. Neat anagrams are not luul, sUL-h as 
Brown's TeUima for a genus nearlj' related to Mitella. Personal 
generic names are wholly projjer when dedicated to botanists, 
espwially to the liiscoverer (tf the plant, or to other natumlist^, 
or to i^ersons who have furthered botanical investigation or 
exploration. Ancient names of this kind have been mentione<l, 
also some of those which commemonitfi llie earlier botanists. 
(702.) At present, almost every devotee of the science is thus 
commemuraleii, fhim Linnieus and Jussieu downwanl. In 
forming such names, the name of Ibe peraon, cleared of titlca 
and accessory particles (tbus CandiAlea, not Dfcandollra) , takes 
the final -a or-i'a and becomes feminine; and its ortbogi-aphy is 
presencd as far as possible, making only nofessar}- concessions 
to eu|)hony and to the genius of the Latin language* 

The Linnmn canon fo^1l>ll<^ llic aie of tlic tnine g[enoric namo in bot«ny 
■ml loolojty, — ■ rule now iinpuiiiblc to iniim«in. Perlispi wc cHnnol pre- 
vent llie duplitklion of pluenognmous name* in the lower Cryplogsmlk. 

' Tliiu. we niKy write Lrvuria inittail iif LrtijuerruiTa, althnngli Hiciauria 
U the (iirni for the genua ilwlkntej to Michtui, however pronounced. The 
KeniK ikJiuileil to Strangwuyi ii written Slmnratla (sllhough Slnnywoi/tia 
might have been tolerable) ; to AodnclowiTty, ATiditaii-iii ; to (.iviiwenhoek, 
ItptnSoaiiia (iilihough the cliler DeCandoUe realored all the vonrli). Se. 
A« ipccimcni of overdone Rimpljflealion, there i« Guitdrlin, nameil for nnn- 
(]t1ih«mer, >nd GimtUma, ttUaeA lot Biahop Guodenoujiti, allhonfch GandnU- 
itimcni would nut in Ihctc day* be objected to, and GiKKlmocia i* tsullteu. 
Yet tlie immet haring been to introduced into the iciiinec >hould remain, 
flxily being of more importance than perfection. Miataken orthography 
of the name iltelf may. hnwereT, be ael right. Brown'a l^fkmiMa ii I^t- 
dirMidtin, Kuiull'a Winrria (named after Dr. WUtar) i> WiM-tia. The 
rule laid down rn the code aa drawn up by Alphonae Oeranibdle (a: 
" When a name la drawn from a moJem tanena^fe. it it to he mainlaineil 
jiut aa il was made, eren in the case of the apelUng baring twen nuauDUe^ 

710. The etjinoli^- or a new genus shoulil always be giTH 
or tUe Linniean restiictioiis, onu liuiils, viz. Ilmt the i 
genera are nut to end in -oid^t^ as iniiny uf the older nami» d 

71 1 . K»ne8 or Species nre commouly and by prcferentw * ' 
lives, agreeing with the name or llie genus, and exproBsiveJ 
some character, habit, mode or plaee of growth, lime of flow 
ing. or eominemorating the discoverer, first deseribur, or a 
one otherwise coitneete<l with its liistoiy. Thus, in Uie g 
RatiuHcuJut, R, tnillKitai is named from tlie l)ulb-lil(e crown 
of the stem ; Ji. wem. from llie acridity of the juice : /I. n-t/t- 
riUut (the acciirse<l). in reference to the same |)roperty ; R. repent, 
IVom the creeping habit of the stems ; 7>. putillut, IVom gem 
insigniQcance ; R. aquatilu. from lis growing in water : Jt. | 
valis, fVom living near eternal snow ; R, I'muti/lvanicut, 1 
country or State whence it was first made known to botaniv 
R, Jhnplandianut, in honor of Bonpland, one of the discover* 
and so on. More commonly, when a discoverer or investigl 
of a s[>eetes is eommeniorated in the name, this is a substotili*^ 
in the genitive, as Ranunculat tliUlailii, i. «. the Ranunculus g 
Nuttall, instead of R. Nitltailiaaut, the Nuttallian Ranitncnius. 
Yet the latter form is |)rertrreil wlicn tlic si>ccics is imiiic-d in 
honor of some one who did not discover nor treat of it (w 
should seldom be) ; but this distinction is a custom rather U 
A rule, and the form of the commemorative name may be octti 
by eupiiony or convenience. In nny ease, ttic iktsodiiI i 
should have a capital initial. 

712. Many 8|>ecinc names arc suits tan tivcs, occasioDal\| 
common substantive, as Stefluria nemorum (of the groves), 
voltulia tepium {of the he«lges), Catsia pumilio (tlic dwarf] 
more commonly' it is a substantive proper name, and this t 
ally an old frenerie name reduced tt> that of a species. 
Ranunculus Flammula, R. Thora, and R. Cgmbalaria ; also £tpf 

slooi] hy Ihc nuthor. luiil justly dns^rvliig lo be criticianl." But Ihi* is 
■omewhAt rno alnolute, sriiL-e it i( alluwril thai obTinos crrorft In the oon. 
(imtlian of namps of I^lin or Greek derivBlion msy be correcleet. pru*ided 
tile chanpe doei not aJTrct the Initial Utier or lyllBblc, nnd tlial no ani^ient 
names are to be dirtarlxid. 

The clauie tliat forbids changes in Ihr orlhogrspliy of at 

to make them clatucal, la a very proper oni>. Tlie bnmnKsl I 
of Toumefort, LlnniHiB, Jussicu, and their eontemporarie*, ha* I 
■eriplian rights whith botanlBts are Imimd to rosiwet. Wherefore / 
Is the botanii'sl nnmc of ihc pear-tree, nnl withstand Jng the clusiual f 
So Imii. as ■ ■poi-iflc^ name tor a smooth plnnl (anil a> dlsiin^ialicd E. 
Ili'U. a ]||;ht or slight one), is Hunl by long botanical use. ■llhougti « 
licit \a classical; and it is uiuieccssarjr lo tliangc/VuBunru/us acr~ 


Jtndron Talipi/era, Iiliu> Toxirodendran, Diclamaut Fraxiiiflla. 
Thtse proper speeifle names take a eopital initial letter,' llurely 
suub a iiBine in iti tlic genitive ; as Heterolhera Clir^ioptidit, incaji- 
ing B sppcieB of Ileterotlieca witli Uie aa|>ect of a C'hrvsopais. 

713, SiwciQc names §houkl be of a Kingle word. Koine Tew 
are compoundwl, as purpurea-f^ruliiuM ; and some of ancient 
origin {oiicp quasi -generie) are of two wunla. Ex. Panicum 
CrutgalU, Cup»»lla Ihirta pattorii, Tarajeacum Deal leontt, 

714, A 8i>ocillc name cannot stand alone. It is nothing 
ex<^^-pt na connected with the genus to which it pertains. A 
Japonica by itself is wholly mL-aningleas. A plant is named by 
the mention of its generic apjielliition followed by the speeifle. 

71.'). Nunea of Tarletlea. These are in all particulars like 
specific names. Many arc s|>e(!iliu names rcducecl to a lower 
rank. The varietal name is written alter the s[>eci|]u, thus ; 
Jt'Muncului f'lammula, \aT. repluiu, an<l R. aquaUlU, vor. trieho- 
phyUu». Varieties of low grade iietil not l>e named. They may 
be desiginatGd by nurabem, or by the small letters of tlio Greek 
alphabet. «, (J, &c. When the varieties are marke«l « and |*, 
the first is supposed to be the ty|)e of the species, or both to 
lie equally included in the common charucter. But when the « 
ifl not used, the varieties rank as deviations from the assumed 
tj'pe of the species. Varieties of cultivation, hair-brceda or 
cross-breeds, and the like, should have only vernacular names, 
at least not Ijitin ones such as may bo i\>nfounded with true 
Iwtanical names. 

71G. Names of Hjbrlds are difficult to settle upon any com- 
plete syatcm, \\hen of unknown or uncertain [tarentage, they 
have l>e<m named in the manner of si>aciea, but distinguished by 
Uie sign X [trefiseil. Es. X S'lliz aipreala. Hybrids of known 
parentage are nsmctl by combining the names of tlie two pa- 
rents, thus : S. purpurea X dnphnoidet, or X ^' purparto-doph- 
naidtf, for a cniss between S. puqiurea and S. daphnoiiles. uf 
which tlic first supplied the ]>o)len Ut fertilise the second. The 
counterpart hybrid is X S, daphnoidnn'purpurea. 

' In retpoct lo the initial of g«>gTriphiFal sptrviflc! numc*. being luljeo- 
Utm. audi M Amerimiiii, Cnnittlrniu, Vin/iitianii. Earopaa, Am^ira, tuifce 
^rcm*. and Ihi* ii iltvid<..d. But the (-liter IlcCaniliiUe. wlio rnltxl in all 
inch mattcn in ihc precmline ppniTnlinn. alway* emiitoyed tlie rapitat in- 
itial, and two gcncralioti) of DeCandoUe follow tliv example. Mmt RnftH'h 
author* until recently and lumc cnniinenla! ones adopt thU uangr ; and It 
acmnli with the girniui of the Engli*li tan|!iia)^. in which we alwayi write 
European, Brilish. American. £c.. with a capital initial. Of laie it ia a usunl 
practice to write such geograpliical apcdfic namet with a inwil iiUllaL 


352 PirrroGRAPHY. 

717. The Fixation and Prpclslon of NamM. Tlie name oC a 
plant is llxwl by |iuliltcution. antl takes its dale from the time 
wlien it ia thii& luodc knonu to botani&ts. 

71S. A gouus or oUier group is publisbwl wlien its name 
and cliaracU-rs (or tbe dilfcrcQces bctwLtu it and all other suuh 
grt>u])s) are printed in some book, journal, or other adequate 
vehiele of iHiblication, which is placed on public sale, or ia 
Bume equivalent way ia (Iistribute(l among or within the reach 
of boiunists. A printed name without eharacters, and charac- 
ters without name, do not nmoinit to pubhcntion.' 

719. A species is not named unless it haa assigned to it botli 
a generic ami a speeiflo name. It is nut published until it ia 
made Icnown, by name and characters (or by name along with 
sufficient infonnation as to its charooteristica) , in tbe manner 
aforesaid. (718.) Adequate distribution, among botanists and 
|>ublic lierl>aria, by sale or otherwise, of a collector's or distrib- 
utor's specimens, accompanied by printed or autograph tickets, 
bearing the date of the sale or distribution (that is. publicalioa 
by named Exticcatm in place of printed descriptions), is bold to 
be tantamount to publication.* 

720. Characters, references to date and place of publication, 
and the like, belong to bibliography or particular phytography, 
not to nomenclature ; but proper idcntiflcnlion of names requires 
that the name of the author and the time and nic<lium of IHib- 
lication should lie taken into acoonut. Anterior to the binomial 
nomciK-lHture, the Itotanical name of tlie common tall Buttercup 
was " Raitunealat praltntii ereclut ocrif," according to Baubin, 
in his I'inas, p. 179. Under the new nomenclature, which re- 
duced the specillc pait of the plant's name to one woni, this 
became Ranunculus aen's in Linnu?us, 8|iecic8 Plantarum (od. 1 ), 
p, 554 ; and a brief character gave its distinctions. In later 
works it has been more fully described, in some illustrated by 
llgiircs. The citation of these works arranged in chronological 
order (or in some onler), wilh reference to volume, page, and 
in some coses figures, is the bibliography of the plant,* A bot* 

I Niimea may be communicalcMl, In mnnuuTipI or ollierwiw, by Ihe pro- 
poundor hi an author whii mnj' make tlicm known Ly publ'iPBtioni but tin 
(Inic of the genus ur ollirr group U ihnt of actual puliUt'ation. 

■ Tliif doi'i not cover all llio condilions of publlolion, since it doc* not 
(pei^ify tile chnractera (and tlic tame may be said of a publlalied Sgure, 
will) nnalyicil ; but, on the other hand, it eonvryi to llie competent penon 
receiring the same all thii informallon and more: so llial It aliould cwTT 
the nghli ot true publii^tlnn as agalusC any author to whom t\n:\\ nam«a 
are or aiionld be known. Tliat ia, auch arc not in tlie ralegory of " unpob- 
liihed namea," irhlch generally ouglii lo be left untouclii-d, 

* For good cxamplM of bibliography, see such detailed work* at Ob- 


onUt, in referring to tliia or any other jilant, might cite any work 
whiih (lesiiilws it, or uoiic at all. Huaunr-ulun uerit by itself, 
as it hapijons. would leail to no ambiguity. Kot so with many 
names. For the nccnrat« iTicliL-tttiou or tho species, it is generally 
ni'wiftil, or highly fonvenifnt, to Bpeci/i- at least the name of 
the author who first published the niloptc<l api>cIlation. So we 
write Hanunciiltu acrit, Liiin., or L., the abbreviated naine of 
Lintiteiis.' Here we have Oie name of the [ilant, and the bibli- 
ography reduced to Ita iiutial. To this, farther citation and 
other references may be added or not. as the paiticular ciise 
requires. But, ao far as citation or reference proceeds, it should 
aimply state the historj' correell.v and cleaily. 

721. When a spevies is said to be of Linnieus or DcCamtolle 
or Bentham, it is simply meant that the adopted name of the 
plant (consisting of tlie geneiic and speciflc parts logttlier) was 
first publisheil by this author. Some other author may have 
named it differently, and even earlier. The earlier name may 
have been discardwl because the specific portion of it was un- 
tenable, either on aeeount of preoceuiialion or for other valid 
reasons. Or the later author may have differed ttom the earlier 
in his views, and Imvo referred the plant to some other genus. 
As instances of the first. Euphorbia nemoraln^ Darl., is a good 
species, first named by Dailington in his Flora Cestrica, But 
the name of Euphorbia nemoralis had already been applied to 
and was the rec<^nizc«l name of a different siwcies of the south 
of Europe. Whereu|K)n, as the North Amerietin s|>ccies had 
no other trii'ial name, a now one had to be given to it ; and it 
was named E. DarVnglonii . in honor of the discoverer and first 
describcr. Tlie common Milkweed of Atlantic North America 
was named by Linnffius Asctepiat Sj/riam. As this plant is not 
indigenous to any part of the Old World, and itocs not at all 
inhabit Syria, this trivial name is not merely faulty but false ; 
80 it was changcil by Dei-aisne into A. Comuti, in (.•ommcmora- 
tion of an ante-Linniran botanist who oollecteti it in Canada and 
gave the first account and ftgnre of it. As an instance of the 
Bcwnd, take the pretty little vernal plant Anrmotir thaUcirouiu, 
L., meaning an Anemone resembling a Thnlictnim, When it 
was seen that the essential ihara^'ters were rather those of Tha- 
liotnim. the plant was placed in the latter genus. This was first 
done in Michau.\'s Flora ; and so the accepted name is Tfialirirvm 

Camlotlt'a Svslpmii Vi-prlnViUu 
InilPT lo K'lrlli American Botpn 

1 For AbbKTialiolu of Autlion' Xanies, see 38o. 

854 Prn'TOGRAPBY. 

oftemonoidet, Mie/ix., meaning an Anemone-like Thnlictrum. and 
Miuliaux is the authority for this name. Tlie names which for 
any reason are Biij>ersodeiI Iwuome St/tum^us.* (75S.) 

~-ii. A later aiiUior may drcumsiritic tk species or a genu» 
diflereutly from the originator of tlie name. To a greater or 
k-BS extent, this must eontinually l:aiii>en in the conrse or time. 
Bnt *' /fici'nu* fimmuui*, Linn." stands unmoved by the atib- 
Bequent admission of various speeies (known or unknown to 
Linmeus) and the llnal reduction of all to one liy a thorougli 
monographer. So dues Silmr GaUica, Linn., although £. fut'n- 
gun'olnrray Linn., of the same dale, is rcduewl to it. There is 
no suflicient reason for writing Msotoiit, Jiruicn, or Cgnoffluuuni, 
Brown, Iwcause this author restricted the limits of these genera ; 
nor to write Gilia, Henlh,, liecansc Bentliam vastly extended 

' The »>uonymy U ■» eBsrnlial psn o( llie bililiogrnpliy or aoicnliflc 
liiftorj of a gentu or specie*. Bui •j'nunjTnone and aJoiiltcil namei outihi 
lo be kopi dutinct. Keejring this principle In view, — rImi ilic ileciaiveljr 
■BIrmvil (luviriiie of tlii> founder uf our nomenclature, thai ihe ipeciflc name 
is a nullilf apart from the generic (lo tli>l nnlj' the <.i>nibmiitioii of llie two 
makM llie nantc of Ihc^ plant, ■« truly as the eonitilucnt lialrit raakc Ilie 
■cliaon), and bearing >n mind the fundamental impftrtiince and absolui^- 
ne«s of ilie rule that no new namee ouglii lo be maile where there nre lena- 
ble old ones, — the tludent need not be milled lijr the confuting (hiiwcver 
ipeeioui) innovation countenanced by many xoologiil» and some botanisla, 
and wliich hai of late years been rery fully dlicuMed. 

The true rule is : " For Ilic inilicslloti of lite name or nanea of any gronp 
to be accurate and cnmplele, il la nccesiary lo quote Ihe author irlin flnt 
publlabed llie name or comUimtiun of names in quesiion." (A. DC ) Thus, 
/mrA'c* lludidrBidn, Linn., fulfils the condition, except wlie(* a n'ferencc lo 
tbe work as well as the name of the originator of the name is demanded. 
Then the eiiadon would continue, "SpK. PI. 312," and might be further ex- 
tended. In Ihe Flora of Mlehaux, this plnnl was treaieil na distinct from 
I^onllce in genus; and some Imtanisls adopted this view, while otbera of 
equal authority did not. Tlinsc who adopt Michaiix's gL'nuc name Die plant 
CivJoiAgUam itnlidrBldtf. MicUr. 

Kow Bomo naturalists quote for Ibe specie* the author who originated 
the trivial aiipelUlion even when Irsnpfcrrcd to unntlier genus. They 
would adopt Ihe genus Caulophyllnm, yel write: CmitoiAifHiim iknUHroiiln, 
TJm. Or else tliey would avoid direct falsiflcalion of the fnci* by adding 
(sp.),tbls being explainni to mean that the spedflc pari of Ihc name only 
was given b; LinuKUS. Then, as thli omits all mention of the original gvn- 
eric part of the name, otbera add this in a pHrentbeeia, and wrile r " Cax/s- 
jAiiBum Ihilicirmdet (Unn. sub Lrf>«t-^f) Mirkr.," nr " Caulopigllau, (J/Mx.) 
Ihnliiirold'i, Lifn. aub LronHet," or "CoiAophgtlum {Leonlirr, Linn.] llH-lirlnidt*. 
Mirke." All sHcli endeavors lo mix synonymy with nomcnclnlure appear 
to be faulty in principle and unwieldy in practice. In the most abbrrvlatcd 
form, Ihey aute Ihat whirli Is not Irue : in the otbers. tliey impair the *- 
plicity and bi^vity of llie binomial nomenclature. Ii is "II liul cerlUnJ" 
if the genua Caulophylhim had betn published In tlie lifetime of I'-^" 
lie would Doi liavc adopted It. 



the comprthpn.sion of this gvnus. Yet in their proper place 
Bueli cliniigcs may be iiiiUeatntl by '* pro parte," or •■char, muta- 
III," "cxc/. tp." ami the like, — useful (iuulif>>-ing fitat«iiieiits, 
but no [lart ut' the uuuie. 

723. Exaetncss requires that when a group is ehauged tmm 
a higher to a lower rank, or the op^xuiite, the natue of the 
autlior who made the cbange should be quotc-d.' He alone is 
reaponsihle for it. But thb rule has only recently been strietly 

724. Ill transferring a apecicB from one genus to Knottier, ita 
spLfilic name must be iireserveil (nith alteration of the gender, 
it' need be), unless there ia cogent reason to the coiitrarj-. U 
must necessarily bo changed when there is already in that genus 
a s|>ecies of tlie same name ; and then s^nonj-mous names of 
the transferred species have their claim in order of date. But 
whatever name is first employed under the aceeplwl geiuis, being 
unobjectionable, should hold, even agaiust an older unobjection- 
able one coming from a wn)ng genus. This is au application 
of the stringent rule that no needless names should l>e created.* 

' ThiU, PaUntilla CnHadem: L., v»r. Mimplrr, Tort, rf- Gmy, and not of 

Michaux, for It U ilie upoeiei P. timiiti, .Vitkz. Ctum, lubgcn Si^^lipui, 
Torr, ^ Graf, aat of Ha/,, for il ii liie Kenui Sinlipui nt Raflaesquo. wlio 
neither mnie the lubgrnui nor upprovcil it. So, •lio, for the gcnai Lnbai^ 
nura wc wrllc "Lalmmiim, Griutb ,- " for cren if it exactly corrwponilwl wiiU 
Cgiiiia $fa. tatiarvum at DcCinilolk, the litter )■ dqI ■ groap of iiiuiva- 
lent rank. 

But, u to genora and tubgFncra, Ihii prcoiiian ihould nol he iniiMvil on 
for timn quiti- anterior to thf recnpiiii'iii ot «ufh ralei inJ of thtir need. 
SprrgnJarla began with I'craoon u a aubfEcmui In the feat 18116, and tliia 
dale hu )ie<'n nMignod to the itenui. allhougU it waa uki'ii up »> audi only 
in IHlll 1.7 Precl anil la 1834 by ItartlJng. 

' Tliut. in the caac nf an ulder ipcciSc name bi'ing known, ai tliat «f 
Chilviit't •nligna, Don, recognixed ai Bignania Unmrii. Ciif.. thougli Don ought 
to ha*e adopted the latter trivial name, yel aa he illd mil (aiid the rulp wai 
not then really in foruv mi nowj, there was no ncnl for Ihe inlnidueiion 
of a tliint name, ChiloptU linean; DC. " So. again, an Indian Grast waa 
fir»i namvd and descrilieil by Willdcnonr at Cai'i unuiilinarta , then named 
by Roxbunih ai C<az baebniit. and enteivl in Sprvngel'* Kyaiema with 
Willduno*"i cliarselcr na Coir Kimiiiii. All thetc namei t/m defeciire 
a» Inferring to a wrong (tenui. Bmwn eom-eied the error by ercaling the 
new gcnni Ckiunnrhnr, and wteetrd RonbarRh's «pe>-ifle name a* the one 
mnsl generally known and llie leail liable 10 tnlsinlerprelalion , and Brown's 
CiiomieAne Imrtnia U therefore Uie fi«l eorrccl name; for which Thwaiic* 
afterwards HubMituled diimaelme KimigU. an entirety new and uselen name, 
which falls by the law of priority. It thould be well Imme in mind lliat 
erery new name ivlned for an oH plant, without ntlording any aid to 
aeience, is only an additional impedimenl." Denlham ( Notes an Euphurl i- 
awK, in Jnur. Linn. Soviely, avii. 107, 193, November, 187ti). Tlie following 


72S. Niines of SubReiiera or of other secUons oT genera &n 
like tbow of gcuura ; iiidt-od very Dinny of tliem, anil the must 
fitting, are wld generic Dames wliicli have been fonii)!*!^!!*!^!! 
in tliu geiiuB by rcduetion. Unlike genera and liigher groups, 
however, sections, wlieu of Greek derivation, mny properly take 
the termination in -oirfej,' and tlie tjpical setaion may bear the 
name of the geuus with the prefix Ha.* beetions neeil uut lie 
named at all, and only tlioae of eomparatively high rank should 

Ub tsnlicr exrratt from tliCMine protesl ■gain*! tlic prat'tice ''of crotinff 
■ nvv/ nmte in order lu comtiiiii' an old spcciSu wli]> s new gencrit une: " 
" 111 Fi-rna, Ilii' wantuii inulliplii^aiiun at ill-di-finMt or uotlcflnaUle genera, 
atL-orctiiig lu tlic vnrici] [uiielps uf spedal butanUls, liai lisd llic efEeec ul 
placing lliu aame apeciei «UL-ccuJvclj' in ivvcral, lomclinics (even or eight, 
(USeiviil genera.; aDil il u propoeol lo mainiain for tlic BpoiriSi: appcJlatinn 
the right uf priorily, not oiilj' in the genus alone in whidi it U placed, Uut 
in the wliolc of the genera lo wliicli, rightly or wronglj', it hai been rpt'erred. 
This lini been canieil to lucb an extent u to give to (he ipedflu naniv • 
general subttanlive ttepet-l, as if Ihe gcnerlt onca were mere adjuncts, — 
N leriuus eneroat^liiuent on the beautiful ttmplk'ity of the IJnnxan nontvn- 
elature; and It ti ta be feared that there is n tendcofj- in that direction in 
pliKnogamle botany. When a butanlit disraembon an uld genua, the rule 
requires that he should ■Irictl}' preserve (he old speciDv names in his new 
genvrn ; and. when tie has wantonly and knowingly negleetrd tJiia rulp, it 
may he right to eorreut tiim. But where a botanist haa established wliat 
he believes to Iw a new ipeeic*, and has tlierefore given it n new name, ilt« 
changing of this name after it has got into general L-irculaiion, because It 
has been discovered that some other liolunlst had previously publiihed It 
in a wrong genus, is only adding a synonym without any advantage whal- 
cver, and ia not even rcaiuring an old name; for the spceific adji-ctive b 
nol of itself the name of a plant. ... A generic name is lufflciently in- 
dicated by one subslsntire ; for no two genera in the vegetable kingdom 
■re allowed I» have the Minte name ; but for a species the eombinaiion of 
Bubatanllve and adjeetivc is absolutely necessary, the two-worJed spcclflo 
name is one and Indivisible; and (.■ombining ihc substantive of one with llw 
adjective of another is not preserving either of them, but crealea an aliaa- 
lulely new name, which nuftbt not to atnnd unlets the previous ones were 
vicioiu in Ihemselves, or preoccupied, or referred to a wrong eenua. It Is 
pmltahty from trot perceiving the ditlcrence lietween making and chanting 
■ name that the practice objected to lias been adopted by lome of the flrtt 
among recent botanists." Benlliam, 1. c. 

' A genus could nut properly hnve one of Its sections called by its own 
name with the addition of -m'llri or -op*", m Atlnoidtt or Js(fro/«i«. for it 
iaaenseleM to declare that an Aster reaemhles an Asler; but sectional names , 
of this composition may he excellent for bcciIods of other genem, as ei- 
pressing analogy or resemblance, Ijitiii generic names used tor sectional 
ones properly take the addition of -eUa. or -Ina, or -atlnim. 

* "The prefix F.h (Greek for much, veiy, or tme), pivflxed to a genetic 
name of Greek origin, ii the proper dealgnaiion of the typical seciion uI 
■hat genus, meaning the group whieli should liear the generic name if such 
genua were divided. The rule aicainut hybrid names ihouli 
exclude thii prefix from Latin names, but it has not always done si 



have sulifitantivc names. Dt>si}pmtioii9, however, arc convcu- 
ieiit fur lower sections ; aud ibe name of a leading siiecies 
luay be used, in the plural ; &a .itler, scetion AintlU, and sect. 
Cvncinni. Subgi'iiem need not agi-ee in gender witli the genua 
tlii.-j* belong tu. WLeu written with tliu name of the plant, 
the subgeiieric name id iwrenthetieall.v inserted between the 
genorie and BiieciliL' ap|>ellatiun. Ex. Pj/ras {^ala$) eonmaria. 

726. Naoiea of Tribes, Orden, ke. The names of all groups 
BUi^rior to genera ait adjectives plural, and with few exfei> 
tiona are the names of genera lengthened bj' some adjective 
termination. Ex. From Itoua, Roiae, Hometa, Rutaltt; (torn 
MjTtus, Myrtea^, Mi/rlacfie, Myrtalrs ; from Berlteris, HfTbrrtdea ; 
from TaBiaris, 7'amaiicincte ; from .Salix* Salicfa, SaliciHea. 
The Bubstanlive Piania l>eing understood, the groups aiti Itosc- 
ous, or Kosat-eous, or liosal [ilants, &{.-. 

7ii7. Tribal !(Kiiies, and names of whatever grade between gen- 
em and onlcrs, are formed b}' adding to the root of a generic 
name a final -ra. Ex. lioutt. I'liaseulia. Antirrhinea, Oxalidea, 
&i: Some subtriltea take tlie name of the tribe with the prefix 
A'u, as EuphaseiAtie for that siibtribi^ of the tribe I'haseoles 
which comprisea llie representative genus Pfaaseolus. Tribal 
names may take tlie same iireCx, as Eueiemlpinrit for the tribe 
of the suborder C'lesalpineat which contains tbc ly|)ieal genus 

liH. Ordinal Names are fomicd ui the same way, but with a 
preference for certain terminations which may denote their rank, 
esi>eciallj' tluit of -acta, — as Itotacta. Jtfyrtacra, Cueurt/ilarret, 
meaning Rosaceous, Myrtai-cous, and Cueurbilaceons plants. 

729. The names of wliat we now cull natural ortlers, as 
Bketche<l or adopted by LiiiiUEns. were mosth* descriptive, such 
as Entaltt, f^alhactte, Cbronnria, Papilionaeta, Conifura, Amen- 
taettt, UmMtala : but a few took tiieir names from genera, as 
OreAidttf, IJUacem. Jussieu, with whom the sj'stcm of nntural 
orders pro])crly h^an, hail no snborders, tribes, or any such gra- 
dation of groups to ileal wltli. His one hundred onliuul names 
are some of them of the descriiitive kind, as sewral of the altove, 
also Leifuminout, Corymlnferte, &e. But the greater part are 
simply plurals of generie names, such as Awparagi. Janei, LUta, 
J/i'ttr, Orc/itdet, Lauri, Outtvolculi, Erifte., Acrra, Cacti, To a 
few was given tlie lengthened termination in -ta, as PiA^ganea, 
i>olnnttf, Berberideir, Caryop/iy/li-ir ; to some, tlie termination in 
-area, an in Cichoraera. Campanuiacta, RubiurttB. liiinnncu- 
iiiee«, Afi/vaeae. Titiarrie, Vucurhitaene. Suhsei|nent authors 
have necessarily changed all names which were plurals of gen- 



era ; siid tlie etronglj' prevali^nt tendency has been to give the 
tenninatioQ in -acta- to sll buiIi urctinni namos, aiid to restrict 
tliis t«rtninatioo to orders. Lindloy iDsistcd upon making iliis 
an alwsolute rule even for names not formed from generic appel- 
lations : but tbia will not be adopted. 

731). Ill the first place, several large orders which have been 
known IVom Uie fln>t hy sudi characteristic names as Cracifera, 
Ltpiimitioite (and its sulwrdor Pajiilionaeem) , Guttifera, UmbtUi- 
J'trir, Conifioailte, Labiala, CupuUfira:, and Cwni/er«, also Palmta 
and Graminetr, Filicet, and even Aroidea and Ficoidra, will retain 
these appellations ; but no new ones of Ilie kind will be made. 

731. Also, names formeil from genera which do not well take 
the termination in -ac«p may be allowed as orders to retain their 
natural form in -inra, -idem, -arita, and the like. Ex. Tamartt' 
eitira, Salicinea, Scrophtdannea, Berberidta, Leatibulariete. We 
may prefer tor the sake of uniformity to write Saficacra, lifrbtri- 
dacfiE, Lentibalariacea. and Serophaiariacrtt (as we should write 
ViiJaeete), but this form cannot be insisted on. On the other 
Imnd, a termination in -acta lias been allowed in the names of 
certain tribes to avoid excessi*e iteration of vowels. Thus, for 
the trilH! of which Vemonia is the leading genus, authors write 

Vini^miacta, to avoid Veraoniete, wliich ends with four vowels. 
KpirteaandStaphyleaaretlie types of tribes, for which the names, 
if they followed the rule, would be Spiratit and Sttp/tglenr^ 
ending one in five the other in four consecutive vowels. Some 
avoid this by writing Staphyleacra and Spiraaeea. OUiers write 
Slnpliylta, but this is only the plural of the generic name. 

732. A few orders or other gi'onps took their names long 
Bgo fVoni su|)cr8cded generic names. Ex. Ciirynphyllacrte or 
Can/opAl/llutt, (htagraceer or Oaaijritriea, and Lenlibularica. 

733. Kuneti of Cohorts are iHstiiignished liy the termination 
ill -ales. This was pru|)Osed Uy Lindley, and is adopleii by 
llentham and Hooker in the Genera Planlarum. Ex. Ranalet, 
ParirlaUt. Afidvalet, Rutnlrt, Patiijloralts, &c., most of them 
fiiiindLil on the names of representative genera and orders. 
Enpliony requires some to take other terminations. Ex. 
galinte, CaryopiiylUiitB, 

734. Kames of CliMsm and other great divisions are plti 
either adjective or adjective nouns, expressive of the leading 
character. Ex. Polyprtatir, Gamoprlnlte, Aprtaia ; Angioeprrma 
antl Gymnotperma : Dieotyledima and Monocnly/edonet. TllO 
names of the two great series or sub-kingdoms, following 
analogy of the Linniean classes, end in -to, and are Phtenoi 
or Phaiuroffamia, and Cryplor/amia, 

Section II. Gi.ossoLOGr ob TEKMUJOLoot.' 
735. This is nomencluture as niipliod to oi^aDS or parts and 
ttieir mcMlificatiotiB. The acliial buUiiit-ai U-nniuology owes its 
excellciK.'G iu the first {Aatx to Liuiio^us, niul ihoii to Ui-CancloUe. 
The Thdorie ^li;ineutai]^' o( A, P. DeCaiiilulle (the first edition 
of which was published In 1813) is still (.'lasHical autboritj-, and 
until recently has received few addJtious as regards terms uecd- 
l\il in i>liwiiugainous lH>tany. 

730. The fuiiduincntal rule is that each or^n or part shall 
have a substantive name, and that in odiH cations uf organs shall 
be r1esigiiate<l by aiyet-tite terms. These names or terms should 
be as precise as possible : each object ought to be known b_v only 
one name, yet synonyms ai-c unavoidable ; and no term ought 
ti) be used with two different meanings. The word fioterr, for 
instance, must not be used for a cluster of flowers, however it 
may imitate the ai>|>earance of one, nor for the corolla or other 
portions of a flower. Still, some terroB have to be used in two or 
more senses, to be determined only by the ^.-onnection, or else as 
having both a special and a more general meaning. Ltaf {fw 
Hum) is a notable instance. A bract, to go no farther, is a sort 
of l(mf: and the imperfect stamens of a Catalpa-flower and 
I'cntstemon are stamens, although likewise called staminodia : 
these are liable to be called aoraetimee by one, sometimes by tlie 
oilier name. But. however tVciiuent such ambiguities may be iu 
morphological treatment, they are usually avoidable in descriptivo 
botany, in which terms are held to their more special or partio- 
ular sense. Yet no rule can absolutely determine wheUier leaf 
or bract, bract or bractlet, is the pro|)er term in many cases. 
Moreover, substantive names must also bo applied to certain 
mere modifications of the same organ. In the same fainil^v. a 
simple carpel, diflerently modiSed in fniitiug, is an akene in a 
Ranunculus, a follicle in Aqiiilegia. a lierry in Hydrastis and 
Aetata ; while in another family an additional line of dehiscence 
makes it a legume. Moreover, in this latter family it is called a 
legume when it is not dehiscent at nil. and even when it becomes 
a drupe ! Arbitrary rules cannot absolutely fix technical any 
more than ordinary language. 

737. Exp<:rience and Judgment must determine what modifi- 
cations of organs should be regarded as a kind, and l)car sub- 

' Ahhough the fomitr i« the bcltor nnme, (he litter ii well Mtablliliod in 
UM at an Cnfclish wonl, ami perhapi it npoil not lie objected to. Inanmach m 
the Latin terminiu comet from (he Greek ^ipita, ol the same meaiiiag. 


BUmtire inetead of mcrelj adjective nsuaet 
sbould not be unnocessarily multiplietl. 

73H. TUc clasaiiiil language of scientific botany bciiig 
•11 Uic organs of [jlants and thctr i>rinc-ipal diversities arv 
Dated by a Latiu or Latinizetl luune. Modem ' 
also titeir own names and terms. C'lvath' to its adtatil 
English botunieal terminology haa adtiptetl and incoq>o 
terms from tbe Latin and G reek, irilh slight ehangca. not uIj 
ing tlie identity. Ibiie sceuring all their precision, and rcndei 
tlie simj>le butniiical Latiu of deseriptions of easy ae(|uisitio[i 
the English student. 

739. In a text-book like this, the principal names and Ici 
applied to organs and their leiuling mo<lillcations, as also 
which relate to their netion (pfaybiolugical tenns) . or to onr i 
of ihcm (didactic terms, suelt us ph\tography. iihyilotaxy. 
•<*I"8J)' ^'^ deflncil and illustrHte<l in course. Tlierc remain 
the more numerous no'l varied f/iaraeterittie terms, chiefly adjec- 
tives, applicable to mure tlian one or to all organs, and which 
conijKise the greater part ofglossolc^v. These, nhieh DcC'a 
arranged system a lieally with much elalwration, may best 
reached by a glossary or dictionarj . such as that at Uie end of 
volume, whieli comprises the substantive terms Ukewise. 

740. From characteristic adjective terms are derived 
greater number of spccifie names of plants : of which, tbercfc 
the glossarj- may elucidate the meaning. _ 

741. Callable as the existing system is. it cannot in single 
words define all observed forma and grades, nor well avoid 
various ambiguities of meaning. Some defects of tlie first kind 
arc remedied by combining with a h\-phen two congruous temW' 
to denote an intenneiliate state. Ex. ocato-laneeolaluit or 
laneeolale. for nu outline between tbe two. Also a, term may 
qualified b3* llie prefix »uh. in tbe sense of somewhat, 
rrdiindiit, tuhroTilitliu tsomcwliat round or slightly bcart-shapcd^j 
or diminutives (such as inlftfriaseuiut), or suiterlatives (I'nfi 
rimat) or otber etrengtlieneil forms (sueli as peranguttut) 
Xtu employed. Among terms of more than one form of meat 
arc such ns ealtjeinui, which may mean, according to the contei 
pertaiuiug to the calyx, or of tlie appearance of caljx 
limy mean in cymes, or bearing c^'mes, or in the ma 
cyme ; and pnltaceut may mean provided or beset with chaff, 
resembling chalT in texture. OAen the form of the word Bb< 
distinguish die sense: asy"/iafif(. Ibniishcd with leaves, /cAc 
Willi aliundanee of leaves, while foliareut may mean either 
lug leaves, or properly of Icaf-Uke texture or api>earance. 





742. Absence of on organ or quality may Iw expressed by 
iDeaus of a |ircfix with privative signifleation, as indt/iiscrnt. not 
deliisccnt. rxaimulate, destitute of a riug. apetahui, without 
jiDtals. Itut the Greek privative « sliould not be preHxed to 
Latin wonts, nor the Latin tub to terms taken from the Greek. 

743. When tbe Latin preposition ob is prefixed to an aiijeetive 
tcmi. it means obverse ly ; thus obcordatut is cordate invcrsed. 
that is. the broader end with its noteh at the a\Mts. (instead ot 
the base) of the leaf or other plane organ. 

Section IIL DEScnipnou. 

744. Under this head may be conveniently comprised all that 
relates to the form of the exposition, in botanical terms, of tlie 
dilferencvs by which tlie species and groups of plants are distin- 
guished and recor^iert, the structure escmpliflcd, nnil tbe history 
or bibliography indicate*! in systenmtic works or writings. Liii- 
nieus, in the Philosopliia Botanica, ti-catcd these topics uniler 
tlic head of " Aduinbrationes." 

i4J, UcBciiptions may be ftill and general, comprising an 
ai-oount of all that is known of tlio structure and cnnformfltion 
of a plant ur group, or ratber all tli«t is deemed worth recording, 
or tliey may be I'cetricted to what is ttiought moat important. In 
the former, the description is independent of all relative knowl- 
e<tge, or takes no notice of relationship to other plants or groniM, 
The latter intends to portray the species or grouji in its rebtions 
to others, and to indicate the differences solely. Kxlianstive 
descriptions of tbe former kind are seldom drawn up. but )»irtial 
or supplementary' ones are common. Descriptions of the latter 
kind, when rcdnceil to what is essential or differential, are termed 
Charactert, or the Chartuter, of the group bo described. There 
are all gradations in practice between characters and descrij)- 
tiuns : but the distinction should be maintained. 

74li. Characters arc speeine. generic, onlinal, &c. They are 
tlic diffrrtnlia, or marks which distinguish a group fl-om any 
related group of the same rank with which it may properly he 
com[iared. According to the occasion and purpose, they may 
8|)ccify only tbe fewest particulars which will sene as a diag- 
nosis, or they may be extended to all the known constant dilTer- 
ences between two or nioiv rL-lut»il sijccies. genera, orders. Ac.' 

' Tlic rornicr woiilil niiBtTir to hIibi linvc been lemit^ di/fmnlinl cliar. 
•Hern. tlie Uiiprii).™iB/iii( I'liarBcitriL UnnKutditidiHl fRviFric] clisrsctert 
intiiJiKliliotit, rumlial. uii\ nnlvnit : by lh» former denoting! uiy diRvn-mtt 
whidi may dtcctlvcly dutinguuh iKlwceD usy two groupa Imiught •rtl' 

What ia now t*nii«l the speciliu cliai-acler was Oie si>ecific nftinc 
with LiiiiiKUs and liis pitKiut-fssors ; what we call the specific 
LiniiKUS culled the trivial name. (703.) 

747. Subordinatiuii of (.-harnctere and the avoii]aDC« of vain 
ro|)etitions tvqiiii'e that as Inr as jrassible — regard being had to 
the foi-m of the work — tlie onlinal eharact^r should contain 
oiil.v what 19 needftd to eircnroscrilje it, and to exhibit elearly 
its inurphol<^' ; that the L-haraeti.'t's of tribes or other dimions 
sliould not reassert any iwrtion of the ordinal chai'nctcr, nor 
the generic character that or tlie giijierior groups ; and so of Die 
sections and subdivisions of all grades down to the species. 
Equally from tlie si)eciUc character should l>c cscludwl every 
thing which belongs to the generic, or is common to its rcla- 
tiies generally, or has been already 8[iecifierl in llic section or 
its eulHlivisiuus. Ho, likewise, of the varieties under Uie spe- 
cics. This can be done onlj- by so arranging the siwcics ns best 
to esliiltit their relationships, that is. hy bringing togetlier or 
into proximity those of greatest resemblance in all respects, 
or in the more im]Kjrtaul respects. What these are, and how a 
just suboixl illation of characters is to be apprehended, cannot 
be taught by i-ules, but must be learned by e.-cjicvience and 
ftom tlie critical study of the classical botanical works. J-o one 
is c-omi>etent to describe new plants without snch study, and 
without a clear conception of the position which a 8upi>oscd 
new species should occupy in its genus, or a genus in its order. 

748. Characters of oi-ders. genera, and of all iiitennv<liat« 
groups, are di'swn almost without exception from the oi^gons of 
fruL-tiOcution. In the description, these parts are mostly taken 
in order, beginning with llio calyx and ending with the ovan, 
the fiiiit, seed, embryo. But, as to the orders, some writers pre- 
fer to preface these proper characters with a general sketch of 
those derived fi-om the vegetation, which, albeit of less syste- 
matic value generally, are olT^n very characteristic of itartictilar 
families. Riibiaceie, for example, are known by tiieir opposite 
entii-e and simple leaves and intervening stipules, along with a 
few floral characters; 8arraecniaceiE. by tubular or pitcher-liko 
leaves, along with a certain combination of a few other cliarae- 

flcially tngplhpr, ■> Ihry might Iw in an «rtiflf!«l key, and ■■ very i>n1ik« 
p>ncra oflcn wert in hia nxual syiletn ; liy the second mpaning Ihe itUTinc- 
tion*. Ihe frwor tlie beltpr, wliiph will ippiiratc h gmup fmni ils neamt 
rpjalivca ; by ihp lliinl, all real markfi of dilTiTpnop. /. e. all afFonled hy the 

or)!an!i of frufiiflcatinn, wlilrh only were inken Inio account tor (tm^ni 

Upon the conairuction nf this natural chnraclcr Linn^us prided hill 
and justly. Tlicse are tlic diHraclcn in hii Genera riaDtanua. 



ters, anil bo on. IVLere brevity is nimwl nt, siitb oxU'nial anil 
ohvious cLarac'lere, fuUowcd by n few diagnostic luai'ks, may 
practieallv take the place of a iViU enumeration of jwrticulars, 
muiiy of wlik-h may be common to otber orders, though not in 
Uie same combination. Generic diameters nlways commence 
with the caljTc or most esteraal of the floral organs and procewl 
tu the ovarj', tlkenee to the fhitt ami seed, and end willi subsi- 
diary (but oHen no less diagnostic) particulars furnished by tlie 
vegetation and mode of growth. 

749. Detailed descriptions of species, as distingaisticd fhim 
teclmical eharactera, commence witli tlie root, and proceed in 
order to the stem, leaves and their jiaits or appendages, inflor- 
escence, bracts, flowers, culyx, corolla, stamens, witli filament, 
anther, ami |H>11en, the disk, if any, gjma-cinm and its parts, 
ovules; then the fruit, seed, albumen, if any, enibr3o and ila 
parts. Bill descriptions of this sort in most works and in ordi- 
nary eases are partial and subeidiarj', comprising only certain 
details supplcmcntar)- to or in amplification of the cliaractcr of 
the species or genus. In condensed works, such descriplion is 
wholly omitted, or is reduced to a few speciGcationa which do not 
readily And their way into the character. 

750. Speciflo characters usually follow tlie same order of 
enumeration, IVam root to seed, so far as tlic several organs are 
mentioned ; and in Latin the phrases arc expressed in llie abla- 
tive case. But these ^tarticulars are often very conveniently' 
prefaced by statements applying to tlie whole plant rather than 
to any one organ : and these arc given in the nominative, and 
agree with tlie name in gender.' 

751. Linnsus required that neither the essential character of 
a genus, nor a specific character (his nomen ipfdjieum), should 
exceed twelve words. Latin eharacters take fewer words than 
Knglish. But this arbiliary rule is wholly out of < late. Yet 
snoh eUaraeters should l« brief and diagnostic : otherwise, their 
advantage is lost, and the distinction i>etween them and descrip- 
tions (li6apj>cars. In monographs and floras, the desirable 
brevity, or such as tlie case ailmits, is secured by proper group- 
ing under a subordination of sections, subsections, and other 
eubdi visions.* 

' E». " StpETA CtTAKiA: pm.'Ia. cUu. CBOO-palMML'eni : foliis pcliti- 
ial'u," cU'. In Kn)i;li*h. Ihc«c >djM'tivn wiihoai any MilxtantiTD t>xpreucd 
will be ■ecn to belong, at here, to " plnat " or " horb " unilrntooil, 

- In the Synoptical Flora of North America, auch ■ ajnem of (uifcuiTV 
difitloni ii thoraugiilT cairieil out. And. if thr ipeciflc oharactpn an hy no 
(hort, it if nuMlly becaiue nearly all wparale dctcripIlTc maclcr ii 

752. PtmetaalloB. In [iroper descriptions, and i 
of genera ami of liigUer grunju}, tlic acuinnit of each c 
a sepurato seiitvnuo ; and in Lntin the terms arc in thi^ nominn- 
tivc case, except subsiiliar)' ixirlions, whicli arc often thrown 
into the ablative. Excepting the intlvr part, the otljective tcnns 
aiv separated Ity eumuiae. A sjiecifie cttaraclt-r is always iu one 
sentence. In Latin, its duuscs are mainly in tlic ablative ; and 
much (liTereity prevails as to the punctnation.' Snli^eneric anil 
other sectional characters are commonly fl'amed like those of 

(liapensed with: Liinicquenlly Tirioi 
k;Wt which ilu nul •triL-tly Iwlung ii 
licn*U, ■!>□ in Engtith, ipccIHu cliar 
■fnupaii It the head nf cacli g 

■ panivulara srr adJed In (lie di&r- 
ii. Id Btrnili&m'B gmtt Klun Ausln- 
uler* *re rcplaeeil by a i-hanc(eri>Iic 
; luiil a ttrse iletcripdon undirr «wli 
Icici iliu BiT-ount. Muroo*«r, [kullmm, in recent works, lucli 
a of llie Gonui Caiiia, alao that o( iht MilnnfeK', wlikli liave 
Laliii i^lmrai^UTs, writes tlieie in tbv iioiiiiiiAiivc uue mill each iiu'iiilier in h 
M-pamle ■ciiloiii'c, in liic <]c»crlptiTc form, ftL«tiiluiiiii|; the lung-usccl abU' 
titv torm. 

■ l.iiiDKiu cmptoyetl only the comou in the (pecidc i^likrairler, ftlong v 
a lulniJiary lue of the uilim In ii manner very unlike ita ardinar^ i| 
piuiL-iuallun, making it a [xiint of Iras value Ihan the i.'oniina. Tliiu, 
"CiiKKOtviituii tUKiu futiia HiomlKiidMi'triangularibui emels | 
inlegria: auniinii ubiungi), raivinl> ercctia." Sfux. PI ed. i, 3in. 

Here, while (lie two main mcnilicrs of the scntent.'c arc nepareteil hy a 
comma, a luhtiiDary portion of tlic tint menilier. rclaling to the iippernntl 
lenrea, a leparated by a colon. Linmrui employed tlie colon in tin- same 
way in generic cli«ractcr*. Thii anomalona uuge i« now abamlnneil. But 
mo8t author* hare fotiuved the Linmcan patteni in distingninhing the prin- 
cllial mcrobcra by commai only, so that these become IIk only puinls in Uw 
•peulfti- L-linracter, however complU-ntcd that may be. Tims. 

" ItANUneirLL'n ACRis (Linn, Spec. TTDj foliii pubescenillmt suli^labricvc 
palmatu-partitis, luliia mciio-dcn talis acutis, eumrais linearililu, eaule em-to 
pluriHuru subpulieaccnic. pedunculls teretibus, ealyee subvilluio, mrpellis 
Diuerunc subcn-eto tcrmlnnlis " DcCnnilolIt^, Prodronittl, 1. •%. 

This is the pnnetuntioii lliroughnut llie Pmdromus anil in most contem- 
porary cyilcniatic works. Its Imperfectiim <i shown in theal>ovp.citt'd speci- 
mcn. The primary members of tlic scnli^nee, which characteriae (he kiives, 
Hem, pedunulcs, calyx, and carpels, arc ilistingnished by the sanie gmde of 
puncluailon wliieli serves for the parts of tlie first momlwr, vU. the loliu 
of the leaves, anil for a ilill subor<linale portion, »h(. the form of the upp«^ 
must lobes. This want of subordinaiiim is to be rcmedieil by the use of 
•emicolons between the principal memlien, and of the conimas only f.T ihv 
■econilnry ones, — a punctuation now not unconmion, and wliicll is adopted 
in the recent first volume of the Monogrnpliite PIlMieroitaniarnm of tlie D»- 
Candolles, which supplement* tlie Prodromus. The portion of tlial volume 
contributed by Ur. Mnilcrs better exempliHes thi» than dues the real nf tll« 
volume. For the taller sncriflces the advanlngi.' uf the change by the h 
n each adjective 
milur Iniirifatiu ; timldi foliorum oblongii vel ovHln-oblongis, < 
3-Onerviif, subtus pallidioribus." etc), where they are gL-nerally li 



gcnpi-a. Or the mt'inlwrs may be united in one sentence, but in 
that i.'ase the prineipnl ones are best separated b)- colons. 

753. Should a point inten'ene lietweeii the specific iinme and 
tliat or the author cited? The practice varies. But, if the name 
is Latin, Uie comma is suiterQuous ; for the abbreviated name of 
tlie author is supposed to be in the genitive, and to read tlina : 
Hanunralut rtpeni Linnai. Still, since when the author's name 
is cited in full it is never written in the genitive, and since in 
Knglish the comina is normally required, it scema on Uic whole 
pi'oiicr lo insert it. 

754. In citations, the classical practice is to separate the refer- 
ences fhjm each other antl from the name by ]>erio<ls; thus, 
" AuemoM cfjUndrictf, Gray. Ann. N. Y. Lye- 3. ^21. Torr. & 
([ray, Fl. 1, 113,"' At. It is t<ecomiug equally customary to 
separate the several citations by scmieulons. thus bringing all the 
references under one name into one sentence. The bil>li<^apliy 
of a epeeies or group of si>ccie8 which a deseilbcr or other author 
bos to refiT lu (with moie or less rhIncsB, according tu the form 
of his work) is to be sought partly under the admitteil name, 
and |)ailly in the 

7.'>.'». SfDonfinj. Tliis includes all other than the admitted 
names. Ex, Hi/dropfUU of Michaux is a siTionyra of Bratmia of 
Rchreher, the latter being the earlier published name. Xeelrit 
of Schrcber is a synr<nym of C'llnmixt of Anblet. the latter hav- 
ing priority, T/ialitlrtim nnemomiJn of Rliclmus has for syno- 
njTns Anrmmu ihaUflroiitrt of Linuieiis and nf many 8n))se<]uent 
authors who followed him in referring this ambiguous plant tu 
Anemone (721 ) ; and also Synihsmmi tliuUclroidei of HoHVnannsegg 
and Anemanella thaliciruidet of Spach, mho pioi)Oseil to consider 

■nperfluous. The yirtrcrnble punctuation of the eliaracler iilH»tH]n<it('d 
frnm iho Prmlroinui wnulil lie 

R*NU»cci.ii» Acms (Linn.) ; folii* pubew-entilm* luhglBbrisre pNlmnlo- 
purtitli, kilii* incisn-ilrnlari* aculii, lumiTiii Ilnrnriliu* ; vnulc- rrn.'tn pluri- 
flom iDlipabeccvnie : podunculU lereiibiu ; ralyi^e lulivillosii i carpellU 
mucronc siiliprecdi lenninntii. 

Thv ulvKiitajief of (hi* slvlc of panclualinn will mi>r<' nii<1 more ■piieiir, 
whtm applitil i« Int simple rtkset. CoTiimiu l>etw<'en tlic ablaUi e ailjci-iiTct 
arc nupcrlluniu and iimfusing. 

In F.ngliali (-liara(.-li.'n. conimn* are re<]iltre<l lletw<^en tlwailjpctire* vhlch 
fiilliiw the nniin. Itlgliily t« expn~>s llit-tulHirilmiiliiin <if L'liarai-ion, ilie pUn 
adupleil in tlio Synuplkal Flum nf North America ia rn-olnmenikxl ; llial Ii. 
wilti colona (cpamiinji the priodpal mcmbcrt. icmi<.'olnn> for ■iilKinljiiate 
■nil ilppcniicnt one*, and coniin«« lietween tlie adjectivca of ilie tame noun. 

1 Sec Waiton'e BiblioKrapMi^al Inilex to Nonh AmeiiL'mi Boian; Iwhrra 
ihia ityle li adopted) fur a general model for tlie arraDgenient of i^nonymjr 
and cjution*. 

it an intermedia Ce genus between TUalictnini and Anemone. ^^M 
sysb?matie works, the six-oiHo cliarnctcr immcdiali^ly folluva W^' 
imrne, niid gciicrallj' fomis « |iart or tltc same eeiitenec ; and is 
fulluwed Itrst liy citittiuns of aiithure nlio liavv adojilvrl tlie name, 
and then by llie synonymy, or as miicb of It as the plan of the 
woi'lt ealU for. Tho synonymous nnmea and tlie i-crercncM 
uniter them should bo eite<l in Uic oi-der of iLeir pnlilication. 
Bnt, to economize sjuioe, all tlic aulborities for tlic same name 
arc brought together into one sentence, and arranged according 
to tiieir date. Also, wiierc the synonymy is not oluboralely 
diajtlaytnl, tlie various synonyms or thu same generic numc are 
usually [ilaced in consecutive onler. 

7uG. Irono^Kphj. Tlie leading and most essential citation is 
that of the antlior by whom and tlie work in whii-li a plant is 
named and (Icsciibed. and also tlie work in which it is l>cst ebar- 
actcriKe<l. Among tho eliarat^tcrizatione. published Gguros bold 
a prominent place. The citation of these is an iin)>ortant pait 
of tile eynunj*my. Ttie licst botanical plates arc tliosr which 
give detailed nnalysce of the parts of the flower. fViiit, and seed. 
dis]ila\iug their structure. 

T.~i7. Habitat an<t Stalloii arc reconlcd in a sentence or |>ani- 
grapli following the name, character, ami synonymy of a sjici-ics. 
The liabi/aliiin is the (ilaec. ilistrict. or region at or within which 
the plant is known to bo indigcnouB, or Id grow sjKinta neon sly. 
The com|»Iote habitat is the geographical range. Tho ttation is 
the aitiiution it nfTci'ts, whether in water, in marshes, on sliores, 
on hills or monntuius, in rnrcsls. on ojien plains, &c. 

75S. BhcoynnTf kc. To the haliitat and station of newly 
discoverod, rare, or local plants should 1)0 npiwiidiMl the nam* 
of the discoverer or the collectors by whom the 8|)C('ics has be- 
come known to science, at least when the planE is first publistuKl. 
Date of discovery shouUI olso then I* indicati.-d, 

7."]!). Time of Blossoming should be i-ecordcil, cither the month 
or the season, to which maj- 1* addeil that of the nialiinty of the 
fnut. When the month or season is mcntioncti niithoiii farlber 
explanation. Howcring-time is intended. In a flora, tliis may 
sometimes be indicate<l under the genus for nil the siwcies. 
In the flora of an extensive region, and in respect to s[KK;ica uf 
eonsideralilc range in latitude or longitude, the time of flowering 
differs so wide!)' at the extremes of the geograplijenl range that 
it cannot well bo si>eei(ied except in general terms, as (prinir, 
tumnier^ nt'tumn, &c. 

760. Etjmolog; of Karnes. When a new generic name is pub- 
lished, its origin and meaning should always be given, if the 




naliiro of the publication will allow it. So likewise of species, 
except whore the Bour(>e or sigiiilicalion of Uie name is mani- 
fest. Tliie is commonly the ease aa respects most charade listic 
Bi>ecil]o names, anti also those drawn from station, habitat, and 
tbc like. 

Till. AMentnstion of Nrdim. The pronunciation of botanical 
names Is Bctthtl by the rules of Latin proeodj-. All that is 
Msiiatly attempted in llioee botanical works which take thia into 
necoiint is to mark tlie ejllahle uix>n which the jirincipal accent 
falh. This in wonla of two syllables is always the Aral ; in 
words of three or more syllables, either the penult (the last sylla- 
ble tiut one) or the ante|»enult (nest preceding syllable). When 
the penult la a long syllable, it takes llie accent : when short, thia 
recedes to the anU>i>onuit. The accentuation may aci-onliiigly 
be eiiOlciently indicated by marking the quantity of the |>enult, 
either long as in J2rica. or short as in Arblitu$ and Gladtolvf. Or 
else the aciviit may be marked liyapro|»r9ign. as £n'ca, ArbiUut, 
Gludiolat. An endeavor has been made to represent the longer 
sonnd of the vowel by the grave accent-mark, as Enca, and the 
slmrt by the acute, as Gladt'olut. But this plan is encumbered 
with practical difflcnlties. 

TCii. AbbreTlBtiom are required, both of the name of the au- 
thor, when of more than one or two syllables, and of the titles 
of the works cited. There arc also tlie customary abbreviations 
in tiic citation of volume, page, plate, &c., in which there ia 
nothing iiecullar to botany. 

7G3, The simple rule for the abbre\iation of an author's name 
ia to abritlge it of all but the first syllable and the first letter of the 
following one (as Lam. for Lamarck, ffook. for Hooker), or the 
first two letters following tlie vowel when both are consonants 
(aa Auin. for Liuniens, Jam. for Jussieu. Bich. for Richard). 
Sometimes more uf the name must Ite given, in onler to distin- 
guish those bt^inning with the same sytbhte. 8n we write Miehr. 
to prevent confusion of the name Michaux with that of Michcli, 
which. Ixring the earlier, claims the abbreviation Mich., and 
JieriiJ. to dislinguish Bertoloni (Vom Bertero. Sometimes a 
mneh-nsi'd name of one syllable ia abl>rcviatcd, as Br. (or ff. 
Dr.) for Robert Brown. Initials or abbreviations of the bap- 
tismal name are needed to distinguish Iwlanists of tJie same 
name; as P. Browne in distinction (Vom Rolwrt Brown. Aeh. 
Jtich., A'lr. Jitu.. Alph. DC. to distinguish the younger (Vom the 
older Riclmrd, Jussieu. and UeCandolle. Or. where forlier and 
son. the abbreviation for the latter may lie Jtin.f!., Hook-.fl.. 
or Hook. /., &c. Certain, hut verj- few, well-known and eminent 

names are abbreviated to a sign ; aa L, for Linnictis, DC. 
DcCandolle, HBK. fur llumluUh, Itunplaml, ami Kuiith, 
latter too long after ordinary abbreviation.' Care sliould bo 
tjiken to alHx the i>eriod by which atibrcviatiooa may l>e di»- 
tingiiisbed from full names, such ae Don, Ktr. Jilytt. 

764. AbbreviatioDs of titles of works follow tbe same nilea as 
tliose of names, or at least are in no wise peculiar in botany. 

7G5. Abbreviations of the names of organs follow the same 
rule : CW. for calyx, Cor. for corolla. Stam. for stomeu or 
stamina, PiMt. for pistilhim or pistil, Fr. for fruetua or fl-uil, 
J'tr. for i>oricarpium or jyericarp, Sem. for semen or seeil, ai-e the 
moat common, ffab. for habitat or geograiiliieal station, fferb. 
for herbarium. Cm. for genus. S/j. or Spec, for species. I'ar. for 
variety, and the like, every one will understand. But eome 
abbreviations which arc common in botanical writings, at least 
those in Latin, may need explanation to the elemental^- studi "~ 
A list of abbreviations it apjK'nded. fiee p. 3 

71)6, §igiis. Under this head might be ranked such abbi 
tions as c, r. for ett/i' wVom, r. t. for vidi tiecam, to note that 
writer has seen the plant, either alive or in a diicd 8|)ecimcn 
more particularly, t: 1. 1., when it is a spontaneous siM-uimen 
that has been examined tu a dried state, and v. t. c, when it was 
a cultivated specimen ; v. v. r., when the living plant was seen 
in a garden only, and r. v. $., when the siwntancouslj' growing 
plant was seen alive. There are also proper signs, of which tlie 
most common are those which indicate Hie sexes of blossoms, 
tiie duration of a plant, and the like. Also tlie inlerrogalion 
point (?) used to express doubt : Uio exclamation point ( ! ) le 
indicate the eerlaintv that is given by the actual sight of~| 
authentic original specimen. Seep. 391. 

767. The marks used lo imlicnto the subordination of 
under a gcnns. or in the synoptical arrangement of genera. 
the like, are not settled hv any fixed nde. An approved ar- 
rangement is lo employ the following marks in the piien onlcr, 
8 • -^ +* — . The tli-st one, (br sections of the highest ni-der. 
takes numerals after the sign. Ex. § 1. and «o on. When 

I Ar Alpli DpCnnilolIc rcniarlu. tlie jimper nlihn'viiilion i>f llic n»me lie 
bean i* frmrf, Bill Ihp fonn OC. WKt rcry early ailnplpil 1>y Hip flral of 
llic iltuBtriout nam?, anil lias be^n cntitinutHl for ajmosl Ihrro qiiartt^n of * 
century. Alplionic IM'anilnllc wnuM prefer to vrrile It D.C.. but hu not 
iilnpird thnt mmip. nor ahnulil wp; for DC. and HBK. are cnnvpnlenl ab- 
tirprialinna n-dut-nl In tiiant. But xncli fiirmi bIiouIJ not be incrMaed. 
□rdinary name* Ihey wniilil b« iininlellisiMc. 

Name* whtfli arc nnt loo lonft. anil of whk'li an abbn-Tialion by t) 
atry rule is imiafficienl, auch m DeeaUm, ihould ratlier be wrillen in.(l 

t le nat 

nt ( ! ) to 

^t of ~^H 

f aeen^^H 
nera. aa^^^ 

BIGKS, ETC. 869 

SHoh Rectiona are followwl liy a atilistoiitivc name, tlicy Bie 
CKiuivaleiit to subgenera.' Ex. PAacelia, Jiisa., S 1. Eup/iaeelia, 
i.e. Ilie true or t>i)ipal Pbacelia; 5 2. 0>tmanihuM, Gray, &c. 
St'cliuiis nest in rank to these are marked with astciisks, • fur 
tbcGrst, • • furtlieseoonil, • • • for the tliircl oiii> uf tli« same 
rank. Divisions of tlieee liave the ■«- preBsod ; ami si) an in Uie 
same way. Still fartlier sulxii visions may Ix- mniktd l>y the 
small letters of tlie alpliaiiel eonswutivcly, n, b, r. Wlic n capital 
liftt^rs arc used fur division marks, it ia mostly for those of a 
liigh grade. 

TliK. Floras, MoDographs, £c. A systematic work describing 
In i»rop<-r order the [ilanta of a country or district is gencraliy 
called a Fl<Ta. A Flora of n small district takes tlte diminutive 
name of a Florula. A universal work of the kind when It ex- 
tciida to the si^ecies is a Sgtlem, St/ttema Vtyetabilium or Sutitma 
HetfHt i'rgftahHii. The latest c-um|ileted Sy$tema VrgtlabiUum 
is tliat of Sprengel (t82d~lt)2tj). in five oetavo volumes, ou 
a very oomlcused [itan. A eom|)endious Flora or Syslema ia 
often termeil a l*rMlromus, literally meaning a forerumier or 
[irelimiimry work. Uut, as even this ia more than most Iwt- 
anists are aide to comidetc, the name of Prodi-omns is now 
Bpplic«t to works whieli are not intended to precede Adler ones 
liy tlie same author. The principal work of this kind Is llic Pro- 
dromut Sjf^. Nat. Ittgui Ve^flobilii, coinmenced by DeC'aiidolIc 
in the year 1824, continued by his son Alphonsc DeCandolle 
(aided by various l>otanisls) to its close in 1873. down to vol. 
x\\\., or essentlallj' twenty very compact oi-tavo volumes, th(.-Be 
earrjing the work only timnigh llio great elass of Dlcolyledones, 
But llic pulilii-alion of the monoeolyledonous ortlers has eom- 
meni-e<l in a scries of Monograph* { M<mnyTiiphia^ Phanrrogmn' 
nrum). A .WonoyrapA Is a systematic account of all the s|M.>iies 
of a genus, ortler. or other dctaelieil group. 

769. SiNH.-lmens of botaniua) cbaracti-rs and dcacriptions, cita- 
tion*. *o.. illustrating this chapter, might be given her<-. Kut, 
for thoae in Latin. l!ie classical works of DeCandolIc ami others, 
and for Uie genera tliose of .lussleu, Kndlicher, Bentbam and 
Hooker, may Ik- Ijiken as models. In Knglisb, those of the 
latter authors, and in the I'niUtl Suies tlic IwtU-r-known 
writings of the present author, cspw-ially Uie later ones, may 
be refemil to. 

' DcCinJotltr in ilw Pnwlromu* (.'mployeil Ihe woni Stn. iSrtli»i (v 
what uuwrn lo (ulici-nat or ■( Icaat 1u Ilic liighm graiW of wctinn* ; then 
I 1. f 2, kc.. fur tlic Dcsi gnilc brlaw tubgeniu; and tbea tli« Mlvriak, anil 


Specdieks; Dikecttoss roR mctB Examtxa;^ 


Those necesearr for the examinatioa 
pbxaogaiDOUS plants. Ferns, and Uii.- Uke. are a eimple 
lens, a umple disaecttng micmsvi^' : also a sharp thin-bladed 
knife and some needles of vuicMK> fiucaess, mounted in han- 
dles, for diseei-tjon. 

771. Fora single hand lens, one magnifving tmly from four to 
six diameters is the most u»eftal. A doublet, or a panil>olie l^ns 
of Tollrs, of about an inch focus, b better, hot much more expen- 
sive. The simple stage-mioroseope for dissection need have onlj 
taro lenses (doubl?ts or otherwise) with large field and gooal 
deSnition. one of an inch and the other of aluut half inch focal 
distance ; and a glass stage of at least an inch and a half iu 
diameter. A compound iuicro«cope is nsefbl for all mioDte 
investigation, ami is essential in the study of vegetable anatomy 
and of nil lower erj plt^mie botany. 

772. For making thin slices, a razor is the best knife ; for dis- 
section on tlie stage of the simple micro5eo|>e. bcftide D«cdles, 
small scaljiels or some of tlie cutting instmments used by ova- 
lists are ver\' convenient. But an expert hand is able to do 
almost every thing with a common knife or s<sl[tel and a pair 
of mounted need)>«. Sleniler forceps are almost indisi^eDsablc : 
those made for the use of dentists are the best. 

773. Analfsls. In the examination of an unknown plant with 
a view to its detenniiuttion. its wLolc structure should be made 
out, so far as the icateriaU allow, before a step is taken to 
ascertain its name and phice in the system. In ics{>ect to the 
stem, its duration and consistence and its internal strwiurv. 
whether exogenous or endogenous, arc to be noted, 
foliage, the venution aiul the phyllotaxy. also the presence 
absence of stipules, are most important. The antbotaxy 
inflorescence is to be examined and referred to its pro|)er tj 
In the flower, the numerical plan and aymmetrj-. ita grouiid-plaB 
and the nature of the deviations from the general or Ilic familv 
type, are to be considercl : also the wstivation or arraugemiwt 
of the parts in the bud. the character and extent of coalcseen™ 
and aduation ; the manner in which the anther is bnme upon the 
filammt. and its place and niixle of dehisceni-e, Ac. Note also 
whether, when the blossom is hermaphrodite, the anthers and the 
stigmas mature at the same or at different jteriods. The placeir- 
tation and the character and position of the ovules should be 




(letf miiDcd. Two scctione of the flower ehoiild he made ! one of 
ttieiu vertical aud directlj- tbi-ougb tUe c'Ciilre, in the mauiier of 
Fig, 33G-341, — this will display the adiiation, insertion, &c., 
of all the parts ; the other trauaverse and througli the laiddle of 
tht! ovary, also above the ovarf when tbia is inferior, and if pos- 
silile in the unopened but nill-grown flower-bud; tliU, among 
other thiugs, wiU bring to view the nistivation. (Fig- 851, Sf^G.^UK, 
&c.) Nut rarely Ihiit and suhIs arv to he liad at the same time, 
or iii<on the same speeiiuen, and tbcso aie equally to l»e investi- 
gntod. In fresh seeds, even those of minute size, the embrju 
may almost always be cxtructed or brought to view nniler the 
iiiiL-ruseope, either by tearing awa^v the seed-coat with ni-eiiles or 
by sections with a keen knife. When hani and diy, tliej' have 
only to I>e soaked or slightly boile<l. 

TT'l. DUgnuni an<l aUo sketches of llie pails should be made, 
eiiL'h as those referred to in tlic foregoing paragraph. Such 
diagrams can lie drawn by any one with a little practice; and 
tliej- may be ntude to express tbe whole floral struclure, even to 
the coalescence and adnation.' But in tlie process of (tett^'rmi na- 
tion the student should beware of trusting wholly to bis diagrams 
and sketches without direct verification. 

775. Dried speclmeim, when well preparwl and in sufficient 
abundance, in tlie hnmls of a skilled botanist are in most cases 
but lilllc inferior to IVesh ones. When nee<led, flowers, or clus- 
ters of blossoms, or n-uil^ may be detaclied and pre|iari>d for 
examination an<1 dissection by somewhat prolonged soaking in 
warm wat^r or by a short immersion in boiling water. This re- 
stores dower-buds and small Dowers and fiiiits, or their parts, to 
a curKlttion not essentialU' unlike the living state. Consequently. 
the Iferbiirium or Hortut liccut of tiie botanist is to liim more 
essential than the botaniiuil ganlen, im|>ortnnt as that may lie. 

776. Herborlzlns.* Tlie collector's outfit will essentially con- 
sist of a VaKttlum orbotanieal lx>x, a Portfolio, n Ttoteei, a pocket 
Lent, and a small but stoutly covered Nott-book, Some use a 
jjortfolio only, otliers the botanical Ik>x ; but on a long excui-sioii 
it is well to liave both. The former is preferable in niost cases, 
except when specimens are collected for the immediate use of a 

> Sn Eichlrr'* Bmihpndisgnimme (Lcipcic, 1ST3, 1876), an a<lmiraUc 
work, which nuy wrvc &• ■ mmlel. 

' Theac nrticln, from p&miirapli T7<I in S02 inclusWe, were oblijtitiftly pre- 
fwml. at Ibc aulhnr'a rrqutxl. Iif Lyvak H. IKiriNADT, of Piiip Plaint. 
New York. Thpy fnrm nn alutrart nr a ni>w (Mliiiun ot a tpriei of nniea on 
Dip (ubjcct whirl) were publUbed in the Bulletin of the Tunvy Bolank-al 
Club, in tbe fear 1878. 


When weQ aloiitfd witb paper, it U of almost onliiniled 

tljr ; umI must plants of ck-licate textim (as many uf iIm 

snudkr ftqnaiics. ami tliow wilb fugadous or tklicate corollas) 

■Hvd La be consi^uvtl flin^tlj* to tlie pajier in wbich tb«j' atv to 

bv prraaed. and lu be krpl mcaoKbile under some pressure. 

777. The liurv/wB is vny uaeful fur lioldii^ planU tbat are 
to be examined tlvA, and for tiddi n>oU. large fruits. &c. It 
is maile of tin. and abould beofoval-cylinilritTA] shape, aliout 1-7 
itiHtes long atul 4 bj C inches wide, miul piviiiiled with a light 
»trap tu throw vwt the fJKKililer. Tbe lid o\xa& nearljr the 
wliole let^i of otK? of tbe (Ut sides (15 by i\ inc-bes. with one 
fourth inch lap), is made to fit as ctose as ixMsibte. and fastens 
by a simple? sprii^ otcb. Vben no portfolio is Bsed, a lar^r box 
may \te n-qnirwl. Plants may be kept fresb in such a box for 
many days. For a Bovcral-il3\~9 excursion, when it is desirable to 
bringboiuea largeiiuniberur(V««hpUnts. a Uni-ltest, made some- 
what after the jutttem uf an uld-fiisbioned trunk, will be found 
^f ^-ery convenient. It sboiild be about -t^incbi's long. 10 incbL-s 
wiiU*. aiul 10 incites high to Uw lop of the convex and hinged 
litl, which forms the whole tojt, and lo which a luudle is fitted. 

77R. .\ good form of Port/iJio is nuuk- of two pieces of biwUi's 
board covenil witb eiutmel cloth, awl (astening together with two 
long stra|« with Imckles. Handles similar lo those on a carfiet- 
l>ag may be nttAc-hetl for mrrjing. TIk- usual size of ponfotin 
ia 18 by 12 indies, but ICJ bv llj iuches may be l«-tlcr, as 
there would then be little <bingcr of making s|)ecimens of too 
great length for the herbarium. (784.) Or tiie back may be of 
sod leatlwr, an inch cw so in width, ami a light strap and buckle 
at the front edge and at each etnl. The jmrtfolio should contain 
a good quantity of fukkil sheets of thin unsizcti paper, similar 
to grocvKe lea-iiapcr, au<l of a size only a tittle smaller than the 
siilcs of the portfolio. Veiy thin raauilla pa|>i-r, ur what is so 
I'jilled. is excellent for this [)orix>so, b?iiig siiIHcieully bibulous 
and rather strong. 

7711. The «i>eHmens as soon as gathered should be laid neatly 
in these folded slKwts (called tpecimen s/ieftt). and kept under a 
moilerate pressure in the iMrtfobo. Tlie sheets with the sjiec- 
imens are afterwards trsui«ferred to the tHHoe press, but the 
H|>e(.-imcnB should be Icfl continuously in tbetr sheets through all 
Uic changing of driers, until cured. ladee<l. the specimens may 
well remain in the sheets afler drjing, until wanted for mounting 
or for exchanging. For fine specimens, tbe use of this fprrimen 
(Mpcr is verj' tniiwrtant. Many plants are so extremelv delicate 
and sensitive that they will not bear the least hautUiug withoul 


culling nnd slirivclling. unless thus enclosed : also without theao 
slieels ninth time is lost in transferring small sjtcc iinciia one by 
one Tivin one driei to another in the ilrj-ing itnxH-ss. 

780. For digging up roots, bulhs, &e., a small and slmqi 
iwintetl triangular Trateti or stout knife will answer. One or 
llic lK«t "diggers" is made from a largo file. Let a black- 
smith tKriid the lower half of the blade to u gentle cune, so that 
the iKjinl will be al>oiit an inch out of the true line. Grind off 
the teeth and re-tempcr the bUidc. The U>t«l length with 
handle, which is over one third, should be bIkiuI twelve inches. 
A leather cjise may be made for convenience of carriage. 'Hie 
advantages of this strong tool are man.v-' 

781. A NiAr-book should be carried ui»on every excursion, in 
which llio station of rare pliintM. ilatCH, colors, and various iinr- 
ticulars which cannot be leunH-d from the specimens, may 
be recorded on tlie spot, instead of being Iclt to uncertain 

7HZ. For most i>lanls, the best time for collecting flowering 
specimens is in the morning, soon atWr the dew has <tisap[x^anHl. 
\'c9I>ertine flowers have to be secured earlier, or at nightfall. 

783. Care should be taken to have the 8[)ecimcn of the pmix-r 
eize. neither too small nor too largo, and to i-omprlsc all that is 
neci'ssari' for complete botanical illustration. — Bowers, ftiiit, 
and leaves, Iioth cauliiie and radical when |H>8silile. Inex- 
perienced botanists supirase that a small sprig, containing a 
flower or two witli a few leaves, will answer all purposes as a 
Imtanical S[>eeimen ; bnt later be comes tu know better, and also 
learns that the flower is oidy one of the coinix>ncnt parts of a 
specimen, and not always the most imiiortant one. In various 
genera and orders, the fruit is the most distinguishing character- 
istic, OS with the I'otamogetons, the fruciferie, the Umbellifene. 
and the Cyperaceie. VtMU many plants the mdical-leaves. wilh 
Others the choractcr of the subterranean stem, whether a rootetock, 
tuber, conn, or bulb, or of the root itself, whether annual, bien- 
nial, or i>erennial, liocomes impoitant. Consetjucntly, all Uic 
organs have their value in an herbarium specimen, and each and 
all should receive due consideration from the botanist when col- 
lecting, Sjwciiaens may be oflcii secured that exhibit both 

' iTht-re <a *n Englisli hcrboriiinK Irowd of rxfr^lk'nt qualiljr. wltji tiliile 
t\* nr eiglil inclii-B lonit. U-u than Iwo incliri Hide, llie lidv* iliglill? In- 
curved, the tlout *lmnk an iiicli and a quaric-r wiiJp, anil one itxlh of an 
Inch Ihitk: lliii fnrnis \\\e whiilir back of (he iMndlc. Ihe front ol ulik-h b 
a piece of lignum vine rirelvd fait to tlic ■(eel. It u nearly inipoMlble lo 
break it.) 

flowei's nmt fruit in the snmG plant, or Truit may be ftequeiitly 
ntitained from more advanced plants at tlio same time. If not. 
fVuit must be collect«<l lator, as in case of shrubs and trees, of 
which generally only a bnutclilet with flowers, or with dowers 
and leaves, can be gathercil flrst. But subsequently the IVtiit 
and mature leaves, sUoulil alwajs be taken, if iiracticable, from 
the same individual as the flowers. Of diuwious slinibs or 
trees, like the Willows, each species should be repreaenteil by 
four pieces : first, the sterile anil fertile catkins will have to l>e 
obtaiuHl, and the respective individuals markeil, so that later 
curri's I wilding twigs with mature leaves, stipules, and fniit may 
Ik- gnthere<l, and the specimens rightly matched. 

'Hi. A Bi>ecimen should be so arranged as to be mi lai^er 
when pressed than can be neatly mounted on the herbarium 
pai)er. A slender plant not over three feet iu height should 
generally be [>reserved entire, root ami all. This can be done 
by bending oi' |)artially breaking it at one, two, or three plac-es, 
and doubling so that the sections will not rest njion each other 
in drjing. If broken twice, it may bo neatly arranged in Ibc N 
form when put in jrartfolio. Ver^- large herbaceous plants will 
have to Iw divided and the imrts preseiTcd separate]]-, or. Iwtler, 
take a suitable imrtion of the np|X!r stem, having leaves, flowera, 
and fruit, and a convenient part of the lower stem containing 
radical leaves and with it siimcient root lo show whether the 
plant is an annual, biennial, or jwrennial. Thick stems, roots, 
tiibci-s, bulbs, anil the like.shonld be divided or thinned down 
with a knife, but in such a manner that the original slm[)e can 
he easily made out. 

785. Carices should be always collected when the fhiit is fVill- 
grown, but not so ripe as to fall away. Ho also should other 
Cyi>era(«(e ; yet it is well to collect also earlier stx^cimens of 
lliesc in flower. Gnisses, on the other hand, should generally 
be collecteil soon after they come into blossom. For when 
mature the s[iikelcts in many siieiics break up and fall away in 
drying. The culm, leaves, and i-oot of Sedges and Grasses 
should be preserved, as well as the inflorescence. The root is 
no less ini|K>rtant. Ceapitose siiei-ios should Iw so collected and 
preseiTed as to show the tufted character. The culms of most 
sedges and grasses act stubbornly when bent for arrangement 
In portfolio or press, and are not disi»aed to stay in place. This 
dilllcully is ])romptly remedied liy crushing with the teeth ihe 
angles mode by the bending. Or these may \te thrust through 
slits of pa|)er. In drjing Sedges and Grasses, very moderate 
pressure should be employed. 

HEBBOBlZA-noK. 87& 

7M, Some aquatic plnuls (Algie especially) an> so soft and 
flaccid ttial. to secure them in tlicir proper alinpc, they must be 
placeil in uleor water antl floatetl out by iiiscrting beneath them 
Uic paper on whicli they are to remain iwrmancotly, cither the 
regular mntmting pa]>er, or a tliinner white paper which when 
dry can l>e past^nl on the herbarium sheet. If likely to adhere 
to tlic sheet or drier above them in the press, a piece of oiled or 
steariiic paper may be laid diivctly on the B[»ccimens to prevent 
tlieir Rtickiug. Also viscous or glutinous plants which are liable 
to adhere to the sheets enclosing them may be sprinkled with 
Lyeo[KMlium spores, powderetl aoaiistonc, or some similar sub- 

787. The name of the plant if known, but by all means the 
locality and dat« of coUcc-tion, with any other dcscriptii-c re- 
marks regarded necessary, should be written on a ticket or on 
the sheet when it is ]int into the press. Never omit to record 
the time and place of i-ollection. as a sjiccimen of unknown date 
and locality loses much of its value and Interest. 

7HH. Drjinff Specimens. The chief requisite for good herba- 
rium s|>ccimcns is the extraction of the moisture fk^im the green 
plant as rapidly as iwssibic under a pressure which obviates 
brittlcncss. This is to be affected hy placing the thin sheets 
containing the s|>ccimens between layers of bibulous pn|>or. called 
driers, and a|lpl^-ing moderately strong pressure to llie pile. 
For driers nothing can be better than thick blotting [wiper. 
escejit that it is too exi>ensive, and the same may be said of 
an Ktiglisli drjing i>aiicr made for the purijose. Equally good 
driers are made of the thick and felt-like brown jtajter which. 
a(^r saturation with eoal-tar, is here lai^ty used under the 
ctaplmards of wooden houses and under slate-roofing. It is a 
cheap material, and is to be obtaiiieil, cut into sheets of 18 hy 
12 inches. Or driers may !« made of old newspniicrs or of any 
soft wrapping paper, cut or folded to the pro|>cr size, and 
slitchcfl (very expeditiously by a Bewing-nmchhie ) , or Joined by 
eyelet (mi per- fasteners at two comers, in packages of a dozen or 
more leaves to a drier. It is well to have a largo supply of driers 
and specimen -sheets reaily for use. 

789. A half dozen or more pieces of thin Iwards. 18 inches 
long and 12 inches wide, should l>e provided. They are used 
at the top and the bottom of tJie pile when pressing, and also 
for dividing it into suitable sections, espedally for separating 
the packages of pbnts which were put into press at difTerent 
perio<ls, and dividing np these packages ihcmselves, if too large. 
For the plants drj' better in small sections and with the pressure 

evenly distributed. Hence il is best to have these sections not 
over five or six inches in thitltncss. nor bLouIiI the pile itself 
be carrie<l too high, Dever exL<eeding two feet. Painted binders' 
boards may bo used, instciul of Uie common boards, to separate 
interior dii'isions. Some botanists uac a kind of lattice made of 
two layers of thin strips or tallis, crossing each other. This is 
said lu allow fVee cscBi)e of the moisture by evaporation, and so 
to acfcleralc drjing. as in tlie tasc of the wire press. 

790. For giving pressure, various ways have been contrived. 
The Serew^ireti b convenient and com|iact, hut objectionable, 
because it does not follow up the pressure as the plants shrink 
in drying. This objection docs not apply to the Lrver-preueit but 
tliey are usually unwieldy. Fortunately, one of the best forms 
of the dtying-press, as well as the simplest and ohea]>est, ia 
merely a buanl with weights placed on the top or the pile of 
si)ccin)cns. Here the pressure is continuous, constantly follow- 
ing the shrinkage of tlie plants. The weight on a pile tihould 
\ar\ from 2o to 100 pounds, according to the nature of the 
s{>ccimens and the quantity in the press. On an average, GO 
pounds is sufHcient for most plants. If much greater pressure 
is used, there is danger of crushing the more delicAt« ])arts uf the 
specimen, and thereby impairing its scientific value. For weight* 
bars or masses of iron may be used, boxes fiUetl with i 
stones, and the like. 

7m. specimens brought home in the botanical box mu»t ^ 
placed in such thin si)eci men-sheets as are used in portfolio. 
In putting plants in specimen-sheets, whether in [lortfulio or 
press, it is well to take some pains to spread out the s|)ecimens 
neatly ; for a little care now may save much later labor. How- 
oer, with most species, any carelessness hi this rcs|ject can 
be remedial at the first change of driers. 13ut there arc some 
plants, previouslj' referred to, so jKCiiliarly sensitive tliat what- 
ever adjustment they receive must be given at the time they are 
first placwl in their sheets. 

792. Altlioughplantscan, if necessary, be kept fresh for several 
days in box or i>ortfo!io, on returning fVom a collecting trip they 
should be transferred to the home press as early as possible. In 
the transference, particular care should be taken to straighten' 
out and remove all folds and crumpling of the leaves, petals, 
fronds, &c., and to arrange the siwcimen as naturally as i>ossi- 
hlc. so OS to show tliG propter habit. Both sides of the Rowers 
and leaves should be exhibited. Plants that were put dire^J^^ 
into press should receive this special attention at the 9^^| 
change of driers, which on this account should be made vri!^^^| 



several hours aftcrwartls. The stubbornness snd cbfiticity, so 
troublesome in specimens When first put in. will then liavu 
mostly (lisappeBrctl, and tlie whulc siwcimen n-ill be found suffl- 
ci«nth' flaeeid to liavo ever}' pnrt aUiy as arranged. If ttiia llrst 
change is deferred longer than ten or twelve hours, the speci- 
mens of many Bjieeies become too dry for making the alt^^mtiuns 
requii-ed. AC tliis time small pieces of bibulous paiter may be 
plaeeil between leaves, or other [Kirtions of the plant which over- 
lap, to prevent munlding or discoloration, and to hasten drying, 
it is well to change these fragments of i>ai)er with the diiers for llie 
first (lay or two : afterwards they may remain with no detriment. 

7'J'i. To have the specimens retain their natural color and 
general a[)j>ettrancc, they ahoidd be dried as rapidly as possible ; 
and this result is best secured by frequent changing of the driers, 
'i'licse should be changed at least once a day for the first four or 
five days, and afterwanis ever]- other day, until Ilie specimens 
are thoroughly drie<t. But a marketl improvement iu tlie speci- 
mens will result fVom more frequent changes during tlic first 
day or two. The first day with Grasses, Sedges, and their allies, 
and the first two days with moat other plants, are of more impor- 
tance than all the subsequent time. As an ex)>ericnccd collector 
declares : " Two or three changes of the driers during the first 
twenty-four hours will accomplish more than a dozen changes 
after the lapse of several <lajB. The most perfect jireservation 
of the beautiful colors of some Orchids has Iteen efl'ectefl by 
heating the driers and changing tlicm every two hours during 
the first day." 

794. Heated driers arc very efficient ; and the beat mode of 
heating is to expose them to the sunshine, and bringing them in 
hot to make the change at once, or as soon as possible. 

TK.i. The numljer of driers interposed between the s]>ccimen- 
ehccts should de|icnd upon the plants and the frequency of the 
clianges : two will suffice when the driers are change*! verj- often ; 
but mure must be employed when the iilantx are thick and succu- 
lent. Uniform pressure may be secured with large and coarse 
plants by placing strijis of pasteboard or ]>ieces of cotton-bat- 
ting about the sides of the package. Ringlets of cotton may be 
placed about some of the larger flower-heads of the Comi»09itje. Ac, 

79C. The time required to drr specimens varies with ditfcrcnt 
species and with the season : it deiM^nds bI«o on the fVequenc^- 
of tlie changes and the temperature of the driers. By cluiiiging 
daily, the time is usually fVom four or five days to a week. Bui. 
with two changes a ilay for the first day or two and with licate«I 
driers, the process may be completed in luilf the usual time, and 


the Specimens irill ite in much finer ooiidilion. An experici 
collector has no ilifHcully in asccrlAining whether a pUint is 
l>letely cured or not. while to a novice it is often a matter of 
uncertainty. A thoroughly dried plant can be usually told hy 
its i>couliar hay-like rattle when disturbed ; also hy placing the 
plant against ttie check. If there is a sensation of coolness, 
plant is still moist. 

TOT. If the thick leares of ticshy plants are immersed 
a few momenta in hot water, the iwriod of desiccation will 
greatly hastened ; but they frequently turn dark as a conse- 
quence or tlie immersion. The drying of such plants, ami 
particularly of the Monocotyk-dons, may be advantageously ex- 
pedited by placing them l>etween several driers and ironing them 
with liot irons. Small plants may lie very neatlj' dried in old 
IxKfka. Verj- beautifid s|)ecimens may be made by placing tha 
phint in a tall and nnn-ow vessel, and pouring over it a eiilfldt 
quantity of clean and dry sand. When the moisture is absort 
it may be flattened in a press. 

T'JH. In shifting the driers of a collection, place the pad 
to be changed at the left hand on the table or counter, the new 
pile in ttonl with its length parallel to the i»eraon. — a [losition 
the most favorable for giving any needed attention in 
8|ieciinen8, — while fresh driers may be placed at the right 
or beyond the pile in ft-ont. Thus arranged, the slieets of 
mens can l)e rapidly shifte<^l into their fresh driers. 

T99. The moist driers may be spread out in the sunshine to 
drjs or stnmg on a tine in a warm ixxim. or in the open air, if 
not too windy, ^'ery moist driers may be thoroughly dried 
within an hour, if spread in the hot sunshine. In iuclci 
weather, they must be dried by the fire. 

800. To recapitulate the most im|K>rIant [mints in good sj 
men-making : Use specimen -sheets to hold the plants ui 
turbed during the whole process of drying : use plenty of the 
most bibulous driers. sun-driMl and heated when practicable: do 
not make the piles too large : make the first shift of driers witfaia 
a few hours, at that time making all nceiled adjustment of 
flaccid specimens : change the driers twice a day 
day or two. 

SOI. For collecting and preserving specimens on a Joume^ 
or when moving from place to ]>lace, some modification of the 
stationarj- press is requisite. The Trarelling-preM must Iw ports- 
hie : accordingly the pressure is appUetl by strong leather straps 
with buckles. There should be three straps, one ginling the 
package around each end, and one lengthwise. The top and 






ing t ha 


OS it ion 


boltom. if of thin boanis, must be eleaU'tl. or coiDjmuniliil of ■ 
Hoo<l H-Jtli the grain in opposite direL-tioiii4. or verj stuul biintor's 
lK>ni'(i or tnink-lxiartl may bo advantngeoiisly uaeii. This sliuiiM 
lie covorwl willi coarse cotton or linen dotli. glueil fast anil well 
paintcil. Wliilc stntioriiiry, the pressure tuay be giveu by mi'tiiis 
of weiglits when more convenient. 

tiOi. The Wirt prtu. now much in use, is a prcea of this portn- 
lile kind, in which the boards are repliu-ed by sheets of wire net- 
ting, with witic meshes, and suiToundwl und strengthened by a 
strong but light iron border. Strajts witli liuekles are usctl tu 
liold the parts and contents tt^ther and to npply the pressure, 
ns in the ortlinury travelling- press, llesidi's its iM>rtal>ility, the 
advantages of such wire i)re8ses arc that, in u small way. they 
rany ser^'e t>oth as portfolio for eullvctiiig and us press for dry- 
ing ; also that, as Lho diying takes j)lace mainly by eva|>oration 
iiish-ait of absoqttion, much less pa[]er is reiiuinnl, and tlie ti'ouble 
of changing the driers is saved.' In fair wpnt lie r, the press tilled 
with plants may be liuiig in the wind or sunsliine, in foul weatlier 
near a flrv. 'I'lie disadvantage is tliat S[K?eiiiiens diied in this 
way BR- apt to Iw brittle. To use this svatem advantageously, 
the botanist should have at leaAt two such presses in operation, 
one for ci>llecting, while the other is in use for drjing. 

KU3. PolKonlng;. Dried si>ecimens are liable to the depreda- 
tions of certain insects. esi>ecially of their larva;. The princi|>al 
|)est is a small brown Itivtle. Anobium panieeum. L. ; the jterfect 
inscvt docs considerable damage, tlie Inna vastly mure. I'lants 
with milky Juice, such as Aeclepiadete. Apocynaceie, and Eu- 
(Aorliiacene, those containing bitter principles, such as Gentians 
and Willows, and gi-nerally such plants or such organs as con- 
lain nmch protoplasm or azotized matter, are most subject to 
attack. !taiiuDciihiceiL>, UmbeUiferie, and ComiKisitiL* are seldom 
spared ; while LabiaUe mostly escA|)e, probably on account of the 
volatile oil which they conlain. E^en Ferns arc liable to have the 
parts of fiiictilication eaten away. To a wrtain extent, the im- 
pregnation of the lierltorium-caaes with camphor, naphthaline, 
or strong-seen Uil oils, may exclude the vermin. But safety is 
secured only by poisoning. 

804. The pro|)cr [Kitson is corrosive sulilimate, dissolved In 
strong (Oa i)er cent ) alcohol. Drop into the alcohol as much eor- 

' Prof. A. WiKxl (c«tiu In bari< been the Itrit in rnll tlic Htlrnlioii of 
AmeriiMin bulnniid to llii* «y«lcni, whk-h he )i» mmiiity ii<Wo('«lr<l. 

An improTed forni of iliia wire jimg, wHl xliipieil bnili for enllccdns 
and prcuing in Dindemie qmtnlit.v, ia nimle an^lwild, at » >ni&ll price, bjr 
I'aul BctMler, optician, at New Uarcn, Connecticut. 

* rosivesublimalens it will take up, then adil a trifle more of alcohol, 
Bit as tu ke<}\> the euliitiun Just 1h-1iiw ttiu point of saturation. 
The stronger the solution the better, escejit that, at fbll satura- 
tion and where eopiuusly used, an elHurcseence may sometimes be 
left on the surface of the [wiaoned speeirae»8 upon the evapora- 
tion of the aleohul. Some add to the solution some carbolic 
acid, at the rate of a fluid ounce to eacb quart of alcohol. The 
solution may be applied with a soft brush (one with no metal in 
its fastening), or by a dropping bottle, or even the specimens 
may lie dipiied in the solution placed in a flat porcelain dish. 
The brush (using a prttty lat^ and soft one) is the most con- 
venient and efficient. Tlie moistene<i sijecimcns should be placed 
between driers and in sliallun piles until the alcohol cvs[x)ratC8. 

605. Tburogghly [Ktlson a\\ specimens before admitting them 
to the horlutrium. It is well to poison all s[M>ciinen8 whatever, 
OS soon as they are made or at the close of the botanizing sea- 
son, as well those intended for exchanges as for the collector's 
own herbarium. 

80G. Keep all siiecimens Iwtween sheets of paper, or within 
folded sheets, not loo crowdei! or overlaid, away fi^ini dust, and 
in a iK-rfcclly dry place, so ns to avoid mould. When attacked 
by mould, the corrosive-sulilimate solution should he ap[jUvd. 
A projierly dried specimen, duly cared for, should be aa lasting 
as the paper which holds it. 

807. The Herbarlnm, called by the earlier botanists Hortna 
Sicctit, is a cfjllection of dried sjwcimene, named and systemat- 
ically orrangod. It Is ind is |>en sable to the working sj-stematic 
botanist, and ever^- deiotee of botan.v should [wssesa, or have 
access to an herlianum containing representatives of the plants 
of the immediate vicinity or district, if not of the whole country. 
Or an herbarium may be restricted! to a particular family of 
plants, made the object of s[>ecinl study. A general hcrliariiim 
should contain specimens representing all the natural ortlors and 
as many of their genera and species as possible. 

608. The form of the herbarium as to the size of its sheets is 
considerably varialile. That of Linnreus is of the siae of fixilscnp 
pa|>er : this would now be universally regaitled ns much too 
small. The principal British herbaria adopt the size of IGJ by 
lOJ inches, which is rather loo narrow, rarely peimitting two 
specimens of the same species of any considerable size to be 
placed side by side on the same sheet. In tlio United States, 
lUi inches in length by 11] in width is adopted ; that \i 
genus-covers, the 8pecies-paiM.-r being a quarter of an i 


809. The §pecimeii8 representing cai'li si>eciea inay eillier l>e 
bill wilbin n iliiiibli><l sheet, luoecly (as in some Eum{ieun bor- 
liaria). or Tiistuned in place by untrow slips or gnimneil paper 
(wliidi is much better), or else they maybe glued bodily to 
single slii-eta of strong and stiff nbite pup«-r. 

MIU. Thf former is an escollent plan for a limited collection. 
It is nn mlvnntnge that & siiccimen can t>e taken up aiul examined 
on all sides ; also, that inditferent sjHxriniens can ut any time be 
cscbangLtl for Iwtlcr ones. Bat a large berlininum on this plan 
lietvint^s cumbmiis and iucoavenicnt for ready reference and 

81 1. The Itest plan in a large herbarium, and one much to be 
consulted, in to attach the B|>ccimens completely, by any kind 
of strong and light-colored glue, to single sheets, or rather half 
shci'ts. The si)e<.'imens ai^ thus safe fi'om injury un<ler reason- 
able handling, and can be turned over and examined with as 
mucb facility as u scries of maps or engravings. The species- 
[laper shouUI be of writtng-pai>cr slock, or of equal flnnnesa. of 
conipact tcxluii>. well sized and cnleiuiereil. and of a weiglil in 
size of 101 by 11} inches of about 28 iiounds to tbo ream of 
480 flat sheets. The paper should be furnisbed square-cut on 
all sides, in the manner of " flat cap," Ktilfness is the great 
desideratum . 

812. In no case should more than one species be knowingly 
attaehcil to the same sheet. But of very many species there will 
be room for more than one specimen. And specimens from dif- 
ferent localities, of ditferent forms, and in various stages of 
flowering and fructification, are alwsj's desirable. The full name 
of the plant should be written at the lower rjght-hand corner of 
the sheet, or a ticket should there be attached by glue or traga- 
cantli paste. Each Bi>e<.'imen should have its ticket, similarly 
attached, or a memorandum upon the sheet, indicating the hab- 
itat or the sixwinl Iwality, date of i-ollcction, name of collector, 
and any otlier desirable information which tlie spccuneus them- 
selves do not furnish. When there oiv loose flowers or fruits, or 
when any of these have been detached for dissection and micro- 
scopical investigation, it is well to preserve them, placing them 
in little pajwr jwckcts or envelopes and [)asting tiicsc uimn the 
shcuet close to the specimen to which they pertain. Sketdies of 
parts dissected may be drawn uiKtn the sheet. Notes and mcm- 
omnda received with the specimen or too extended to bo entered 
ujton the sheet may lie foldol, inserted in such envelD)>es, and 
made fast to the sheet. Many iKitanical collections arv dislriti- 
uted with printed tickets. These, and uU aulheuticating tickets 


or notes, should he attached to the sheet near to the specimen 
they belong to. In view of this, printed and written tickets 
should be of small size.^ A ticket which exceeds four by two 

1 All printing on an herbarium ticket should be in plain type ; and fancy 
borders, uselessly occupying room, should be avoided. If any bonier is 
thougiit needful, it should be of plain lines. It is not desirable to parcel out 
the space on a ticket with separate lines and headings for habitat, date of 
collection, time of flowering or fruiting, name of collector, and the like. 
These particulars may conveniently be entered at the bottom or top of the 
ticket, as may be convenient, leaving the rest of the space free for the name 
of the plant, the authority, and perhaps a synonym. 

Tickets for specimens distributed among other botanists may well have a 
head-line indicating the source, such as " ex coll. c. c. parry," or " ex herb." 
or, in English, " From the Herbarium of" the botanist who communicates 
the specimen. The following may serve as an example of a simple ticket 
for the si>nding out of dried specimens, and of the way in which the ticket 
may be fllled out with the name of the plant, its liabitat and station, name 
of collector and time of collection 


For the botanist's own herbarium, it is well to use a blank ticket with a 
printiHl heading like the specimen alwve, but with the " ex " omitted. 

When a considerable collection is made in any particular l>otanical explo- 
ration or excursion, and numerous or several specimens of the same species 
are gathered, to Ix* distributeil among botanists in the way of exchange or 
otherwise, these are commonly given out under numl>ers and with a printed 
heading to a special ticket. The following is an approved form of such a 
ticket, and of the mo<le in which it may be filled up in writing by inserting 
the name of the species, the locality. &c. Flora of the Rocky Mountains. 

Coll. C. C PARRY. 187a. 

No. J/A 

Colorado. WiviuJ^n /u Cit.*^^ Ci-w^, 



inches is a nuisancer ; aii<l tbosc of an inch and a qtinrtor or an 
int-'b and a iiair in width anil Ihive ur Tuur inches in length aic 
most cotnmwlious. 

813. The sheets of all the species of the same genus, when 
not too numerous, or of a particular section of it, or auy conven- 
ient number, sbuulU be consigned to one gmut-aieer. The best 
gentu-aiver* arc uf man ilia- roiw paper, the " bleached inanilla " 
BLK'h as that of which tags an? made is the neatest article, but 
ratlier mon- cx|>en8ive : they are iu whole or folded sheets ( pref- 
erably in quarter quires), ai^urately trimine<l at tup, bottom, 
and tnml edge to the size of IGJ by llj inches; that is, the 
folded sheet as used is u trifle longer and a quarter of an inch 
wider than the s{>ecies-sliects it holds. The slieete to be firm 
enough should weigh 1} or 1] ounces each, or IVom 45 to .'i2 
poutids the ream. The generic name should be written in a bold 
baud on the lower left-hand corner ; tliat is, on the upper faoe next 
the back : at or near the lower righl-hand corner, the name of the 
contained s[iceies may be written either witli a pencil or in ink. 

H14. The genera should be arranged in the hcrlutrium aceoiil- 
ing U) some sj'stematjc worli, and numbered occoixlingly ou the 

815. The herbarium must be presened in close cabinets or 
cases free from the access of dust. Tin cases, just deep and 
wide enough to receive comfortably the gen us-co vera, and about 
six inches high, tlie hinged lid being one end, may be recom- 
mended for a small collection, ns they are dust and insect 
proof, are portable, and may readilj' be arranged ou shelves. 
Bui, for any herbarium of considerable size and continued growth, 
wooden cabinets with well-fitted doors are to be preferred ; the 
int«rior of tlie cabinets being ilivided into pigeon-hole compart- 
menta. fhlly 12 inches wide in the clear and 17 inches deep, and 
not over inches or in small herbaria not over 4 inches high. 
Into such pigeon-holes, the genus-covers with their contents will 
slide readilj', and may be compactly stowed away. An index 
to the genera of each order may be affixed to the interior of the 
cabinet doora. or pastf^l upon tho upper face of thin boards, 
inserted at the lie^inning of each order, llie name of ibi- order, 
written or printed in bold letters, may be pasted upon tlie front 
edge of this boan], or ujion a flap of canl-boar»l affixed to it. 
Moreover, it la well to write the name of the order upon each 

81G, Except in public collections, where fixed cases may be 
preferred, the cabinets should individually be small, only thrive 
or Ibur feet high, and coutaining only two or four vertical rows 


of compartments. Such cabinets can be increased in number as 
required, aiv. i>ortable, and can be disposed in an}* order, side by 
side or one surmounting another, as may be most convenient. 
The doors should be so constructed as to 0[)eji and shut rcadily, 
but to close tightly, so as to exclude dust and insects.^ 

^ An excellent plan for small and inexpensire herbarium cabinets, of a 
portable character, is proijosed and illustrated by Dr. Parry, in the American 
Naturalist, viii. 471. Each small case is in fact a plain wooden box, wide 
enough to hohl two tiers of pigeon-liole compartments, and of any desirable 
height (three compartments liigh in l>r. Parry's plan, but double the number 
miglit be better) : the entire front ccmsists of a pair of doors meeting in the 
centre, there fastened by a flush spring catch ; the doors bevelled on the inside, 
with a corresponding bevel on the case, to which they are attached by out- 
side hinges, so that in opening at a right angle there are no sharp comers to 
hinder the drawing out of the herbarium papers ; also allowing the cases 
to stand close side by side, as well as one upon another, without interfering 
with the free oiN?ning of the doors. These, moreover, may swing quite back 
againtit the sides without in any way straining the hinges. For lifting, a 
pair of flush handles, countersunk to the level of the wood, may be attached 
to the sides. When the herbarium lias to be removed to a distant place, 
tliese cases, having no projecting knobs or handles, will go readily into ordi- 
nary packing-boxes. 



.M. = 


DfTkh. = Brrkhey. 



flr-i™. Bcrkenliont. 



flrtVuBrf. BerlnnUier, 



Brr-A. BsmlianU. 

C. Ag. 

C. A. Agnrxtli. 

B^it. UcrtiM^). 



Bcnol. Birnuiuiii. 

} J. O. Ag»rdli, ion. 

Da,. Ik«cr. 



iJ«ft. MaratliallvonBicbpntcin. 



Diytl. Ja»ib Bigebw. 



fi/«fA. BiiL'hofL 





a-r*. BocrlinaTc. 



Bit'ju. Buiuier. 


aAiHd. Bolniiiler. 



ZA™./. Boiigard. 





Bork. BorkhaUKii. 



Br^k. Wm, n. Brickcnridgp. 



Brtbis. BrebiMon. 



Brt/. BretiW. 



Brr«>- ^ 1 W. H. Brewer &. St-reno 



H-„w. 1 Walwn, 



Bnd. BriJel. 



Brang. Bronpiiart. 



flnx. Brotero. 


Benj. Smith Banon. 

Z^iiu. BroiuKonct. 

\V Bart. 


Br., ft. Br. Roben Brown. 


John Bftrtrani. 

P. Br. Patrick Bmwne. 


Wm. Bnrlrnni. 

D>t,nf. RrunfeU. 



Bueij. Buckley. 


Palisot lie BcbutuU. 

B«i(. Biilliard. 



B»rm. Romiar.. 


J J. Brnnett. 

fiuri. Buxbaum. 


A. W. Bi^nMtL 



Cob. Camerariiil, 



M. J. Bcrkelpy, 

S:l. (cw...™^ 




Cam^td. = 

= Campdera. 

AVi/. = 

Amo8 Eaton. 

Can J, 

IVCandolle, usually DC. 

D. C. Eat 

. D. C. Eaton, grandaon. 

i \l9p. 




i 'an*. 




















C %ipm. 

A. W. Chapman. 






































Cunningham, A. or J. 




Wni. Curtis. 



3/..l.C'wrt. M. A. CurUs. 


















A. r. IX»Candolle. 




A. DC. 

AlphoniK* Di>Candolle^on. 


J. Gaertner. 

Cas. DC. 

Casiniir DeCandolio, the 


C. T. Gaprtner. 


IkHraisne. [grandson. 












1 )oscourtilz. 

a and. 






Ih sj. 








Ik smoul. 







(iingins dc T^aBaaraz. 



















(rnif I. 

J. G. Gmclin. 



C. (hnel. 

C. C. Gmelin of Badei 


DodcmuMis (Dodocns). 

S. (iiml. 

S. G. Gmelin. 






Dors ten iu8. 
















D 11 f ream*. 




Duhamel du Monceau. 






[ Gronoviufl. 







GarH. = 


J.,^,. = 


a nil.. 



J. i: Jai-quin, sod. ^^H 


/. dV. Wi. Jmumi- bt. UlUire. ^^fl 











A. L. JuMieu. ^^H 

Aiir. Jum 

Adrii-n Juuicu. ma. ^^1 















Kanlen. ^^H 
KaulfuM. ^H 





KiDdb^rg. ^H 

Kinchlegcr. ^^H 
KilailH'L ^^H 
Kaln>uter, ^H 
Konh«l> ^H 
Koticleukj. ^H 
Krompi^Ihuber. ^^^^ 
KrombliDll. ^^^M 







La Blllonlibre ^^1 




LwalHiUua. ^^^| 




LagBiva. ^^H 




l..ll.'n>fnt, IHtrck). ^H 




Lamarck (Monnet de La ^H 




Litinbrrt. ^H 







Langtdurf. ^H 



La re^rrouM:. ^^H 




l.a VyMe. ^H 




U^i^bour. ^^H 


G. F. HoHrasnn- 


U-lioiann. ^^H 


Leiiialre. ^^H 


«, HoRmaniucgg, 





l^uing. ^H 




UitiboDdui*. ^^1 




Liivi-ilte. ^^1 



L'tlvriliiT, ^^1 


Wm. J. Hooker. 



J. ». Hooker, «>n. 


LictMoann. ^^H 




Liv[htf(Kit. ^^H 




Lilij<^bUd. ^^H 




LimlU-rg. ^H 











LJndheimcr. ^^H 




Lindlfjr. ^^H 




UiinxMU. Ahoi: ^H 




C. Unnmui, ^^1 




Lo'ldigu. ^^H 

t KUDth. 


L<Dmng. ^^^^B 





Lnts. = 


Naud. = 

= Naudin. 







Nees or 

I C. F. Nees von Esenbeck 







T.F.L. Nees von Esenbeck 




















Magnol. [stein. 



M. Bieb. 

Marachall von Bieber- 




Humphrey BianhalL 






Ny lander. 
















Mcdikus or Medicus. 




1 Meisner or Meissner. 

D. Olio. 

D. Oliver. 



A. or C. d'Orbigny. 














Metten iuB. 



PdeBeaucVsAiBoi de Beauvois. 


> Andr^ Michauz. 






Michx. f. 

F. A. Michaux, son. 




Midden dorff. 


Parlatore. , 


Philip Miller. 



Mill. J. 

John S. Mueller or Milkr. 












John Mitchell. 






J. E. Planchon. 



G. Planch. Gustave Planchon. 






C. Montagne. 


Plumier, Lat. Plumerios. 





















Muell.Arg.S.^lwQWoToi Argau. 



F. Muell. 

Ferdinand Mueller. 



0. Mudl. 

Otto Mueller of Denmark. 










J A. Murray. 



A. Murr. 

Andrew Murray. 
















ft«A. = Reifhard. 

.s™/.. = 



Kridirnb. 11. U. L licit lic-nb«t-li. 



lltidK«h./.iL G. llek-hpDbai'h. ion. 



Ihinit. Kcinwanlt. 



lUiM. ReiMcck. 




Wt(i. Rclriiu. 



Ami. Rvuler. 



Rkk. L. C. Rlcbard. 



ilirk. f. 1 Achille Hkhwd. 




A.Rieh. (■"■■""" "^-™- 





ft.M/. Rkhicr. 




fl,yi(. RiddelL 



Hw. Rlviaiu. 



AiriU. HtBhling. 




/taT.. J. J. R«roer. 



J/. J. RokM. J. Ramer. 



'Jr-;*- j Ra,n«r & Schultw. 




H-^. Raper. 




/(«Afft. Rohrbaeh. 



liiolk. Roilkorini. 


Tliomai Tbomson. 

flMr. Bulhrock. 



Hoiib. RullbwU. 



RbIiI. Roiikr, 



lioam. Rouniegtfc. 




Rtxsb. Ituxburgh. 




y/oy, Hoycn. 



flur/6. Ruilbeck. 

Torr.^ Gr.Torrey & A. Gny. 

Rilir. Buprecht. 







S«dl Sadler. 



Si. mi. A. SaiD^mlai^B. 




&./|-.i. SalUbury. 



SaliH-Dgck-Prinoe Jo.. S«lm-RiBpr- 





.SfA.*;!. Scliimpcr. 




SM: Schknhr. 




&J/..r*. Schleicher. 


Vcillard or VieiUar. 


&iu>m^ Sohomburgh. 



&«n>.f. Schndi^r. 


AsbwA. Schrcb«r- 


VUUn. or ViUw. 




SrA^. Schaltc 



&*.^ 1 C. H. Schulti, Bipontinui 



a;f, 1 (Zvcibrucken). 


T- Vogel. 


iidaittl. St-hRiukin. 






1 SoliPfiB. SchweiniU, 



.<»«««/ Sch«eiDfurih. 









WaUr. = 


Wildb. = 

: Wildbrand. 


















P. W. Watson. 



riX\Wat8.ll.C. Watson. 



S. Wats. 

Screno Watson. 




























^f^st. JEstate, in summer. 

^Est. ^Estivation. 

Alb. Albumen. 

Anth. Anther. 

Aii. Artificial. 

Auct., Attctt. Auctorum, of authors. 

Aut. Autumnal. 

B. or Beat. Beatus, "the late," re- 
cently deceased. 

Br. Bract. 

Cal. Calyx. 

Cel. Celeberriraus, or Very cele- 

Cent. Ci'ntiraetre. 

CI. Clarissinius. 

Char. (Character. 

Coll. Collection. 

Cor. Corolla. 

Cult. Cultivated. 

Dtcim. or Dec"*. Decimetre. 

[kacr. Description. 

Diff. Differentia}, the distinguishing 

Ed. Edition. 

Embr. Embryo. 

Ens. Essential, as Char. Ess. 

EjcI. Excluding, or l)oing excluded. 

Excl. Syn. Excluding the synonym 
or synonyms. 

Fam, Family. 

Fit. Filament of tlie stamen. 

Fl. Flower (flos); Flora, or some- 
times Floret, it flowers. 

Faem. Female plant, flower, &c. 

Fol. Folium, leaf. 

Fr. Fruit. 

Fructlf. Fructification. 

Gen. Genus or Generic. 

Germ. Germcn, Linnsean name for 
ovary ; also Germination. 

//. Herbarium. 

JIab. Habitat, place of growth; 
sometimes for Uabeo, I have. 

Herb. Herbarium. 

flort. Ilortus, garden. 

Ilortul. Hortulanorum, of tlie gar> 

Jc. Icon, a plate or figure. 

///. Ilhistris, illustrious. 

Ined. Unpublished. 

Inf. Inferior. 

Tnfl. 1 n florescence. 

Inv. Involucre. 

Lat. Lateral, or relating to width. 

Lin. Linea, a line (the 12th of an 

Z,/7., /.///. In a letter or letters. 

/. c. Loco citato, in the place cited. 


.V,.t. Mall' planl. flower, &c 

Sep. Sepal. 

Mill, or <»«. MiiliTOBlre. 

.Sit. Series. 

Ma. Miiiiuii.-ripu. 

Si^. Sictaiu. or Siccui. dried or dry. 

Mu: MuMUiii. 

Spec, or Up. Specie!, or •pecinieu. 

.V.oriVo. Number. 

SpoM. Spontaneous. 

X.a. N«Wr«i. 

N«m. Nomen. n»me. 

Snp- Superior. 

Obt. Obn-mlion. 

agn. Sf nonym or Syaopiii. 

O'd. Otd«r. 

T. or Tab. Tabula, plate. 

Ou. Ov«ry. 

r. ToniUi, toluDie. 

p. P«Ke. or .omeliniM P«rt. 

Prd. PcJuncle or PeJicel. or for 

Potlalii. • fnol long or high. 

rnr. Variety. 

Pme. TeriMrp. 

Perly. I'erigunium. 

y.r«. Vernal. 

/>* Pf Ml or Peliole. 

c. •. Viw aicca, or Vidi .iccam. 

Pin. Pi.iil. 

E. r. ViM viva, or Vidi tivam ; tlie 

Plac. ['l^-onW. 

flnt indicating that a dried »peci- 

/■»^/. Pullii-Hria, in inch Umg. 

nien of the plant, the tei.'ond that 

p. p. Pro p«rte. in pun. 

the living plant lia» been exam- 

Prodf. or Prod. Prodromm. 


B,d. Radix, rooi ; or Itndioal. 

E. t. c and V. a. >., inilinles that 

Ram. R«rou». bnini-h. 

«. Seu, or Sin, Latin for or. 

(c) or apouianeous (i|. 

S»t. Section. 

v.v. e. and i: v. :. Iliat the Ijring 

J^M, SoKmcnt. 

plant seen wai cultivated (t| or 

St'™. Semen, ii-ed. 



An ^^^^^^^^1 

s A ^^^^^H 


S A tree or ^^^^^^H 

• Afa.e.1 to.rvference,Ti)e«n.thiimgoodd«cripUoawiUbefbnDdlberfc ^H 

t lDdic:atea an cilwurp or doubtful gpcclea. ^^H 



Q A monocu^ic pinnt, r. r. which diet after onee flowering and fruiiinf, ^^M 

^ either annual or 1>ieDnial, or of longer duration. .^H 

® Annual. .^H 

® Biennial. ^H 

® Monocarpic perennial, audi as Agave. ^^^H 

L 1 

892 SIGNS. 

Jl Perennial herb. 

*^ Suffi-utex, an undersbrub. 

^ FruteXf a shrub. 

5 ArbuKula, a tree-like shrub of ten to twenty-five feet in height 

5 Arbor, a tree. 

r\ A climbing plant 

A An evergreen. 

$ Male plant or flower. 

9 Female plant or flower. 

^ Ilcrmapliroditc plant or flower. 

00 Indefinitely numerous, e. g, co-andra, polyandrous. 

? A sign of doubt. " Thalictrum ? Japonicum" doubts if the plant is 
really a Thalictrum. " Thalictrum Joponicum, Thunb.? " doubts if the 
plant in liand is truly the species of Tliunberg. Thalictrum Juponi- 
cum, Thunb., WiUd.1 doubts whether Willdenow's T, Japonicum is 
really that of Thunberg. 

1 A sign of certainty. As '* Thalictrum anemonoides, Michx. ! Fl. Bor. Am. 
p. 322/' as used by DeCandoUe, afilnns that he has seen an autlientic 
original specimen of this author. Affixed to the name of a collectorp 
as " Virginia, Clayton I " it affirms that the writer has examined a 
8{>ecimen collected by the person to whose name it is appended. 

- Between two figures, as in " Stamens 5-10," indicates the extremes of 

difference, as that the stamens are from five to ten. 
^ ' " The signs for degrees, minutes, and seconds, as 1°, 2', 8", are used in 
Gray's Manual of Botany of the Northern United States, for feet (<>), 
inches (').and lines ("). With Kuropean authors, usually the sign 
for minutes is for teet ; that of seconds for inches : thus 1', a foot 
high : l'^ an inch long; and l"\ a line long. 
0= Cotyledons nccuml>ent to the radicle. 
OH Cotyledons incumbent on the radicle. 





This GIomutt it inlrnded In contain *U The principal iwlmicRl Unni (iubaun- 
lir« » woll at adJHtlvti) of itructBral inU tyalraialic Butaiiy, ai far al I«b>i u 
wiicrms PlurnoKiinoui plaiiti. Host of ItM tpwial tpnns nUling lo Ihe lower 
Cr^'plnpimia anil Id Ve)^table Analomj' and Ph}iiolagy an nlcgaMd lo Ihc vol- 
uiiK-> ilevoteJ in ihoM departlneala. The annixed OBmbgra nttr lo pagu ol tbli 
voluma. VcFT many ol tlia tcnna an •cliloiii mnpliif ed, or an ■rbolly uul ut lua. 
Tb* principal Latin tennt an givsn teparaloly only when ihire i* no Englbli cquir- 
alont diOiring ninRly in tlu Icnnlnalion. When lbs word ii eMinllally the *ame, 
tlie Lalin terrnluation (of adjeclivx lu tbe Dominative inaMulitia only) ia annexed 
to tin Kngliah word In a psKnlheiii. 1 he changed lerroinalioo gcica bark moilly 
to tbe pcnulumale contonant. It ii unneceuary In a wurk lika Ibii to accentuate 
all llie lechnical wonl>i but. in (be caie of wordt llabtc to mifproo uncial Ion, an 
avFcnl-niarlE ii placed over the •yllable wbich takei the principal accent. Tlie 
l^liinary, a* here drawn up. may •erre to indicate Ibe tneaning of tlia ctnuinuiier 
docriplii't ipedSc naniei of planta. 

A, priTallre. ae the itilllal In many 

Abm/Uli plHnau. Pinnate wilhonl a 

word, ol Gntk derivatiut., etsoiHca 


.dptavlloiu. leafleu. In word* be- 

ginning wUh a vowel. Ih). prefix i> 

AcKuloi^nl l-ew). Slemleu. or appat^ 

♦ changed lo iBi; at, ^Hanlhnun, flow- 

entlym. wiih no pn.per rtttU: *b. 

JmuKi. tiletnle»;MnteB*Ac«iilescenl. 

M^ir<al. Winderiiii, applied lo >pe- 

fie*. genera. Sir., which diBer in auine 

r»pecT from the u.ub1 i>r normal ohar- 

Acttmrf Frvili. 300. 

■etet at Ihe gmup tbey bcluiig lu. 

with a«e. M otien occun with tbe 

Ibe mormal or uoual ttniclure. 

calyx after Itnwerrfig. 

Arfrrit l-Ht). Grown lo^lhor. or eon- 

.iOortioiKAliorHu). Imperfect develop- 

<n*nl or noD-dcvclopaieni of an organ j 

A<r..m6,Hl (•<«). Lying agvntl an- 

17ft, 1ST. 

nlhcr bodv. 

BirainKl the radicle: 313. 

denlyj Ihe cppoiiie of tapering. 


Anpkal.^ l-^). Headleaa. 



Jkctrote {"dmu). Needle-shaped, like the 
leaves of Fines. 

ActtabuU/orm (-omiM). In the fonn of 
a shallow open cup or saucer. 

Achc&nium or Achenium. A small, dry 
and hard, one-celled, one-seeded, inde- 
hi!^!ent fruit ; t^trictly one of a single 
and f n*e carpel ; but extended to simi- 
lar ones of more than one carpel, and 
also with adnate calyx; 294. {Acha- 
nium is etymological ly the pro|)er 
orthography; but achenium is be- 
coming the commoner form.) 

Achanoatrp {-arpium). General name 
of a drv and indehiscent Iruit ; 292. 

Acht.nodium. Such a double achenium 
as that of Umbellifene; a Cremo- 

Achlamytleout (-fitf). Destitute of peri- 
anth; 191. 

Acicula. A bristle. 

Acicular (-<iru). Bristle-shaped, or slen- 
der needle-shaped. 

Acindciform ( -arm U ) . Scy mitar-sh aped ; 
curved with rounded point, thicker on 
the straighter edge than op the con- 
vex edge. 

Acinonts. Like grapes or grape-seed. 

jicinu*. Classically a berry, particu- 
larly a grape, or its stony seed, or a 
bunch of berries; now sometimes ap- 
plied to the separate carpels of an 
aggregate baccate fruit, or to the con- 
tained stone or scetl ; 297. 

Acorn. Fruit of the Oak. 

AcotyU''(1on,\i\. AcitttfUduns, Acotyleilonei. 
A plant or plants destitute of coty- 
ledon, or 

Acotifli-tltmous {-^>us). Without cotyle- 
don"*; as the embryo of Cuscuta; 26, 
38. Mostly appli(Hl, as by Jussieu, 
to plants which have no pro|M'r seed 
nor embryo, and therefore no co'yle- 
d<»n : 339. 

Acramjihibiyn. Plants producing fide as 
well as terminal buds or growths ; 341 . 

AcnUfiyn. Plants growing from apex 
only; 341. 

Acrof/en (Arr^gena). Name of class of 
plants which in growth are said to l)e 

Acrdf/enoug. Growing from the ajKJX 
or by terminal buds only. 

AcroMircum. Desvaux's name for a 
berrv from an ovarv with adnate 

Acrnstpirn. An old name of the plu- 
mule of a grain in germination. 

Aculcnte {-eatus). Prickly; beset with 

Aculeotus, Abounding with prickles. 

AcuUuiatt (-atus). Beset with diminu- 
tive pnckles, or 

AcuktAi. Diminutive of aculei. 

Aaileus. A fuickle; a pointed small 
excrescence of the bark. 

Acwnen. A tapering point. 

AcumifMtt (-a/M). Ending in a tapenng 
point; 96. 

Acute ( Acutui). Terminating in an acute 
angle; 97. 

Acropetal. Developing from below up- 
ward, or from base toward apex. 

Actinomorphous (-m). Capable of bi- 
section through two or more planes 
into similar halves, as is a rvgular 
s^nnmetrical flower; 17&. 

AcvUiuMCvdmt. Somewhat acate ; acutish. 

Adelphout (-us, Adtlphi^ brothers). Sta- 
mens with coalescent or clustered fila- 
ments are monadelphoua, diadelphous, 
&c., according to the number of Adtl- 
phiaoT brotherhoods. 

Aden. Greek for gland, is compounded 
with Greek words with this meaning; 
as, Aden6phor%u^ gUmd-bearing; Ad- 
en(^hyUuSf leaves bearing glands, &c. 

Adtjlutinate (~atui). Same as accrete 

Adherent {Adhierens). Genefaliy same 
as adnate ; may refer to adhesions not 

Adnate {-atut). Congenitally united to ; 
as the calyx-tube of the goos^eberrA* to 
theovar}'; 182. Adnate anther \s one 
seemingly borne on the outer or inner 
face of the lilament ; i. e. extn»rsely or 
introrsely fixed by its whole length to 
the connective ; 2.53. 

Adnation. The state of being adnate; 
179, 181. 

Adprettgus. Latin of appressed. 

Adfctndens. I^tin of ascending. 

Adgurt/cn*. Latin of assurgent. 

Advent it iou9^ Advent ive. That which has 
come from abroad or as a stranger; as 
a plant lately or by chance introduced 
from another countrj'. 

Advtntitiou* Budu; 45. 

jf^quilnteralis. Equilateral, equal-sided. 

jEqunlijlorui. \\'Tien all the flowers of 
the same head or cluster are alike in 
form as well as character. 

jEfpidli*^ yEquans. Equal ; equalling. 

A e rill I nwttt, ike; 33. 

Aerophyf*M. Air-plants; 35. 

^fjnif/inoin/s. VenHcrri<-colorpd. 

Alstiral {-liiitt). Relating to summer. 

^IC^ivntinn i-io). The disposition of the 
parts of a flower in the bud ; 1-32. 


0L0S8ABY. SS^^^^I 

JClrrh. Atermoraggregitarrulti 300, 

deep «n«ulw uvilin lAln^i) «-i«- 

am. 330. 

■■cli of votloiMhiilk. 

jksamamat Agnvue. DenlilHleorMXC*. 

JaMtiit. Til* ny or cirLumfensnco r.f 


■ held. iic. 
Amnl lA-onlxn], A utkln, nr pc- 

AygftgaU fnrfta, Th«i« (om«l rf 


aw. JUL 

AgrtMU. Gnjwlng in flelds. 

<lellnilu (omi. 

nimei n«ne.l fur ■ diUte<l recepimle 

.Mffx. ^fiHOH. 8» AchiFDium. 

of inAorcHenn. 

AU (pi. Ufa), A wiug. Also llie tiOe 

Amphibrta. Ei)ulvil«U lo Uonocilvle- 

pcUIt u( • |Mi|iili<)ni«<iu> ciinitlsi 

don»; 341, 

186, lUi »Uo been iu«l in Ibe «ii« 

oT (lilU. 

kinds of fruit. 

Jin-(.l/«r*). Fnm (Ik in tht Mnu of 

■xiila.(li<!nron »x>IUTy or in Ibv forks. 


>U<.fi M(«l. ffinfiwl- 

JJiMniu, .llUauu. WhilVKdl.wlulith, 

fruit tueeulcnl nHihin and *o«l,v ix 


JiMan of Ihc wed. Ally UcpMil ol 

wtririve nuierkl viihin Uie «™I- 

OKM.xi'liiulintlivcmbn-n: M, 3UI>. 

Ibmied (0 the md ; an ilu-ne. 

Swd ut «e«l> prnvUcd with albuiiiim ; 

trqmi. Turned both wayi; agiplied 

IS. 309. 

to ■» ovule wilb bilun ioltrn«dliu 

Iwlwecit micmpvle and ehibw; m. 

of ID MOffenoui Xi-in ; 80. 

Jm/Aora. A pllcheri uid the luwct 

ABmi. White. 

p»rt of • pyxis. 

livtljr iaierud on Ihe lonu IDd on ths 

brwing, clMping. 

.JAbcrnw (..«). H«ving Iho stncll o( 

Ampl.itiemil {-<nl»\ CT.-fing a .tern. 

a. does Ihn h»e nf onain h-a^ea. 


AmplinU{-<^). Enlarged «r diUWd. ' 

jlilinaiv. SvnoiiTm "f Cuhorl! 3S0. 

AmfMa. A bUdder or fla>k-«hapcd 

JlUgamy. Feruml*t>on»(IIi«nvulnaf 

or),->n. aa of Ctrletilarla. 

> Hawcr br other (ban in own pollen ; 

m.» f>niiiutl«n. 9ia. 

Inthernrmofabladdi'Torthorttlaik. ^H 

Alp-»rio* lAI/HMrii). Growfng in 

il«.yjfl««..(-e«l. RiwrnWinsorcom- ^H 

p«r,l nf .larch, or J«.,i-«. ^H 

Mp!:{.m«l. «m*inB 01. .he high.r 

^«.b;9 (.lM%«v Llkepw In c<^ ^H 

parln of Hi* Al|w, or (hv exlrnslim of 

the limit> .>f Ireei. 

tain rr<peitf »■()!. nut In the pUn ot ^^H 

Mh*r: » -1 l-B<-e> pUetA ■Ingly 

ini>te*il of in fin (nppn-llc) or in 

i> no mar aRitiity or nlalHn >lii|i hr- ^^H 

vhnrti. Al». HuiAina btfons Inter- 

tw«n Iho two. And the tendril of a . ^^H 

Til*: u xtuurni (Itrmarr' with peuli 

Pra. Ihal ol a Smilai, and Ihal of ^^H 

imweal of before thnm: fl. 110. 

UijuH! for the flrtl answer* to a leaf. 

mleroni; 134,130. 

the KcoDd to ilipute*, and ttaa third 



The tpur of a L«rk«pur ii 

il; far thi Ant U k hfi 

•oiind ■ peMl. 
Anaml'Viu. Dcstitule oF nl 
^lunUtrcwi (-Ml), De.iiluK 

AiuHrifma l-tu), wnnittlv AiuUiiipal, 
Tha rcvcncd uvula, witli mii^ropyh! 
etuM hj' tlie lid* of tha hilum, uiil 
clulau at the oppiwite end; KTW. 

Jan^ En^. Aneipilal. BMBDically 

JWrr, niKjra, andnit 

pouncU, Ibc male. 
Jai/iii-i/uKi'iw. W)(b flowcn on out 

plant hcrmaphrodilr, sud on '■UDlber 

a Giwk CI 

Ije .laiueri 



Gtliv* comtmod ol bulb mala aud 

faiiials Oottcn. 
■JwfofA'irt l,AmlriflkimiBi). A lUp- 

poH ur culuQin oil wlikh auuneoi art 


Sm Andtr. 

irif>Aifniu. Literally wlnd4ovlng. 
Said uf flawen wlili'li an lecuuilalcd 
by wmd-boriiapullru; S17. 
a/ni«iuMj, Aliru|>ily l«ul hrUiar and 
Uiilhrr, ■» Ibii alaitieiia of Cmar- 

d by M 

. When I 

. rnvt'lupc. 

order j 33T- 
Jn^iu^rmou, Ufijnofwrmic, Atif/io- 

t/itrmt. Planta willi Kcde borne in a 

pericarp: VM. 
Aosular Dittrj/met of learea; 1£X 
AHMmtrvM (■«()< Unequal In Dumber 

ill Ibfl diirisnnt circles of the fjowerj 

^BUtyi^lniow (-■»). With Bn«]ii»l petals. 
dni'm/ityl/Du (-w). Unwiual-leavvd ; 

i. (., tin iwo leavra of a pair unequal. 
Aniimimonout (-w). When the sta- 

nicni are nol or the number oS (he 

ular (-aru). In the form uf N 
marked transverKly by 

ulult (-nlui). Uarked with ri 
lilut, A ring, auch as lliai 

.. .._.... are f itmiihi-d. 
Amiphjitf ( Atujfikjila ), Name of group 

campriaint; Uuuei, iu:. 
AKttpudlim. Same ai Superpoailiiin ; 

ITU, lUS. 
Anterior, ai ID pmillon, denotes tbefnnil 

aide, or averse [rotu the axis uf iiiflu- 

reaccnoe; IBD. 
Aulhila. A deliquMcenI and panicuUle 

cyme, wilb mcUian TamiBcatiou, aul 

Ihe lateral axe* ovenoppiiii; the 

central, as in ' " " 

Uay be either a 

Aiilktmj, Antitmia. A Buwer-cloattr 

or any hliidi IM. • 

Sadler [AMkeiil). The polliuifemui 

|>art of a >tanwui 106, £51. 
Aolhtrtdinm. An Inaloguo Ul itta w>- 

llier in Cryjitngama. 
AiOhtriJtrvn l-w). Anlbtr^^MBlti 
AittkeHt. The tiuie at which ■ I 

is perfKted and openi; or tbt a 

Anllmmrpom {-—)■ A clan of fruits tn 
iuh HHoe organ exleriur tu the pcri- 

u ora Itbi- 




luflofvsueaoe, i 


combined partt are teparaled. 

Anlkupkoit [Aitkiplwninx. Tb_ 

when develiiped belnreen cal^i 

Anlilrapau {-tu), Ina properly- Atttilro~ 
pal. Said of an etnbryo with radicla 
pointing to the end nl Ibe leed opp»- 

AphyUimt (-ui). Leuflesa. 

JpictM. 'rh« iianic fur anihcn anicriur 

ApiatUtt (-■■). E<iilin({ in ■ (hart 

puintcil lip or opinld. 
Apoairpoiu {-■•). Wb«n c>rp«1s at a 

KyiHwlum «n tcpanic : »]. 3CS, 
Jpiphgmi. An enUrgmwul ut BWelllug 

i>ribH>urf««(>( as orgati at >omB par- 

ticiiUr pari. 
Apotttteia. The "(bicldl " QT froclifj'- 

i..g disk, of Liehene.. 
Ap^rnpout l-w). Said of an anitropoui 

uvul« wbii-h when pendulum bis 

rhaphfl bvcth ; m. 
Afgmitagt, ApptitdU. Any nuperadded 

or lubaidiiiir part. 
Afpra<lieutam-al<u>. Furnishtd witba 

Mull apptndagu lAppmdicMlum), or 

with any appendage. 
An<oiiliu. Placed aide hj- aide. 
Apprtittd {iM. Adprttnt). LyinR flat 

a^aintt or lugrfber fur Ilie wliulu 

^priaa. Growing In drj- tunny places. 
.^nvM (-«(]. Wlnglru; not alalc. 
Apalie (-tnu). LlTitig In water. 
AjuitOit. Ut'aiit under witrr. 
Antekiioii {-milrtu). Cobwvbby: wnn- 

pUKd uf iknder enlinglcd hairt. 
AmiKsf l-ona), Arantui. Like tpider- 

wtb; Mine ai Aiscbnoid. 
Arim: A IRci BO. 
Ariortoui lAriortiu). Tre«-lihe, or rc- 

j(f*o«af(n* l-nw). Tree-tike; approach- 

InK the >lu of a tre«. 
ArtonluBi, alw ArhaHmn. A place 

where Inwa are gniwii ; an ■mng<;d 

calleclion of ire*». 

. Mudvralely curred, I 

k teved 

AnUnI, (-.(« 

Marked wilh 


-.nW. Growing in land 

or landy pl«. 

AigtMxIf i-^HM. A-^i-^lt^u). 


or thining w 

He wirb a tinge 

of gray. 

ArgiUotn. Ur 

BwinK in elayc) 

J.JW. (ir™k 

for purr wlille 

lued in 


Argilia. Sharp-luothed ; Mid ut the 
ten* [ion ol Iravet. 

jlrjijrw. (jmk lur nilrer)'; lined In 
i-onipound): ■«,arji|rr')iA|r/(M, lilvery- 

ArMual fArMlau). Roollen. 

A>-tU«l. l^ilM,). Havl«i;a<i arillu*. 

Jril, AnIliH. An extrancoui or bWe- 
formed teed-coal or covering, or an 
appendage growing frnbi or about the 
hiluui uf a iced! W8. 

Ariltifi-m l-vrmit). In (he lorm of an 

origliiale (r-ii 

ArUlaUi, Af-UUMliHrn. 

or below the hltun 

micnipyle or rhaphe; tUU. 
Aiiila. An iwn. 
A'tiInU i-altti- Awnedi lienring an 

Aritlulali (-fl(iu). Bearing ■ dtmlnu- 

1 lAi 


upright poulioi 

Arrvr^kapeiit ArrmtStadtd. Sameai 
Sagiilate; IM. 

Artirubtlal l-altil). Joblled, or having 
the appearanu'fl of ■ joint otanlvula- 
tionl^itmru). Aanf [hewnrdjiTiDt 
ll«l(, the conlcil inual thow whether 

which are connected by a ioiiit, or the 
plac« of connection. 

Arii/lcial Ciaimjifalioii, 331. 

AtcndiaijiAilKCidtnti, Kiilng upward i 
tMHnelimu u»d tor ditecied upwant, 
as when the alem is termed the At- 
etnding Axit (II); more commonly 
denotes curving or lining obliquely 

Aieidiam. A ^Htchei^ihaped or flaik- 

«baped organ or appendage I 111. 

in certain Fungi and Llchenet 
Atpirogl. A name tnrTurlonr*, or any 
H9ly ahoots flam undvrgroundi a* 
lIiiiK of Aapanigus. 
Aiprrij^i/arm (-onoH). Bniah-«hap«d, 
I. e, like Iha a^prriri"ai"i or bruah 
uaed to iprinkle hnly water; made up 
of (lumcrnuB apnadinK hiira, &c.. in 

A^rvm {AtpiT). Bough to the touch. 

AmmiUttUm. The adhm or |imreiv by 
which enltanMui matter or cruile fuMl 
U convvrted into vegelahl* matter. 

Atnryt*! (Admrgfuy. Rking or curv. 
inn upward ; S3. 

ijlictoiM l-w). Kottnr»wi. 



Aitomoui (hm). Without a stoma or 

Autvisin (>mtt«). Ancestral resemblance. 

Attr. Pure black. 

A:h€ra. Greek for Arista or Awn. 

Atrdtus. Blackened or turning black. 

AtttijHfUS (-U*), wrongly AtrvpaL Not 
turned ; applied to an ovule the same 
as orthotro|ious ; 277. 

Attenuate (-atus). Slenderly tapering 
or narrow. 

Auctus. Same as accrescent; enlai^ged 
after flowering ; augmented by an ad- 

Auymtntation. Increase beyond the 
normal number; 179, 2(K). 

AurantincuB. Orange-colored. 

Auratus^ Aurtut. Golden-colored, or 
yellow with golden lustre. 

Auridt {Auricula). An ear or ear- 
shaped appendage. 

Autictthte {-atus). Furnished with an 
auricle; 96. 

Autuc<irfHnt9. A fruit consisting of peri- 
carp alone, having no adnate parts. 

Autdf/nmy. (?lose-fertiliaEation, the fe- 
cundation of a flower by its own pol- 
len; 215, 216. 

Artnius. Vein less. 

Awl-thnptd. Narrow, terete or some- 
what so, and attenuate from a broader 
base to a slender or rigid i)oint. 

Awn. A bristlo-i'haped appendage, such 
as the U-'ard of Hve and Barley. 

Awncd. Kurniithed with an awn. 

Aril (Arillti). The angle formed on the 
upjKT !«i(le of the attachment of a leaf 
with the stem, or the {loint ju»t above 
this attachment; 0. 

AxUhtry (-uris). In or relating to an 
axil; 7. 

Axifi^ Axhl {Axilig). Relating or be- 
longing to the axis. 

Axijf. The stem; the central part or 
ionptudinal support on which organs 
or parts are arranged ; the central line 
of any bo<ly. 

Boccn. A berry; 209. 

linccnte {-(ttus). Berry-like; pulpy 

Bfirc-tnm. An airgregation of berries 
in one flower ; 300. 

B'tfllns. Chestnut-brown. 

B tlnuMn. Name applied to the fruit 
of the Pomegranate, with firm rind, 
crowned with the lot>e8 of an adnate 
calyx, baccate within, and many- 

Banner, The vexilluro, standard, or 
upper petal of a papilionaceous co- 
rolla; 184. 

Barb. A bristle or stout hair, which is 
hooked or double-hooked, or retrorscly 
appendaged at the tip. 

Barba. Beard. 

Barbate {-attu). Bearded; beset with 
long and weak hairs. 

BarbtUate (-atui). Beset with shorter 
and stiffer hairs or barbellas. 

Barbellulate {-atus). Diminutive of the 

Bark. The rind or cortical portion of a 
stem, especially' of an exogen ; 76. 

Basal (BasilarU). Relating to the base. 

Basal-nerved. With ner\'e8 all from the 
base of the leaf; 92. 

Base (Basis). The extremity by which 
an organ is attached to its support. 

Bas'idia. Cells of the fructification of 
M ushrooms which bear the s|x>res. 

Basijixed (-vt). Attached by the base 
or lower end; 253. 

Basit/ynium. Synon^nm of Carpophore 
or Thecaphore. 

Basinerred (-tat). When the riba pro- 
ceed from the base of a leaf. 

Btisytetnl. Developing from apex to- 
ward the base. 

Bast, or Bass. Inner fibrous bark; 77. 

B'jst-ctlls. The essential components of 
bast ; long and flexible but thick-walled 
attenuated cells; 77. 

Beak. A narrowed or prolonged tip. 

Btnked. Knding in a beak. 

Btll-fhaped. Same as Campanulate ; 249. 

Berried. Baccate. 

Bttry. A fruit, the whole pericarp of 
which iij fleshy or pulpy; 2u9. 

Bi' or Bis. As a prefix to Latin words 
((ireek wortls have Di-)^ two, twice, 
or doublv. 

Biacuminate (-atus). Two-pointed, as 
malpighiaceous hairs, fixed by the 
middle and tapering to each end. 

Binrticulatt (-atus). Two jointed. 

Biauriculatt (-atus). Two-auricled. 

Bihrncteate '-atus). With two bracts. 

BihracttoUtte (-atus). With two bract- 

BiaiUose i-osus). With two callosities. 

Bicdnn'ite (-atus). Two-keeled. 

Biceps. J With two supports or stalks, 

Bicif/ital. ) or two-headed. 

Bicolor. Two-colored. 

Biconjuf/ate (-atus). Twice pMiired. 

Birornis. Two-homed. 

Bia/rnute. Same as preceding. 

GLOB0AKV. ^^M^^^^B 

BilimliU l^fM). Ilnving two twlh- 

Bi'piitunle (4fw), Doubly or twim ^^M 


piunitili.1; IW. ^H 

Bijlm^ LMiln« Iwo cl.y. only. 

A(>ui>'ii(A*>iMu). Oftwoyran'dun- 

vided. ^H 

lloii ; ai. 

B>plk»itt^hu\. Twice fuldMl or pUiMd. ^H 

flvd™ (««), Opening by l.o pona. ^H 

«r.K,l ™«,. 

m/.ru,. Doubk..b<arin«i(ruilln|[lir>ce 

fl.W««« { ow.), Opcuing by [WO tlil*. ^H 

• y™r. 

tfMrrf«l(-w). Coiuftclcl> divided lull. ^H 

Bifid hJ«). TwMktl, 10 the middle 

Iwo parts { W. ^H 

ai«7>bT(( <Hifw), With two partilioni. ^H 

AWnu (-■'). Two-flowend. 

fli/y«»fc Tw.-ltt(i-d. 

two aerie*, oae above the other. ^H 

mjuiuiu. or two iMfi<i>. 

BJAruM (-Mm). Having Iwo open- 

■Kajn »errata; doubly aerrali. ^^^| 


BUirmMi. Having both •UnMni and ^H 

A/nai. Wilb two !•»• or ■>|w^l>. 

jSmUotX (-alw. Bi«ii<m). Tw»«n>ovcd; ^H 

aiftre.'(» (wUiut. Two-forkod: t«, of 

hariiiK Iwo tum>w.. ^H 

two pmnga or rnrk*. But It may 

Biitinait {-atrnt). Twin temata. ^^H 

m«n Ui/WMtu; i.i., forked and 

aiaddtrg. n<ln and iDllated. ^H 

■gain lurked. 

Morfr. The lamina. Iin.1^ or fatWKM ^H 

|H>rtk>n of a leal. &c.i US. UK. ^H 

ai niranjugalD. 

part or point FInt u»d for (be axil ^H 

Iwten iwo gentruaUy different plan)*. 

uf an embryo; now usod tcir llw inl- ^^H 

Bsigoti iByaffw). T>ro-|«ir«d, w • 

lial growth out aC wbloh any oijtu ^^H 

|iinna(e leal of mo JMga or pau» of 


Sl.-m. U«>idaiil<uBa>«|uivaIan(ta ^^M 

bloHxnn. it denolu tbe white powdery ^^M 

Saimwamt |-.i(«l, or ad«m,anr. 0( 

and gUuoou* covennif ol tbo aurlaco ^^M 

Iwo plate, or *.-.«*. 

111 many fruitt aiui kave^ ut a iraxy ^^H 

BiUhfd iB,UimH.<>t BilAa;. Of two 

lobe*, or deft into two legmentt. 

Bont-A'zprH. Of the ahapa of a boat, of ^^H 

BitietUaU. Uividrd Into two lowlll; 

llie deeper ann, with or wilhool ■ k»L ^^H 


Bn^rylxMaL llavlnslhelomiorcfaal^ ^H 

BitocMlar l-ari,). Two«11ed. 

■cur of a ringlet, or lloolryxi IGT. ^H 

£>■■«. Laiiiiig Iwo yearti iwo y«an 



BMrind,gm«. Ti»u. of plant. eon>- ^H 

Bimnrj (-aWwI. Conmliog ol Iwo 

pnwd ol dotted or pitMd dun*. ^^M 

nanilMn; Ufl. 

Amaf«l-«lw). In pair* or Iwm. 

iri™-. Twin, ur IWO ffetliw. 

emoae typei lU. 14ft, IM. UX ^H 

Boliyi. TheequinlfnlolKarFmettM, ^^M 

Bivlotnf. The nalural (itxory oi plania 

and aninuli. i. ■. of living thing, i I. 

Br^liiBlt {I'dfu). With 'preading ^H 


and decuuatc) widely dirersing, ^^^H 

Br«fty. Greek for abort, and uwd in ^^M 

iworaj'aoraiw.i IM. Ifti. 


into cwo .liniUr pan>. 

fim<4, Arw4ni. The leaif* (mora or ^^H 

BipdniU (■ifai). I>ivi.lrd alino<t iolo 

h^modiliMllofallDwer-clutler; IIS. ^^H 

Iwopleci twn-paned. 


Bntltalt (-*«■«}. llaring bracia. ^^M 



BractMa, BmeUalf. 8te BnctleL 
Brnrltiiahi-elHi). Havlnn braclleU- 
SraeOtl. Atmet oTlhe ultiiiulF Knde, 

Bawar'Otalk, iiineuil uf sublendiog IX; 
111, Ui, IIW. 
Bmclrete l-imi). Full of, ct with con- 

Sranrifr. 8Mond«ry txci, or divl- 

BnnrklfU. Uliimiite bnnchu or dlvi- 

Scr 8< 


Bi-itlti. A (lis liair, ur any ■lemtt 
Indx or outKmwib which may be 
likened to ■ hog> briille. 

BriMlg. De»I Willi brimlM. 

Aiiknfirif. I)Hp broKii. 

Bnuh-thaptil. Stt AtptrgiUHona. 

Bry?lng</. Tli* bolany of llouci. 

Bwi. Thffundt ■ 

1. W. 

1 !(!■' 

Bmiteiilti. Tlicl«gunii-ntt<o(abtid:W. 
SiiJi (Aniiiu). A Inf-bud (coinmaiilr 

■ubieminaiil with Heihy kiI«* pr 

CMt*; 43, 03. 
Bilihtpi. A Mem with butboui bug. 

BulUf'TOUMt-U,). Bulb-bl^lrillg. 

BuIMIiu, AUki/iu. Diminuijv« bulb. 
S*int ■• 

BoUilil. A«iiiiUbuIb,e*pen>llT<uvhu 
it pmluiMsl ill tba air, in lliv uill of or- 
dinary Itavei, or upon Ihem ; S3. 

Bul/f'lium. A ■ynonym of Corn), the 
•■«il!d bolb." 

BiJhi}-lubrr. SynotijTn of Corm. 

Balboui. BmUhih: Ilaving bulbs or the 
■trudure of * Initb. 

BuOait < -«nu). Said oT a puckered tur- 
face (a> if bliitrrrd), llirown itilo pnr- 
lioni which are convex and projecting 

Hinn llleral Mnw for Inflirrd. 
Bankuln. A amall poiirh iburtn); 

>uch a« llial which enclo»i the diik 

or gUnil cif the caudicle of the potlin- 

inm of an Orchli. 
Bunioilaltu. Fumiihed with a buni- 

ciila or pouch. 
Bt/uacrinu (-(Hi), CnmpoMd of fine 

Ihreaili, like bt/uoM or line Itax. 

Camltut. Sky blue, or pure blue. 

Cieiiui. I.irender color ; I 

•. Cilalliu. Litenllr • 

CalaOii/ofm i-ormit). Cup-thapnl ; ul 

Mmewbal h«mi!i[ib«rical nullitie. 
OJrur. Aipur; moatly UKdlortbenec- 

lariArou* one of a ealyx ur ■.•onitla. 
Calcantle (-ofw), t'unuahci] or fKf- 

daccd inio « tpnt. 

CdlrtiUtli (-aim), or Citcetfi 

Shaped I Eke a elipper or 
CoHuw (-anil). Bearing ralMJ 

{mUi), or hard prolubrraneo. 
CVifnt. BaM, *a an akviie witbtxA 

i.y ii 

CalftiJIonHa lOilfdJIora). 340. 

Calf due iCalfebiiu). Relating to calyx. 

Calymhlt {-ofw). Bearing brarU noxt 

Ihi calyx which Itnliale an exlntial 

or acceatory calyx. 
Cti^nJu. An iotoluer* or invatuc«l 

imitating an addiiiunal calyi. 
Oiliftra. The bood or veil of J 

Kpore-cau of ■ Mots; i 

ing body like it. 
C«Isi<tFaU (-fliul. Fumldied i 

calyptra, or aomelhing like it. 
Catgi-trifiTmi-vrmu). Ct\yf\Tt ' 

ai the t«lyK of EHlochottiia. 
Cnlyx. The flowar-eup, the exterior 

perianth ; IS4. 
Cdmnra and iti diminutive CnnHnU 

(chamber) an »mcliinea uicd tortlM 

cL'Ilt of a fruit. 
CnnUim. Old name o( the riwiJ Btat- 

tcr between bark anil wood in tom- 

Tuon trees or ihrubs In spring; now 

u»ed for the naiwent •trncture thtre 

fell of Bw 
hed Hl^^l 

.11. ^^M 




C-mpdmUam-nlut). Bell-thaped i clm- 
gaied cup-aliapeil or ■hortar, and broad 
from the ba<e ; HA. 

Cnmpantfiirmit. Sam* a> Campannl«l& 

Cmnpsl.apirmimt (-M). Curved-eMdid. 
Said of leed^ike IhilEf orcarp«l«.aa 
IhoB* of rrnne L'mbellifciw, in whleb 
Ihe conlainnl wed ii involute by Iht 
lateral edgeji.ioaii lo prniltirr ■ longW 
tudinal furrow on Ihe vcntrsl fare, 

Cam/ifltltraiMiut (hm), or lw>» ronrclly 

An ovule or wed which li cumd 
in its formatioa w u to bring the 

mirropvle or hue •pei dovn ne»r lo 

llic hiliim; ItTU. 
Ciiniilie.imliU, (-flhu). Chinnelled, or 

with ■ longiludiiia] groove. 
CihrnUiUm-iUiH). Liuknl; reinnlilliiB 

Cdilulmt. Tun while. 

CnBririw. Ilury, nnully with gny 

Cmiia. Gny-wKilei whiler than the 

iSo *1(ni1er (hit it 
miy be compaTTd 
HJiJi the Imln u[ 

entail [-aliu). H>:*d-ohi>p«iI, or M- 

CapitiUait i-ntui, 
CnjiH-lmm. A hi 

ul; HT. 



or timplc globu- 
lar clualfraTHHPIe fluw*n: U1. 

Capriilnit (•«(*(). Dtariiig ■ tciidril 

Cnpmli i-Wr). a dry and drlil'cent 
|*rirarp conipowd of more than ane 

Capnlar. 1)1 Uie nature of, or ralatlng 

to, a raiwule. 
CniwcIi/Vi'nH. Capauk^-bftring. 
C're-Tuliu. An unusnt namt for an 

indebttcerii and ttvcral-nllcd drr 

fruit; 8U7. 
Cartel. A ktrl; uivd dllier For Ih* 
4 lowrr pclali of a papil- 
irolla (ISilj or fur a la- 

liral lonpiiudlnat projcciloa on the 

eanir* of the lo<r*r fiwe of an organ, 

M on Ihe gluniM of many Grasae*. 
Cirlmnli t-nlHM). Kwlnl. 
Canafmiior Cniynptit. A^intatwd- 

like fhiil wilh thin pi-ricarp adnala lo 

theranlainnlMeri; SDS- 
Canrm. l>'lnli«vilore<l. vcn pale red. 
Cum. Fkth. a* Ihe pulp of a mrlen, or 

the flc*hv part of a drupe. 
CirpntHtiuin. Synonym of Cremwaqi. 
Cnrptl, Cirp^m. A aimpla pMlil, or 

■a element of a rompmind pi>lili an- 

a«ninj;tonnelea(; 1 ITT. 300. 
OirpU, CorpUlitm. Synonym of mrpel. 
Cftrpolnj/f. The botany of frull*. 
C4rpnpllnrt I Cm-piplianiml A tmrtinn 

of nrrplade prolonged between lh« 

carpel*: iia. 
Carpnplijll I Cnrpopi^m^. IJlenlly 

fniil'leat: ivnonym of Carpel : 30U. 
CnrtitnifimnM or Cirlitoffimrrmi f-nu). 

Of tb* texture of cartilage or grUtIa i 

Arm and lough. 

Cnryr^yUn«ow(-riu), lieKinblliig or 
reUiiiig In Ihe rarolla of tllmilhiiii 
CnrvDphyiiiu (SW], or In ilie I'inli 

Caiyn/mt, Sn Cariopcia. 

OioUtw. Ilelinet4liapad. 

ing no pallrn. 
Catrtilt [-atm). Said of a itiinen 

which wanla the anilwr. 
Calaprlatoui (-«). Where petalt are 

uniifd only bv colieiiun wilh united 

>lamell^ aa in Uallow. 
Cal'^illn. Anawem to tha nerman 

" KledrrliliUler," or under-leaie*. 

Ihvae at Ihe beginning ol a gmwlh. 

coiylettnna, bud-ecalcf, scaiei on rlii- 


Cir/tiV A Ktly tjOse (wt Amml): \M. 

Cnwialt i-nltu). Fumiihpil wllh a tail 
ieaaday, or wilh ■ ilender tip or ap- 
pendage reMinbliiig a tail. 

Cnydix. Alninkoraioeiiaf aplinit M>. 

CfidMt iCamlinlai, The (talk of ■ 
pallinlun, &c. 

Cmtfitnit (-«»]. Having an ohviou* 


roHfiae (■inn). Betanj^ng In the (lem. 

Camtii. Crrek luim t'dub*. The Hem 
of a plant. 

CatJoeilrjiie or Couloearptrnt, Applied 
to planli which lire to (tower and 
(raclifv more than onee or indefi- 

CanUmr, CaMma. The nlfm-pan at a 



or an anther-lobe. Ihna taken ir 
■enu of Ihe circnmncTlbinK wall •■ 
well ■) the cavilr; SSI, SH. TIm 
c«vity. or any one ca«iiy of an ovary 
or prriorp. conlalning Ihe Dvulet or 
rerda; Mi. 
Cf «-fnr FI«iiU. Crlt-Lir,: Mft 
CMiilt (-Wii). DbniauUv* of celt; ol 

■nrjuiing aa Cell In Ttgclable 

h tha wiS of ihc cell 

le or ihe pecDliar foar- 

t) wbicb diltiiigulilm 
Laliiatf and bvrraginacfc 
Cmliifuiflil, Teniliiig or drvelopiag 

Critlripilal. Tending nr developing (rom 

willinul tow.rd Ihi! ctntrt. 
CtplalaiUkium. Synonym of Anlho- 

Ctralium, A tiliquiibrm caiMule, iiuch 
u tliBt ul Ciirydilis, Cltame, &<:. 

Cirral. Dclnnefng lo nini nud (he 
■lliisd i^im. 

Cniiw*. 0( Ihe I'olar of wax. 

tVmauw (-mi). Nodding. 

CAabi. tireelt for ■ bri^lle, Lilin S«l>. 

Clmj: Small K«l«: dry ind depau- 
perate liradt; such al Ihote on Ihu re- 
ceptacle of a (uadower and nuny other 
Com|M>it» 1 rIm glumei of Urasso. 

Clii^f. I'niviilcd with or having the 

CiaUm. The part of an ovule vtlwre 
eoaCi and nueleni an eonHuenti STT. 

ftoiMf/fn/, Ilnllowed out lotigltuili- 
natly like a gullsr. See CanalinUalt. 

CtaitieUr. A dlagnmUc deMrlplloii, 
or Ihe mumeralion of euentlil dlffer- 

Cilaiiiiiil,v'>'"S'- The opening of the perl- 
anlh at flowrrinit lime; ihe opposile 
of Cleislogainy. 

CharlaeiiMH l-ttu). Raving the Uxlure 
of writing- pa per. 

OMnifAyll. The green matter of leavea 
and ulber vegetation ; TO, BS. 

CkU-na. Greek for jfrecii. Eiilen 1n(o 
comiKHinil*, (uch ai Cktonmthta, 
gKeu-Hoirerrd, CAfonrnrlji. »nic as 
ChlinHJi, ai when pelali turn grefln; 

Cliuniiu. Ulerally beeoming green, a> 
name Hower* In relrogmde mclamnr- 
pboaln. Alto UMd coiilrariwire (or 
the ioeaofa nnmul (rrcen color; 173. 

Ciorria PuH'Osrli. A tine nfiiniue reach- 
ing from etigma lo ovarf - 

CkariptlaUnu (-tu). Same as Pnti-pela- 
loDi. 1. 1. petals unconnected : tM. 

Cinriitpolout. S«ineaBpDlvHpalonB,&c. 

ChiriM. The feparallnn' of a leaf or 
phytliim into more ttian one i Wi. 

CiorillcphyUia. Sepanle-leaved. 

Chitimult (-iiJn). Coloring matter ot 
pluiij oiher Ihan ch1oru{*yll, espe- 
ciatly that of petals. 

ChfjfM-t^ (irvck for gulden, or gulden- 
yellow ( aa 

Chrymnlhat. Yrllow-floweicd, &c. 

CiaUrix, Ciealnaila. A war Itft by 
the fall ot a leaf ur other organ. 

Cilialt (-aim), C'l'iiaru. Uarginally 
fringed with bain. 

CUIum, pi. cilia. Marginal hairs, form- 
ing a (nnge, like the eyelaih. ( Tlie 
name haa bein exUiided in icienliHc 
boukt lo undiviilual hairs, and of a 
■urtaee ai well a> edge,} 

KorjHoid cvme, i 

leol a 

t Ctndnnai! 

I, Cintracriu. Ash-giayiih. 
(-ew). Atli-gniy. 

innabar-vuluc ; iCBrleC 

touched wilh orange. 
Cfratal l-alit). Involute from ihc lip 

into ■ toil I 133. 
Cirdnatf, or CJrn'matf l-alm). San* 

ae piercding: or ■onialimes meaning 

coiled into a ring only. 
Circnmidtiiilt, or CiroH^dmU ( Ciiram- 

teiiBH). Cnt circutary andlraiiiicne- 

ly: divided Iranivenelyi iJl, 3U. 
CirramKriptiim i-ia). The getural out- 

line of the margin uf a flat Indv. 
CirrkiftnHt {--) and Ci.TA«.' T«- 

Cin*<U. A tendril ; 6*. 
Cilrtia, CitritHu. Lemon-Colored. 
Cfni^, Greek for branchi whence nril 

Ctadodium. Same aa ClaAepiy^ 
CtidtfhyU, CtadvphiUt. Brand 

•nming the form and tundioa gj 

age: Bb. 66. 
Clmu l-aha), Pbw/m 

CbirtlMi. DIminDlIve ot CUva 

CbntnUam-ahu',. Fumhhedw 

icain.- vi( , Icndrilt, hooka, gi 

r/n«, Wfi. 

Clnmjlailiaa, 31fi. 

Cl^Uimtt (■alii'i- I-atlteMI. 

Claw. The narrowed ba»e nretnlfc Wt M k 
«nme petal*, tcr., pnucKi 245 

ClialAgams, Chiaogamati, CldMo^uaa^ 
Clone-feniliulinn in unnpenej b|^ 

ClrU6-itn>i. ririHogniMi, MI. . 

Cl^fi. Cut luilf-ir»y down 


iflMiim. SjriMnj'inof Clinuitliium. 

CUmhinff. Kuing by UyinK lulil uf 

•unvuiiclinK ubjectB (gr nuppurl ; Dl. 
Climamdrium. TIm aDlhcMml iu Oirhl- 

(Vinnnbtiiiim. A name (or Ibe nreputle 
of tnUomcenw in Uuiiiposiue; IM. 

fViuwR. L'Md in Unwk vumiuunili Tur 
RCFptKle, e.g. /'cricJiwan, fiir i 
involucn ■round Ihe rece|>lai^l< uf 

('(oK^crii'JiM'HM. Fccundaiton bv own 

IHilbin; IIS. 280. 
Ctvm. A gardvnir'B nim* for younK 

bulbi ikvclopnl •niunilii iiiulherliutb. 
Clitif-jlinpfi Uraduxlly llikkincd up- 

w*ril Irom • akadcr b«w. 
Clattfrtd. CoUiKted ill ■ bunch at may 

*on. CliHHrit t good Indefinite nuiie 

for any ai«nibl*)(c ul Hunrcn uii ■ 

Cli^t (-aim), C/jpq^umii, Built. 
Coaeimtt {-tilitt). IlMpcd (ogel1i*r. 

CuaJurtve. ITiiioa of limilar parts i 

m, I8U. 
CaaltmnI («a>), CoalUw. Cobcriii^i 

pr(i|»rly applied la Ibu o^arilc l:ohl^- 

Ccarctali (JT(a<|. Crowded logBthirr. 
Coaltd. CotnpOHd of layer* at an 
onion, or fumitbed with a covrrinft 

CiAmfiiy. Braring long and toft cnlan- 

CoiwAuM. Bright trd or warlet (red 
with a little ydlow). 

Corau. flrcck fur a kernel or nutlet, 
tmin which the Lalin (^nmn, thi? 
kennu nr fcarlel grain (iUppiiMd 
•berry) of ihaQoerona ooccilerai used 
bManiealty, moirtly In Ihe (bim ol 
"meru",'" lor the portion' inro whlrh 
■ "chUocarp, or lobed friiil with one- 
MedeilretK upliii up: thene portion* 
are rtvri'or Cerealn; 106. 

C"cUtar iCorilearu]. Sf«on-«haped. 
UniManin^ly applird alro in a form 
of imbrlratii'e vniivallnn with one 
pien exIeHor: 13T. 

CoAUaU i-nl 
■tHiml in the 

Oiofw'mow (.*u|. Hnllow-<w<l»l: ap- 
plied to wwl-lilio Mrpel« ol t'lnhelli- 
fene with ventral U™ Incurved at lop 
and tadtlom, a* in Coriander. 


I'uicJiua. ilie congenital union of OIW 
organ with aouther ; either ■iiuilar 
parts (t'oaletceuco), ur duainilUir paru 

CvAurt. In clauldcalkm a group next 
ntiperinr to order, 33J. 

CalturliUa. Buot^liualh ; the InTett- 
meut ibrlonging to the mlyledon or 
pluiDulej Ihruugb whidi Ihe primary 
root in mauy MnuwroIyledunB burata 
in)(enninai^n; JH. 

CUUriVM»m). Name of an imaginary 
■unlet hi ng iiitennediale between pri- 
niary ilcui and idol 

CvUatcnd. Blending ude by aide. 

CUttelitt Fiuiu. The aggrrgallon of 
Ihe fruit! of aeveral How.jn iuto one 

Cvt'Ttd- Of other color than the green 
of herbage; IIS. 

OWamtfa. The pertislenl axii uf cer- 
tain rap5ule«, «pore-i'ai--s &c.; W». 

Cu/xON {Cufanuj. Ikidy formed by 
the union nl ibelilametits among ihem- 

with Ihe aiyle or (liguia, H in Or- 



(oiwi. UtenJIiahud of hair: a tuft 
ofhairtotanvton; ipecUliy a tullot 
hair* on a «Hd i 300. AIh ibe nama 
uf the whole head n( a tree. 

CoianMun <-ani). The lace bv wbirh 
twn carpels cohere, ai in rmbeltilenc. 

Commim { Commnnit). Geaeial or pn'n- 
rlpal, ai opposed to partial. 

OmuiK i-ntu), Mmeiiniiii CWnln. 
Fumlihed with a ccmia. 

Cimphm-lt ^-^lluy Ftallentd. 

Cimplrte iComphlai). Having afl tlie 
parta belong loit or In the type; ITS. 

Ctmpltntll l-atut). Fnldnl upon iliolt. 

C'lmpiminl, Said of timllnr pan* aggre- 
galed into a common wh'iU. €«m. 
pimnj Fiartr. 14T. CvmpnraJ PMI, 
2M. CoBi/ioiinrf InHoraenet, ISB. 

C'-mpoiatd Uaf. One divided into »p- 
aratehladet; 100. 

ran^mKHfl-u). Flattened lenglhwiie. 

C'mfni^tetKtt. K name lor Ihe coalea- 
cenrenfaie*; IU. 

Cmtrj^atit iiiiiiliiM), Originally n>ed 
by Liiiiiieut (or what i> now callrd 
Follirle: and later n^ ^e palrol fol- 
licle* ol Asclepiadaraa and Apocy- 


Cvitcinmti. Nrat or tlrguil. 

C'i>iaa>/iir. Ot lbs unw or of unitonn 

CdiJ^iealt (-I'tu), rimdyplicalimM. 

Fgldnl logithvr laiif;iliwii«i 133. 
Coiu. Stc Sirubile. 
Cm^'flui. Chneljr packnl or erwwded. 

by ailjanrnt f^n!*, 41 Ihe cul_yledmiBuf 
UonwIlHtliDl 1 ai4. 

' vintly riued lu, m * wed-coat li 

.. Cniwiled togelhflr. 
CongUkUt i-aliH). CoJIedca inloi Ull. 

t«m) ur hoped logMlicr. 
Canifii-au (-u). Conc-boiing. 
Oiii;ii}n)lo (-fllw]. Couplnl; in ilngle 

pain. CoHjtigate-piiiiiiite, in4. 

Oonnatf (-afiu). Itnitol Dongrnilall^r; 

KIT, 181. 
Cmiiau-ptrf>iiatt. United at biiw in 

piin (round IheiupparMiiKBui*; 108- 

men whicli ranntaii the hro c«IU or 

lubci of an anther; S&l. 
rvHtiinaf (-rw). Cuming into contact 

or cnurerging. 
Cauaorpium. An unuatd name (bran 

aggrr^le (Vnil, luch aa a alrawberry. 

cnmiitbig of many car|<el> on 1 coni- 
cal rcceplich!: VH. 
CanMitidaltd. When nulike parla an 


The r 

!tre of articulated 
slrdi nr bent or 

CmlnHxl (- 

twisted on ittrlf. In .T^lit-alioi 

•alneaKCnnvalul<^; 138. 
CenlnrtuiMcnlt i-aliu). Twisted 

ptailH) or folded. 
Camtntftid. Either narrowed or > 

(Wrnrjr ( Jiri'm). Opiww'e in dire 

CodnJiife f-ahiil nr CrmrtJiilhi (im*), 
Holleil up from the fidw nr loiwitudl- 
nally. tn .£«lrvation. 1SB. la Vei^ 
nation. 133. 

C6ralhil l-rn). Coral-lihe. 

C^chIhui, Old name lor the embrjir, 
or Curttmhiii 311. 

Canlnlt (-ahu), SDDWilron Conti/ora 
(-omu). Heart-diaped i Idee the fig- 
ure of a bdirt on carda : lli« daUi at 
tile bniader and notched end 

Cinactaw (-tu). Lcatbeij- ii 

Cor*. 81. 

Ciirkg. Of the texlun of ( 
C'oi'itf Knrrtrfit , 76. 

Coxm < Carmttt). A bnlb-like flethi 
Mem, or b«»e of a tiem i • "tolii 

Omu. A liom; i.r. ahom-tike prMe»: 

aomeiimen uwd tor C'ofonr, a spur. 
ti)n«iire l-iiliu). Furnished Kilb a hom- 


prore«» or ipur. 

ConUln. The interior perianib, 
poHd uf pxuli; IBS, ia. 

Contthummt <-<w), ConlUmi. 
Ing Id, or rewmhiing eorelU. 

OmlUfrraia l-u). Bearing a 

Cor<Jlifitfn><u, CorolH/lorm. 340, 

(VrrJtfufu. DiininulWe of rcirolla. 

Corina, A cruwni an iencr 
In I petal, nr to llie Ihmal ni 
SIU, MB. Oranj- comnrt^ika 
aipi at the luniin' 

Cinmalt l^tut). Crowned, hi 

Cvrdt'/vrm (-flrmw), Sliapol 

CitruffiHt (-anu or .dhiw), WriukW 

or in fold! : IAS. 
Corlr*. Rind or bark. 
Corliail {-alU). Relating (a bi 
Ctinkalt (-atuV Coaled wlHi j 

or with an Bccesnoi^- baik-lifcul 


or t 

I Ilk* a 


i-ymti/frtrnt i-at). DearinR csrinnhii. 
■■jfniioM. In rorymtm, or in the man- 
ler <if ■ corymb, The corjiufa eT 
.inna>Da and n( other writen dova 
D Rorper included raoul rymmt. So 
hat much cymiwe inflirresceiic* b 
a deieriptinni ImvIj' nid ts hi 
nt^'mhoM, or a niem in smiit In be 
ori'mhoM-iy branched, eTcn who 
heevnlulion it eentriruenl ; ]«. 
iia. A ribj when alngle, ■ mklrft 


t'otfui-wrvdf. With 
liruDiiinlilrib; 09. 

Cal'itt l-aUu). KibbcdifurniitiHlirlih 
one or mora lotigiludinsi jirinuiy 
veins or ribi. 

Culi/Ud-mt I Cmsi-dim. pi. ('utyttdona). 
The "Mcd-lobci," being iho Imvw or 
flnt Irares at (be fiuIh^d; vli,, tlio 
oiw. or the ]iair, or nnlr tbe wliarl ol 
Imi'm bnnuibjr ibe nilicJaoroulkle; 
10, 311, 111. 

Ciilytlfarmu. Disbihapml, ar wbul- 
■hapcd wllb ui erect or »ccnding 

Cnuh-ifurm l-vrmu). In the <Kh|k d( 
k giiblut ur eupi nf bL-minphtriMl coo- 
lour or mor. ghatlow j SM. 

Crfmatarf {fnmortr^itm). Adryind 
MMl-IIki trull, cnmpixrd ot Iwii one- 
wrM QUpeli, inVMWd by an epigy- 

rity; »7. 
Crttpmg. Running iloiig ar uuiter 



Ond, OMtUnJ. Sune 
and Cnnate. 

CnutUaU (-a(M>. Diminutive of Ctt- 
tvut, L t. wilb imall invnatum. 

CrrnrJ. FuniihEd witb any aleratcit 
line, rjdp, or conipKuoui cleralwin 
oa (he (U'facc, eapccially auclt •■ may 
Iw llkenid lo the crest nl • holmel. 

OiAuviH. (nialk-white: ehalky. 

1 like 

Cri^mUa. Curled or crimpy. 

I'rulali: (-ddul. (.'rettid. 

Cnet**, CivealMi. Sanron-coloivd, i. e- 
deep T«lillib-yelkiw. 

Crua-brrr<ik Tb« pmgmv of Interbred 
virieliu: 331. 

Ovu-firtiluBliiM. FecunAalioD t>y pol- 
len ol another Bower and of analhtir 
Individuah 9la. 

CVmh. See Corani, :t1Ui 3W. 

Crotmnl. SceCun>nale. 

C nin m i a g ( Otmuuui. Dome on the 

CmdaU {-alw), Cruci/nrm l-ormii). 

Cr^Sfinrnt {-tu), Crou-bearing; ut»d 

in tha ieoM of Crueiturrn ; as the 

"enitlterou." eorolla of ih« ofdc-r 

Cniciferw; 3(6. 
CfumpUil. See t-'orrugalo. 
fraUuciimt (-u), 0[ liani and brlllle 

«alnli » 

Crjipiai. liittk It 
Crgplogiimia. Vr 

loganU* plaub t 3, XI6, M4. 
CrylilisamBut. Perulning lo Ibe aboi e. 

/vnm*. Hooded, or lioud-sbapcii. 

Culm < Cutmut). Tha peculiar tlem or 

Mraw aTGraJD-pIanu andtiiauei; Ml. 
Cutlralt (-nttu), CutlrifnnKH. Shaped 

like a broad knlte-Uade. 
tV-eole (CmmIuI, C<iM,i/<irm (h™u), 

Wedt(e-«haped ; triaiieular with tii 

■cute angle downwanl -. DA. 
Oip-ihaped. In Ibe form ofadriiiking- 

CV"'* iCil^'u'a). Tie aconi-cup and 

the like; aX. 
Cn/mtarlt, fa/ia/'WM. Fumlahed wilh 

or nubtendeil by a cupula or any r- 

■embllng body. 
fW^t/VruHf (-w). Cupuk-bearing. 
drrinerrnl <-<u>|. When the ribs ul ■ 

l«af are curved i 
Cuitmrial. lacv 


CutUoH. The rnlareemmt at or b«- 
nealb the inwrtliui uf many leavaa. 

Citpuialt l-atai). Tipped with a Cafp, 
or abarp and rigid puini ; ST. 

Tit. bame ai luciaed, or in a general 

rvedoroblli(ue r> 

CiaieU ( CuHcMla). The oi 

or pelUcle. 
CnUitiff A Kverrcl portion o 

UKd lor bud-piT>pa(-alii>n : W. 
CydfvBf. A clear bright blur. 
Cy4ilil/iirm(-i>rmi4). C'U|>-eha|>(d; Inthe 

form of a 
Cgtitkia. A drinklng^up, auch aa a 

goblel or wine-^ata. 
Cgdt. A circle. Sometime* uwd tot 

one Inm ofa helix or spire: m. 
Coital. KalallnR In acvcia; or eoitad 

inloacirrle; 119, ISO.' 
C>fi*a>fra«uiM. Somewhal or Marlj 

Cglintrieal (-u«). Eloneali>d and wilh 

r^/tn^ or 

Cymt ifsma). 

Cymbi/..rm (*™u). 

w EcninfugKl tjj*, 

^^H 406 ^^^^^H 

^^H mpcciallr ■ broad and fliUuh oat; 


a»Cbiiri.i.i SM. 

^^^^ Cgmo4tlry<m. WIwd cvtoM art ar- 

ranged in botr}»« mwiiwr; IW. 

CjmMe l-««>*), BeuHng vjBua, m n- 

DtJInU. /■/forrjnHe. WboN ai« of 

[■tingloBcrme; Ul. 

Dtjiixtii {si). BcdI or laraed abruptly 

or • rxnrtiun ot a cjtiw; ISl. 

tVii"rr<U</>«». Namcur luch a (mil ■> 

D^jUWt (-otw). Past U» aowering 

Ibal of ihe Ro«i flubr, haJluw. and 


ch^losiait aclwiiia. 

Z>t/i><«<le t-alu). HBviasca«liUl«aTn. 

Ciiatla. Name ol an aehe iinn in- 

D,/M«iu». 87. 

^^^H rwud by an adualc calyx, a* ibe Iroil 

Utkiiftntt l-*iiiui). Tht mod* of opra- 

^^H urcompusitKi art. 

ing of a caixuk or anlhcr by Tal™. 

^^H cyittJii*. Uiie of Ui« Diintral and 

>liI>,orn,p.l>rlia«*; iSB. 

iJtibnM (-ciu). Openiug by Rculat 

^^^H lUlijaMul U»uc ol Iha kaf iu varioui 

iJfiijaMMai l-tM^ DiiHilvine or melt- 

^^H plants «p« iu Lnic.™. 

ing away, a* a item ditideJ itilo 

br-Hcbu; 4B. 

^^H Duclciu of a •.-eU of «l]ular liuM. 

DiUoid i-oirfr.). Raving ibo «hape .f 

lh« GrMk Idler i. 

0™rr,B/(-«). Under •ater: .am* ai 

DitciylvH (-o(w|. FiiigTrcd, or fingit- 



Trw-Uki. ^^m 

i).ato«(. I-*.')-»il 

Dtmlrtm. Greek for Inc. ^^^H 

Dtmi. Tcntogeiber. ^^H 

/>(■*. AlMlb. ^^^1 

DmMti-alH.j. Toothed: apn^n^fii^H 

^^^L varioUBWordihiiK'hu 

Kalieut l«lb not turned forward j H. 

^^^H /><rc>jFyi>fa. Oneotltul.inn*aiianifivial 

^^^H ordcrai UT, 

^^^H DtrasfKHM (■»<). Wilh len «lTln or 



Dcn*ilatn-Bliii}. Made naked ; stripped. 

^^^1 />(rii»rnw<(-<L>). Of Wn mnnbcn ; 176. 

^^^H Dtpaitdna. A UniiiFan clasii irilh IfD 

^^^1 Mamono: 334. 

if tlarvedt or dimlnulire for iraiil o( 

^^^H DefindroHi <HU}. Willi leu Mainuui 


Dtprrmd (■•,,). Having Ihe appair- 

ance or >hape ai IT Aaluonl Irom 

^^^H Willi len petal* nr Kpd^ &c. 


^^^H DtridKow l-ui). Falling, nr auliJFct to 

Drrma. Grwk lor (kin or lurface of a 

^^^1 (all «e*i».n. an pelili. u(t«r aniliMli. 


^^^^^H and Ipbth (ucept ol vifrgrnn*) in 

DfKemH«g i-rm). Tending or lorainc 

^^^H aulumn 

gradually duwnwanl. 

^^^^1 DMinMr i-aliit), or DtcHnt/i Benl or 

^^^^K curvnl duwnwanl or forward. 

DiUrmiwil: Lin.iled in number or «- 

tent! an an Ihe aiw of dclermiiiale 

^^^H ed or divided : 109. IM. 

inlior«*en«: IM, 151. 

^^^M D,e*mbiMi (<<»). RHliiilns. bat wiih 

Dtnw. Greek rorIhingaboiiDd.iS||J^^ 

^^^H numinil ai-^ndlnK: B8. 

chained In«ie1h«r. ^^^H 

^^^^1 DeairrT»l (-oh), Dnmnirt. Running 

DtHrortt {Drxirartui: mir. Oi^^^M 

^^^^1 down into : at whors Imvc* are ireni- 

um). TowaM the rigbl haad^^^l 

^^^M iniclv prolonired brlow ll> in«rtioii, 

i.iingtoii;ni.i4a ^^^1 

^^B and to run down Ihe >lm. 

m. D:,. In Greek comp«iiHla,^^^H 

double ^^^1 

^^^H cnw>iu^ U ri(^l an)-\i». 

Diackt^ium. Svnonyn o( CnM^^^| 




Diad^kia. A LioDcin (330 da" 

DlgilaU {-nlm). lingered: a eonipound 

hivillg (h> tODIMK. 

kar in whii-h all ibe leaflElt are borne 1 

D,mUiiA,m. (-ut Combined by ll»lr 

nnlheapaxodhepMiole: tol. 

HIaiiieiiu Into iwo lets; aSO. 

DisUnUlg. In a digitate model Mme 

a* Palinalelj-. 

Dlyilolt-F'MnaU, 194. 

tti'jjnia. A Liuna:au order characlcr- 

ucd by baling ibe gj-nnnium 

luuh J. <. ul H|«nt> |»1iil<; «I4. 

Ifll/j/noiu. Wiib Iwo lepamle ityle* or 

carpel.; SGI. 


Diamlm. A Lliininn I'lua wilh per-! ne. 

ftx-l dDWcn having oiilv [wo iil>u»n*i 

Dimuliafi-nlu). Ualved. or ■> if »>•- 


balE «a> vatillng. 

^Um. Occurring under Iwo fi-rm.; 

1»5. lU. 

•bill, ibrough. 

/><«iA. Linncan clau t3») of piai.ti 

•riib the Sowen 


DureiiHU IDiacHU, DiaieaM). CnlMK- 

DicMaiium. A lwu-p«rtoJ or [wo-r»jed 

ual. and tbe Iwo Hie< boroe by di>- 

tymts laa. IM. 

tinfl individuals: 191. 

iwruiiibi lUI. 

Dkkiomuuj |-w|. Foriied in |»ir.i 

Mxual flowen. 


Dipt-. SeeDuplo. 

vclopcd ttica Uh giber in the bluUDm ; 


Did^um. Name o( ■ (ruit coo»l»tin(c 

»«)ial>; 177,198. 

ot ou achenium wilbln ■ Hpuils and 

Diplalfgntm. A capsule or other dry 

f nx covering made of peiianth, u Ihat 

fniii. iiiTHied wiih adnaie calvx; an 

ot Uir-bilia. 

inferior capaule. 

IHtiinau [ i^KbWi). When flower* are 

<,{ Kfmntt tKXtt'. m. 

Dirtm/Uiaii-ie). Sjn. of Chnri.k j 903. 

Ditci/enmt (-u). Uuk-beanng, 

DiKi/orm (-ormi4). l)epre»ed and dr. 

■he clan marked by haviUB two coly- 

euUr, Lke a di>k or quoiL 

ledtn»:ST. Sas. 340.3M. 

pertaining lo a dlik. A dUodJ htad 

ntyMcmi: 10, 314. 

ii one declilule of ny-flowen. 

DidjwuMi (-■(). Twin, fnund in pain. 

Due or Duk (CuCM). A word nted in ' 

Kveral aenHi. The dut or rfue of ■ 

flower ii a denlupmenl of lhe lorua 

wilhin the alvx,or wiihin tbe eonilU 

flower ban Lhe >U>nen>i in \mo pairi. 

and>tanien<! 313. In acapitulum or ^^ 

ait.1 one pair (boner Ihan tiw other-. 

head of flower. It i> the central part ^H 


of lhe clutter, or the whole of it at ^H 

oppoed lo a l»rder or ray. It b the ^H 

Ihiil mmpcMd ul wveml wilt or i-mr- 

fan' or lurlac* of any organ, such ae ^^H 

peU ronnate amund a vriitral axii. 

and leparatlns al malurily. ai ibat o( 

Cin. In ve{.>etable anatomy, cerlaia ^^H 


TuuDd apoti i>r iiiarkingi on cell-walii ^^H 

are lerm«l diiwa. ^^H 

D.fitt <-««). Widely or IoohIt 

Diifolor. When the Iwo facet of a leaf, ^H 


&<-'.. are unlike in color. ^^H 

nignmimi (-•»). 01 twu wxet in tlio 

DUrMi l-c:uit. Separate; not eoalea- ^H 

aani* eliuier. 


» M